Isoflavones found in soybeans are present as glycosides and aglycones, which differ according to their chemical structure. The absorption rate and bioavailability of aglycones are greater than those of glycosides. It is known that aglycone isoflavones in soybean was converted from glycoside isoflavones by activating of endogenous β-glucosidase under drying (40~60℃) conditions after soaking. In this study, we compared and analyzed the proximate composition and isoflavone contents of soybean powders prepared under dried after soaking were analyzed. In the comparison of the proximate compositions, the moisture contents of white soybean powder dried after soaking (WSPDS) and black soybean powder dried after soaking (BSPDS) were decreased as compared with those of the control white soybean powder (CWSP) and control black soybean powder (CBSP). Whereas the contents of other proximate compositions were increased. The aglycone isoflavone contents were higher in WSPDS than in CWSP. Whereas the aglycone isoflavone contents of BSPDS had a similar content those of CBSP because of the component characteristics of black soybean. In conclusion, we believe that it is appropriate to identify and utilize the component characteristics of soybean varieties in order to induce an increase in the functional component content of soybeans under drying conditions after soaking.
Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) has been widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry as a functional material. In a previous study, we have investigated not only pharmacological effects such as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, but also analyzed various functional ingredients. In this study, triterpenoids were analyzed using HPLC-DAD to determine marker compounds among functional ingredients. When triterpenoids were analyzed, asiaticoside from C. asiatica was determined as an optimal marker compound. Next, specificity, linearity, limited of detection (LOD), limited of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, and range were evaluated using HPLC-DAD to determine asiaticoside contents in C. asiatica juice and extracts. The specificity was elucidated by chromatogram and retention time using an established analytical method. The coefficient of correlation obtained was 0.9996. LOD was 4.99 μg/mL and LOQ was 15.12 μg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision of asiaticoside were determined to be 0.48~1.68% and 0.08~1.09%, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rate of asiaticoside was 98.88% and the analytical range of Field-70E was determined to be 0.625~10 mg/mL. As a results of evaluating ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP antioxidative effect, Field-70E showed potent antioxidant activities. Results of this study could be used as basic data for quality standardization of C. astiatica juice and extracts.
This study investigated the correlation between parents' nutrition quotient (NQ) and the nutrition quotient of Korean preschoolers (NQ-P) of picky eaters (PE) aged five years living in Dobong-gu, Seoul. The questionnaire was conducted online by parents of 187 preschoolers between May 25 and June 5, 2020. PE was defined as an average score of 3 or more on the picky eating questionnaires; non-picky eaters (NPE, n=120) and PE (n=67). The correlation between preschoolers and their parents was assessed using the NQ-P and NQ, respectively. Compared to the NPE, picky eating (p<0.001) was significantly higher, and vegetable preference (p<0.001), NQ-P (p<0.05), moderation dimension (p<0.05), frequency of vegetable intake (p<0.05) of balance dimension, and processed beverages (p<0.01) of moderation dimension were significantly lower in the PE. The correlation between the NQ and NQ-P was related to the diversity (p<0.05), moderation (p<0.05), and environment (p<0.01) of NQ in the NPE and not related to the PE. PEs should increase their frequency of vegetable intake and reduce their intake of processed beverages. To increase the NQ-P of PE, parents should eat a balanced diet. Future studies on the NQ-P of preschoolers aged 3 to 5 are needed.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant components, elastase inhibition activities, and melanin synthesis rates of Korean traditional Actinidia (Actinidia arguta) fruits and leaves depending on the ethanol extraction concentrations. The total polyphenol content was the highest in the 50% ethanol extract of both fruits and leaves, with values of 634.1 mg GAE/100 g and 3,985.2 mg GAE/100 g, respectively. The total flavonoid content was the highest in the fruit 90% extract and leaf 50% extract at 191.9 mg/100 g and 2655.6 mg/100 g, respectively. The vitamin C content was the highest in the 50% extract of leaves at 2990.3 mg/100 g. Elastase inhibition was the highest at 56.9% in the leaf 50% extract at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL. Melanin synthesis inhibition showed the highest melanin synthesis inhibitory effect among the extracts, as the leaf 50% extract showed an inhibitory rate of 65% or more. Therefore, the antioxidant components, elastase inhibition activities, and melanin synthesis inhibitory rate were better in leaves than in fruits. The leaf 50% extract was particularly the best among the extracts. Korean traditional Actinidia leaves can be considered as potential sources for new functional materials.
A beverage was developed using the Abeliophyllum distichum leaf (AL). The beverage was prepared by adding it to apple juice by concentration, and physicochemical quality, antioxidant activities, and sensory evaluation were measured. Soluble solid and reducing sugar content of the control were 12.57 °Brix and 11.40%, respectively, and there was no difference from the group with addition of the AL extract. However, pH was slightly increased upon addition of AL extract. Lightness and yellowness increased when AL extract was added. Verbascoside content was not detected in the control, but it increased as the concentration of AL extract increased. The contents of ascorbic acid and flavonoids were 5.38 and 20.42 mg%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the groups. However, the content of polyphenols increased as the concentration of the AL extract increased. DPPH radical and metal ion scavenging activity were increased by addition of the AL extract, but there was no difference in the ABTS radical scavenging activity. As a result of the sensory evaluation, there was no difference from the control even wihen the AL extract was added; thus, it was considered that there was no problem with the degree of acceptability when added within about 300 ppm.
In order to investigate the optimal UVB (ultraviolet B) treatment conditions for vitamin D2 enhancement of freeze-dried ear mushroom, sample size (below 300 μm~whole), UV treatment temperature (30~60℃), treatment density (6.25~50.0 mg/cm2) and the samples mixing frequency (1~32 times) were treated differently. After that, chromaticity, vitamin D2 and ergosterol (vitamin D2 precursor) contents were investigated. As a result of the investigating, effective UVB treatment conditions for vitamin D2 enhancement are as follows. The sample sizes were 2~4 mm and finely crushed pieces. The treatment temperatures were 50℃ and 60℃. The treatment density was 12.5 to 25.0 mg/cm2, and the number of sample mixing was 8 times or more. As the amount of vitamin D2 increased by UVB treatment, the ergosterol content generally tended to decrease. However, under some UVB treatment conditions, the vitamin D2 content was not high despite the decrease of ergosterol content. Under the conditions set in this experiment, it was possible to obtain ear mushrooms with enhanced vitamin D2 up to 26,968.7 μg/100 g. Therefore, it is thought that the ear mushroom is highly likely to be used as a vitamin D source and nutritionally fortified food ingredient.
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in serving frequency of elementary school meal before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Number of menus provided in June and July of 2019 and 2020 were compared for 300 elementary schools in Korea. As a result, the serving frequency of la carte and dessert was increased after COVID-19. In addition, frequencies of main dishes such as pork cutlet, chicken, sweet and sour pork, hamburger steak, and so on using processed food were increased after COVID-19. Because of the longer serving time due to staggered serving, cook's working time for serving meals became longer. Therefore, it was judged that the number of servings of processed food was increased rather than the menu with a large amount of preprocessing work. Moreover, among desserts, fruits showed increased serving frequency. Serving frequencies for juice and dairy products were also increased. However, increased servings of juice and dairy products could increase sugar intake. Thus, a careful plan for menu composition is needed to provide balanced nutrients to students under emergency situations such as an infectious disease.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrition education on dietary knowledge, dietary attitudes, and dietary behavior of elderly by analyzing changes before and after nutrition education. This study was conducted in Seoul from March 2022 to December 2022 for 50 elderly (6 male, 44 female) who participated in nutrition education for 8 weeks at three senior welfare centers (Seodaemun, Seongbuk, Jongno). A total of 35 responses were used in the final analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and Wilcoxon’s signed rank test by age, hypertension, and dislipidemia to find effect of nutrition education on their nutritional knowledge, dietary attitudes, and dietary behavior. Results showed that nutrition education had a significant effect on the elderly. In particular, for those with chronic diseases such as hypertension and dislipidemia, the difference after education was significant, indicating significant changes in dietary habits. This study is expected to provide basic data for the development of a systematic nutrition education program for the elderly in the future.