In this study, the quality characteristics of kimchi, such as its salinity, pH, and acidity, were measured and compared, and the HT-29 human colon cancer cells were used to show the anticancer effects of kimchi. The kimchi samples used herein included standard kimchi (SK), turnip kimchi (TK), and turnip-powder-added kimchi (TPK). The measured pH and acidity of TK and TPK showed no significant differences with those of SK. Compared to SK and TK, TPK had higher DPPH scavenging activity and higher total flavonoid content, confirming its antioxidant activity. The cancer cell growth inhibition rates of TK and TPK were significantly higher than that of SK. In HT-29 cells treated with TPK, the mRNA expression of Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptosis-related gene, was lower, and the mRNA expressions of the apoptosis-related genes Bax, Bad, and caspase-9 were higher. TPK showed significantly higher levels of mRNA expressions for the cell-cycle-related genes p53 and p21 than the other samples, in addition to suppression effects on cancer cell proliferation. Compared to SK, TK and TPK suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells and showed higher anticancer effects. Therefore, it is shown that kimchi with added turnip powder had high anticancer effects.
Comparing the quality characteristics of kimchi were measured and anticancer effects using AGS human gastric cancer cells were observed. Five kinds of kimchi samples were made of Kanghwa Baek kimchi (KB), Kangwha Turnip kimchi (KT), Turnip: Chinese cabbage = 1:1 Baek kimchi (T1B1), Turnip:Chinese cabbage = 4:1 Baek kimchi (T4B1), Turnip mul kimchi (T). As a result T kimchi showed the best fermentation characteristics among the five samples. T kimchi had a lower percentage of the total number of aerobic bacteria, while the number of lactobacillus was higher than that of other samples. The mRNA and protein expression levels of apoptosis-related factors found that T kimchi significantly increases the mRNA expression levels of caspases-3 and caspases-9 in AGS human gastric cancer cells as compared to the other kimchi samples. It showed high anticancer effects in the order of T, T1B1, and KB kimchi. As the anticancer effect of Turnip mul kimchi made only of turnip was higher, the higher the turnip content, the higher the anticancer effect. These results show that there were changes in fermentation characteristics such as pH, acidity, number of lactic acid bacteria, and anticancer effects according to the ratio of turnip and cabbage.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of Chung-Dae Indigo Pulverata Levis, indigo naturalis) produced during indigo dyeing. As a result of in vitro cytotoxicity experiments using RAW 264.7 cell, Chung-Dae extract did not inhibit cell proliferation in Raw 264.7 cells in the range of 1~32 μg/mL. NO production was significantly reduced when Chung-Dae extracts were treated at concentrations of 2, 8, and 32 μg/mL (p<0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ significantly decreased when the Chung-Dae extract was treated at concentrations of 2, 8, and 32 μg/mL compared to the LPS group, and similarly, the TNFα and IL-6 mRNA levels also decreased. Additionally, the mRNA level of COX-2 was also suppressed. At the protein expression level, the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 were observed with LPS and Chung-Dae extract significantly decreased compared to the group treated with only LPS (p<0.05). From the above results, it shows that Chung-Dae extract, a plant-derived compound, inhibits the inflammatory response induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. and in particular, regulates the inflammatory response by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes.
This study was conducted to investigate the anti-obesity effect of Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus After inducing obesity by feeding hight fat diet (diet induced obesity model: DIO) for four weeks, each 8 rats were assigned to normal (Nor), high fat diet (HF), high fat diet containing orlistat (PC), high fat diet containing different concentration of Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus (UPDM_L, UPDM_H) and Discorea Japonica Thunb. (UPD) extract. Although the UPD, UPDM_L (ultrafine pulverized Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus: 400 mg/kg) and UPDM_H (DIO oral administration ultrafine pulverized Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus: 800 mg/kg) showed weight gain inhibition effects, the results of poor obesity inhibition rather than PC were confirmed. However, it showed a more effective weight loss effect in UPDM_H than UPD, and significantly reduced the weight of epididymal fat and subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, the possibility of anti-obesity effects of Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus can be confirmed by observing the effects of reducing serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL concentrations, reducing ALT and AST levels, and inhibiting fat build-up in liver tissue. It is believed that Discorea Japonica Thunb. fermented with Monascus can be expected to utilize as a functional material that is important to improve anti-obesity and metabolic syndrome.
This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of soybean fermented with Monascus. Also, the changes in the content of isoflavones and Monacolin K were analyzed. It was observed that the glycoside forms of daidzin and genistin were converted to aglycones of daidzein and genistein within 6 days of fermentation. The product can be used as a health functional material that can increase bioavailability. Monacolin K production was found to increase significantly with the progression of fermentation with an increase to 0.04 mg/g and 0.44 mg/g on 6 and 12 days of fermentation, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of soybean fermented with Monascus was significantly increased compared to that of soybean. The protein expression of inflammation-related genes (TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2) in the MIN cell was significantly increased in the presence of alloxan compared to the normal group, but a decrease was observed in the presence of soybean fermented with Monascus. In conclusion, soybean fermented with Monascus showed the highest antidiabetic and antioxidant effects. These results suggest that soybean fermented with Monascus has the potential to be used as a beneficial ingredient with antidiabetic and antioxidant effects.
This study observed the anti-inflammatory effect of the polysaccharide derived from the mycelium of Tremella fuciformis in mice with colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The experimental groups were normal, DSS, DSS-TFL50, DSS-TFH100, and suflasalazine. Body weights, colon lengths, and organ weights were measured, and the plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokine and mRNA and protein expression in colon tissue were analyzed. Body weight loss, a symptom of DSS-induced colitis, was suppressed by DSS-TF and the speed of weight recovery proceeded rapidly. In addition, DSS-TF showed a significant inhibitory effect on the decrease of colon length typically caused by colon damage. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine levels in plasma were reduced in DSS-TF and positive control groups. TNF-α, COX-2 and IL-1β mRNA expression in colon tissue were inhibited in DSS-TF and positive control, and it was significantly different from that of the DSS group. The protein expression of inflammation-related genes (IL-6, TNF-α and COX-2) in the colon tissue was significantly increased by DSS compared to that of the normal group, but by DSS-TFL50, DSS-TFH100 and sulfasalarin decreased. In conclusion, the polysaccharide derived from the mycelium of Tremella fuciformis showed the anti-inflammatory effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice.
Gastrodia elata Bl. (GE) is a traditional herbal medicine used for the treatment hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect and blood pressure control ability of the GABA containing fermented Gastrodia elata Blume. The fermentation strain provided by Dr. Gi in Seoul National University is L. brevis GABA100, excellent strain of GABA production, which is involved in the ability to degrade gastrodin glycosides and activation of brain function. The Gastrodia elata Blume fermented by Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100 showed antioxidant activity (total phenolic contents, DPPH radical and ABTS anion scavenging activities) than unfermented Gastrodia elata Blume. In the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the concentration of fermented Gastrodia elata Blume was administered at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure decreased statistically significantly (p<0.05), especially 2 weeks after feeding fermented Gastrodia elata Blume. Also, it showed a significant decrease in low, medium, and high concentrations of fermented Gastrodia elata Blume at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. These results indicated that Gastrodia elata Blume fermented by the excellent strain of GABA production L. brevis GABA100 shows the antioxidant function and the effect of suppressing the increase in blood pressure.
This study provides data to explore functional medicinal food materials that can prevent adult diseases, and verified antioxidant and anti-inflammatory of each solvent fraction of the methanol extract of Salvia plebeia R. Br. in Korea. In the analysis of total phenol content, DPPH radical scavenging ability, and FRAP reduction ability as indicators of antioxidant activity, the methanol fraction and ethyl acetate fraction of the Salvia plebeia R. Br. group showed high antioxidant activity. Ethyl acetate fraction of Salvia plebeia R. Br. methanol extract also showed excellent antioxidative activity as compared with BHT. In the mouse macrophage line Raw 264.7 cells, the NO production ability by LPS treatment was significantly increased in the LPS treatment group compared to the untreated group. In inflammatory reactions induced by LPS treatment in Raw 264.7 cells, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, PGE2, IL-1β) and NO production were decreased in the EtOAc fraction and MeOH fraction of the methanol extract of Salvia plebeia R. Br. compared to the case of LPS treatment alone. The anti-inflammatory effect was proved by significantly inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. The present results suggest that Salvia plebeia R. Br. supplementation is beneficial for the suppression of antioxidant and anti-inflammation.
In this study, a safety evaluation was conducted to confirm if the Enterococcus faecium CKDB003 strain obtained by selection from a mixed fermentation of fruit and milk is suitable for use as a probiotic. The MIC value for the 10 antibiotics specified in the EFSA guidance was below the acceptable cut-off value. The antibiotic resistance genes aac(6')-li, eatAv, and msr(C) exist by whole genome sequencing, but are in the chromosome and not in the plasmid, thus confirming that there is no possibility of transmission to other microorganisms. It was confirmed that cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylI, cylL-l, cylL-s, cylM, cylR1, cylR2), aggregation substance (asa1, asp1), collagen adhesion (ace), enterococcal surface protein (esp), endocarditis antigen (efaA), hyaluronidase (hyl) and gelatinase (gelE) were not present in the genome by examining the genes of factors related to virulence. Also, the biochemical analysis showed no toxic enzyme activities, and no virulence genes were detected by the PCR method. Thus, the E. faecium CKDB003 strain can be safely used as a health functional food probiotic, based on the results of the safety assessment.
This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of processed (Beopje) curly dock (Rumex crispus L.) in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 cells. The experimental group was classified into five groups : LPS no treatment, CD (curly dock), CD-B (CD processed through Beopje), LPS, LPS+CD-B (LPS+CD processed through Beopje) and LPS+CD (LPS+CD). Treatment of the Raw 264.7 cell lines using LPS led to a significant increase in NO production, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), and inflammation related genes (COX-2 and iNOS). Investigation of the inhibitory effects of CD and processed CD on NO production and expression of iNOS and COX-2 was done in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. There was significant inhibition of NO production by LPS+CD and LPS+CD-B in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Particularly, LPS+CD-B exhibited reduced mRNA expression of iNOS and COX-2 and NO production as compared to LPS+CD in Raw 264.7 cell lines (p<0.05). These results may explain some known biological activities of curly dock including the anti-inflammatory effects. CD-B in particular exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory effects of inhibiting production of NO, through the regulation of inflammatory related genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results of Beopje processing might help decrease the anti-biological effects and increase several active substances of curly dock
본 연구는 우리나라의 전통음식으로 전 세계적으로 알려진 김치의 기능성 강화식품으로 고부가가치를 창출하기 위하여 대조김치와 기능성 김치의 항산화능을 관찰하였다. 연구결과, 버섯과 다시마 추출물과 갓을 첨가하여 발효시킨 기능성 김치에서는 총 폴리페놀 함량이 대조김치보다 2배 증가되어 있었고, DPPH 라디칼과 ABTS 양이온 소거능에서도 기능성 김치가 대조김치에 비해 각각 2.7배와 1.7배 가량 유의적으로 높았다. 또한, FRAP 환원능은 기능성 김치가 대조김치에 비해 1.6배를, ORAC가는 1.1배를 나타내었다. 이상의 연구결과를 통해 항산화 활성이 높은 재료를 첨가한 김치는 발효과정을 거치면서 김치가 가지고 있는 건강기능성을 더욱 향상시킨 항산화 강화 기능성 김치의 개발 가능성을 확인하였다. 따라서 본 연구는 항산화 강화 김치의 생산기술 개발에 초석을 이루는 자료를 제공할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activity of Kochujang following the addition of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) by-product extract powder. This study specifically investigated the total levels of phenolics and flavonoids, the activities of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power). Our results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of unmodified Kochujang were 4.06 mg TAE/g and 2.87 mg TAE/g, respectively, and that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Kochujang with added Omija by-product extract powder were 3.89~5.19 mg TAE/g and 3.11~5.35 mg TAE/g, respectively. As more Omija by-product extract powder was added, the more the total levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids increased. This study found that DPPH radical scavenging activity in unmodified Kochujang was 25.8% and that in Kochujang with added Omija by-product extract powder was 27.1~39.7% each. These results indicate that Omija by-product extract powder has possibility not only in Kochujang products but also as a functional food with antioxidant activity characteristics. These results also indicate that adding Omija by-product extract powder to Kochujang had significant effects on overall acceptability. Thus, the addition of 5 or 10% of Omija by-product extract powder is desirable for making Kochujang.