This study assessed yearly trends of food and nutrient intake among high school students aged 16 to 18 years (n=2,377) using the 2007~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Yearly trends of food or nutrient intake were analyzed via logistic regression analysis. The results showed that consumption of sugars & sweets, and beverages & alcohols was increased rapidly during this period (p<0.0001). Intake of meat & meat products, and fish & shellfish also was increased (p=0.0008). Intake of grains and grain products was increased until year 2011 but declined after 2012 (p=0.0025). Consumption of vegetables, and milk & milk products was decreased (p=0.0395). Intake of protein, fat, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron was increased (p=0.0445). Carbohydrate energy ratio was decreased, whereas fat energy ratio was increased (p=0.0235). Most nutrient intakes satisfied the dietary reference intakes for Koreans except dietary fiber (19.6~26.2%), calcium (46.9~55.2%) and sodium (more than 221.4%) during this period. There was a significant positive correlation between most food group intakes and most nutrient intakes (p=0.0468). Therefore, it is crucial to increase dietary fiber and calcium intake and decrease consumption of sugars, fats and sodium through diverse eating of food groups to ensure balanced nutrition of subjects.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical components and antioxidant activities of wheat sprout powder prepared by the enzymatic hydrolysis and lactic acid bacteria treatment. The four kinds of pre-treatment were: no treatment (WP), treated with enzyme (WPE), treated with lactic acid bacteria (WPL), and treated with enzyme and lactic acid bacteria (WPEL) were applied to the wheat sprout powder. The WPEL had higher total free amino acid and essential amino acid content than the other samples. As for the volatile aroma of the wheat sprout powder, 29 types of compounds were identified in the WP and WPL, 28 types in the WPE, and 27 types in the WPEL, respectively. The total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, in the wheat sprout powder was enhanced with the enzyme and the lactic acid bacteria pre-treatment. The WPEL had highest DPPH radical scavenging activities. The overall acceptability was the highest at 6.24 points in the WPEL. Based on these observations, it was confirmed that the enzyme and lactic acid bacteria pre-treatment could improve the antioxidant activities and active component of the wheat sprout powder.
The purpose of this study was to prepare bread added with sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry powder (SBBP) (1, 3, and 5%) using a straight dough method. The quality and antioxidant characteristics of the bread were analyzed. The results indicated that the pH value and dough raising power of the dough decreased and the moisture content of the bread added with SBBP increased compared to that without the SBBP. The crust color of the bread did not change significantly. However, the crumb lightness value decreased and the redness and yellowness value increased respectively to the concentration of the SBBP. The texture measurement indicated that the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the bread increased with the addition of the SBBP. The total polyphenol content of the bread supplemented with the SBBP was increased (4.60~16.14 mg GAE/g) compare to the control (1.67 mg GAE/g). Dose-dependent, significant-high DPPH (26.86%) and ABTS (42.52%) radical scavenging activities were observed in the bread with the addition of the SBBP up to 5%. Based on these results, the optimum amount of the SBBP to add for baking bread would be 3% and the SBBP could be considered a functional agent.
This study provides data to explore functional medicinal food materials that can prevent adult diseases, and verified antioxidant and anti-inflammatory of each solvent fraction of the methanol extract of Salvia plebeia R. Br. in Korea. In the analysis of total phenol content, DPPH radical scavenging ability, and FRAP reduction ability as indicators of antioxidant activity, the methanol fraction and ethyl acetate fraction of the Salvia plebeia R. Br. group showed high antioxidant activity. Ethyl acetate fraction of Salvia plebeia R. Br. methanol extract also showed excellent antioxidative activity as compared with BHT. In the mouse macrophage line Raw 264.7 cells, the NO production ability by LPS treatment was significantly increased in the LPS treatment group compared to the untreated group. In inflammatory reactions induced by LPS treatment in Raw 264.7 cells, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, PGE2, IL-1β) and NO production were decreased in the EtOAc fraction and MeOH fraction of the methanol extract of Salvia plebeia R. Br. compared to the case of LPS treatment alone. The anti-inflammatory effect was proved by significantly inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. The present results suggest that Salvia plebeia R. Br. supplementation is beneficial for the suppression of antioxidant and anti-inflammation.
Gastrodia elata Bl. (GE) is a traditional herbal medicine used for the treatment hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect and blood pressure control ability of the GABA containing fermented Gastrodia elata Blume. The fermentation strain provided by Dr. Gi in Seoul National University is L. brevis GABA100, excellent strain of GABA production, which is involved in the ability to degrade gastrodin glycosides and activation of brain function. The Gastrodia elata Blume fermented by Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100 showed antioxidant activity (total phenolic contents, DPPH radical and ABTS anion scavenging activities) than unfermented Gastrodia elata Blume. In the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the concentration of fermented Gastrodia elata Blume was administered at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure decreased statistically significantly (p<0.05), especially 2 weeks after feeding fermented Gastrodia elata Blume. Also, it showed a significant decrease in low, medium, and high concentrations of fermented Gastrodia elata Blume at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. These results indicated that Gastrodia elata Blume fermented by the excellent strain of GABA production L. brevis GABA100 shows the antioxidant function and the effect of suppressing the increase in blood pressure.
In this study, hot water and ethanol, acetone, and hexane extracts of the steamed Deodeok were investigated for use as raw materials for natural cosmetics. Hot water and ethanol, acetone and hexane extracts of steamed Deodeok did not indicate cell toxicity up to 300 μg/mL concentration in the MTT assay. The tyrosinase inhibition effects of the ethanol extract were higher than the ascorbic acid. The efficacy of the steamed Deodeok's ethanol extract on the elastase inhibition was similar to that of quercetin at higher concentrations. In conclusion, water, ethanol, acetone and hexane extracts of the steamed Deodeok indicated strong possibility as a whitening and anti-wrinkle functional cosmetic ingredient. Among them, the steamed Deodeok's ethanol extract, which showed excellent activity, is highly available because it has high safety compared to other organic solvent extraction methods used in cosmetics, and has minimal irritation to the skin.
The objective of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Cheongsoo wine using freeze concentration fermented with 5 kinds of yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae EJ18, EJ30, HK22, HK32 and Fermivin). We compared the characteristics, volatile flavor component and physiological activity of 5 wines. The freeze concentration can increase the sugar concentration in grape juice by reducing its water content and the alcohol content of freeze-cententrated Cheongsoo wines ranged between 15.0~15.8%. The pH of wines ranged from 2.92 to 2.94 and the total acidity and soluble solid of wines ranged from 12.40~13.27. °Brix. The major organic acid in the wines was tartaric acid (4.49~5.11 mg/mL) and malic acid (7.00~7.97 mg/mL). It contains higher functional compounds in wine fermented with yeast (EJ18, EJ30, HK22, HK32) than wine fermented with fermivin. α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity had the highest values (78.87% and 62.25%) in wine fermented with HK22 and EJ18 yeast, respectively. 16 volatile flavor compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids, and others) were detected in the Cheongsoo wines by freeze concentration. These results provide useful information that the quality characteristics of wine developed by the freeze-concentration method using grapes cultivated in Korea.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality properties of Meju prepared by inoculating two strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HJ5-2, and Aspergillus oryzae PS03. The three soybean varieties that include Daewonkong, Daechan, and Saedanbaek were used in this experiment. The fermentation temperature during the Meju aging varied at 20℃, 30℃, and 40℃, respectively. The physicochemical analysis of the soybeans, showed that the cured protein and fat contents were 34.83~43.49% and 12.91~18.90%, respectively. The pH and total acidity were 6.47~6.93 and 0.11~1.22%, respectively. The change in appearance of the Meju was that the yellow-green mold was well formed on seven days at fermentation temperature of 20℃ and 30℃, but at 40℃, there was minimal mold formation and cracking of the surface. The amino nitrogen content was highest on the Daechan Meju at 621.83 mg% for seven days. The amylase increased as the fermentation period increased in all samples, and the protease increased rapidly until the first day of the fermentation, and then gradually increased thereafter. The total number of bacteria increased or decreased as the fermentation proceeded to 6.66~10.07 log CFU/g. The mold counts increased with increasing fermentation period in the range of 6.38~8.79 log CFU/g.
This experiment was conducted to assess the high antioxidant activity varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) from the 55 accessions. The antioxidant activity of Chinese cabbage were determined by the TPC, TFC, DPPH, ABTS, and chlorophyll, carotenoid contents. The TPC and TFC showed a range of 1.21~4.61 mg GAE/g DW, 0.18~3.09 mg CE/g DW. The DPPH and ABTS assay were in the range of 0.65~4.36 and 1.42~6.91 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (ASCE)/g DW, respectively. The UPLC analysis was performed quantitatively to identify chlorophyll and carotenoid in the Chinese cabbage extract. The levels of the total chlorophyll and total carotenoid were 86.60~1,235.91, and 75.86~490.11 μg/g, respectively. The comprehensive differences in the total and individual chlorophyll contents have also been observed among different varieties. These results will be valuable as basic data for the standardization of Chinese cabbage.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Atractylodes lancea (A.l.) in a dose-dependent manner on lipid levels and plasma glucose in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ). The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly classified into five groups: normal, STZ-control and three experimental groups [A.l.-1, diabetic treated with ethanolic extract of A.l. (1 g/kg b.w.), A.l.-2, diabetic administered with ethanolic extract of A.l. (2 g/kg b.w.), and A.l.-3, diabetic administered with ethanolic extract of A.l. (3 g/kg b.w.)]. The normal and STZ-control group were fed an AIN-93 diet and the three experimental groups were administered with A.l. extract at doses of 1, 2, and 3 g/kg b.w./day, respectively, for 14 days. The plasma glucose levels in all the experimental groups were significantly lower than the STZ-control group after 14 days of treatment. The total cholesterol of the A.l.-3 and triglyceride levels, atherogenic index (AI) of all three experimental groups were significantly lower than the STZ-control group. The ALT and AST activities at A.l.-2, A.l.-3 were significantly lower than the STZ-control group. This result that demonstrate the administration of Atractylodes lancea can reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk in diabetic rats.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of nine times repetitive steaming and drying process Sunsik diets on antioxidant activity in obese mice fed high fat diets to prevent oxidative stress, using drying materials comprising 23 kinds of cereals (61.5%), beans (30.0%), sweet potato and potato (3.0%), fruits (2.0%), vegetables (3.0%), and stevioside, a natural sweetener (0.5%). We produced three samples: the experimental group was classified into the normal diet group (control), the high fat diet group (HF), and the high fat diet group + the Sunsik group (3HFS, 7HFS, 9HFS) fed to the mice for eight weeks. As a result, the serum, liver lipid peroxide, and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the HF group than in the C group at p<0.05 level, and the NO level was lower in the Sunsik supplemented groups. The antioxidant enzyme catalase activity significantly decreased in the HF group at the p<0.05 level compared to the C group. The total antioxidant activity of the C group was significantly higher in serum, liver, and kidney tissues than the HF group (p<0.05). The anthocyanin level in liver and spleen tissue was significantly higher in the group fed Sunsik than in the HF group.
In this study, the antioxidative activity of Jeolpyun containing S. glauca (Bunge) Bunge powder (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) and extract (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) was evaluated based on the total polyphenol contents, electron-donating ability, scavenging of superoxide anion radical, and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Total polyphenol contents of Jeolpyun containing 8% S. glauca (Bunge) Bunge powder were the highest with a value of 2,280±0.00 μg GAE/mL. It was observed that total polyphenol content exhibited a significant relation with concentrations at p<0.05. The electron-donating ability of Jeolpyun containing 8% S. glauca (Bunge) Bunge extract was the highest with a value of 83.93±0.69%. The electron-donating abilities revealed significant differences between concentrations (p<0.05). The superoxide radical scavenging ability of the blank was 0.01523±0.00068 and Jeolpyun containing 6% S. glauca (Bunge) Bunge powder was the highest with a value of 0.00977±0.00842. The hydrogen peroxide decomposing ability of Jeolpyun containing 0% S. glauca (Bunge) Bunge powder was －0.00377±0.0049; 8% S. glauca (Bunge) Bunge powder revealed the highest decomposing ability of －0.0476±0.0234. Hydrogen peroxide decomposing abilities revealed significant differences between concentrations (p<0.05). Jeolpyun containing S. glauca (Bunge) Bunge powder and extract demonstrated improved antioxidative activities.
In this study, to develop balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) leaves, which are not used as tea, a method of making green tea was referred to, and several physiological activities were analyzed using the balloon flower leaf tea with different times of roasting and rubbing. The highest total polyphenol and tannin contents were 33.02 mg GAE/g and 5.03 mg/g at two times of roasting and one time of rubbing, respectively. In the case of the total flavonoids, the RO3 + RU2, subjected to three times of roasting and two times of rubbing, showed the highest value, whereas there was no significant difference between the control and the other samples. Except for the green tea as a control, the RO2 + RU1 samples reported the highest antioxidant activity whereas it decreased with increasing number of times of roasting and rubbing. The color, lightness, and yellowness tended to decrease slightly as the number of increasing roasting and rubbing among the samples with no significant difference. All of these things together, to develop tea using the balloon flower leaves would be suitable with two times of roasting and one time of rubbing.
The purpose of this study was to compare the quality characteristics of silken tofu products from the commercial market in Korea. Seven types of commercial silken tofu were sampled and their physicochemical properties, including soluble solid contents, salinity, pH, total acidity, moisture contents (total solid contents), crude protein and fat contents were evaluated. The TPA results suggest that the texture of silken tofu was very different from one another according to the type of and the amount of coagulant. The commercial silken tofu showed a range of pH 5.53~6.48, total acidity of 0.12~0.32%, soluble solid contents of 2.62~5.07 °Brix, salinity of 2.28~4.30%, and moisture contents of 87.10~92.24%, respectively. In terms of the coagulant of tofu, besides the GDL (glucono-δ- lactone), other coagulants such as MgCl2 for making ‘silken tofu’ in the Korean tofu market. The quality characteristics differed depending on the constituents of sample and the coagulants of tofu used. These results are expected to be useful in identifying new trends in the domestic silken tofu industry.
The value of using rice flour processed into rice powder in preparing porridge was evaluated by measuring the moisture content, pH, total starch, reducing sugar, and color content. The moisture content of the rice flour and the pH of porridge made with rice flour were measured. Rice flour contained 77.55% moisture and the moisture content of the porridge made from rice flour processed into rice powder was 91.40 to 92.47%. The pH of rice flour porridge was acidic at 6.53 to 6.95. The color of the porridge was also measured. The L* values ranged from 82.62 to 97.55, the a* values ranged from －0.09 to 0.08, and the b* values ranged from －2.74 to 1.91.
This study was conducted to secure basic information for corn processing by comparing the quality characteristics according to maize cultivars and kernel types (dent, intermediate, flint-like). As a result of analyzing 15 cultivars, a range of measurements were observed: 100-kernel weight, 22.89~35.63 g; moisture, 7.57~8.42%; crude protein, 8.46~11.45%; crude lipids, 3.26~4.83%; Hunter’s L-value, 83.70~86.79; a-value, 2.61~5.49; b-value, 22.01~28.15; and total carotenoids, 6.74~17.07 μg/g. Significance among the cultivars was shown in all quality characteristics (p<0.001), but the significance among the kernel types was found only in crude protein (p<0.005), crude fat (p<0.001), and Hunter’s L-value (p<0.05). The hardness of maize was decreased proportionally to the soaking time for all maize cultivars (p<0.001). In particular, with the same soaking time for different kernel types, the hardness difference was shown in the order of flint-like > dent ≒ intermediate. It was confirmed that the decrease in the hardness of flint-like kernel of close to that of hard-type starch was slowed compare dent and intermediate kernels. So it is expected the some characteristic of kernel types will contribute to the appropriate customized use of the developed cultivars.