It has been reported that the increased uric acid level is associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors in both male and female. However, there has not been enough studies to investigate gender differences of this association in Korea. To evaluate relation between serum uric acids and metabolic syndrome markers, anthropometric and biochemical analyses data was obtained from National Health Examination 2005 and 5,523 (M=3,097; F=2,426) data was analyzed. Results by quartile of serum uric acid levels in females showed that increased serum uric acid level was associated with elevated levels of total-. LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, whereas association between serum uric acid and total cholesterol levels was not observed in male subjects. In both female and male, higher quartile of serum uric acid level were linked with lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. In regression analysis, association of serum uric acid levels with fasting glucose levels was significant in female subjects only. In conclusion, higher serum uric acid levels were associated with metabolic syndrome indices, however gender differences were existed for total cholesterol.
This study aimed to find the optimum instrumental test conditions for the Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of cooked rice in order to predict the sensory texture attributes (hardness, adhesiveness, chewiness). Sensory evaluation was performed for three kinds of instant cooked rice with university students in their twenties and the results of the sensory evaluation were compared to instrumental TPA patterns. Using partial least squares regression, the instrumental TPA results at a cross-head speed of 1.0 mm/sec and a compression ratio of 70% proved to be an excellent predictor of the sensory attributes of hardness (R2=0.99) and chewiness (R2=0.99). The results at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/sec and compression ratio of 30% provided an excellent model for the prediction of sensory adhesiveness (R2=0.83). In this experimental range, sensory hardness and chewiness showed a high correlation with instrumental TPA parameters (hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness) with a high cross-head speed and compression ratio, while sensory adhesiveness showed a high correlation with the TPA parameters with a low cross-head speed and compression ratio.
Current study was performed to investigate the effect of morphological properties of black ginseng such as size and shape on the quality of black ginseng. The raw ginsengs were separated based on size (medium, large, and extra-large) and shape (straight ginseng, fibrous root ginseng). Subsequently, the raw ginsengs were steamed at 95℃ for 3 h and dried in the presence of heated air at 50℃ for 30 h. This process was repeated nine times for black ginseng production. The physiochemical properties such as the content of acidic polysaccharides, ginsenosides, and antioxidative activity were evaluated. Although minor difference in physiochemical properties such as acidic polysaccharide content in raw ginseng was observed, no statistical difference in the content of acidic polysaccharides, total phenols, and ginsenosides was observed during final black ginseng production based on size classification. The minor ginsenosides in fibrous root black ginseng, such as Rk3, Rh4, Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 were higher in content than straight black ginseng. However, no correlation between the shape of ginseng and total phenol content and antioxidative activity was observed. Therefore, present results demonstrate that the difference in ginseng size in same-age and -production area does not affect the quality of black ginseng. Furthermore, difference in ginseng shape does not influence the overall quality of black ginseng. It is hypothesized that this study would be considered as supportive data for the production of high-quality black ginseng.
This study evaluated the hydration, gelatinization, and saccharification properties of rice processing for beverage development. The properties of rice were studied on 10 rice cultivars (Samkwang, Ilpum, Seolgaeng, Anda, Dasan-1, Goami-4, Danmi, American rice, Chinese rice, and Thai rice) and employing four kinds of pre-treatment methods (dry grain, wet grain, dry flour, and wet flour). The results showed that moisture content of rice was between 11.88~15.26%. Increase in soaking time along with highest water absorption was noted in American rice cultivar (46.81%). The water binding capacity of Thai rice was higher when compared to that of other rice flours. In addition, solubility and swelling power of rice were 4.52~26.65% and 0.19~2.05%, respectively. The amylose content of Goami-4 was higher in rice processing. Using a rapid visco analyzer (RVA), the initial pasting temperature of Danmi cultivar was found to be the highest; the peak viscosities of Anda cultivar and Dasan-1 cultivar, and Chinese rice were higher than of those of other rice flours. After saccharification, the pH, soluble solids content, and reducing sugar content of rice processed through different pre-treatment methods were in the range of 6.22~7.08, 4.67~16.07 °Brix, and 0.35~11.67% (w/w), respectively. In terms of color values, the L-value of dry grain, a-value of wet (grain, flour), and b-value of dry sample (grain, flour) were found to be the highest. Assessment of various factors and cultivars characteristics of the raw grains are of importance in the development of rice beverage.
The aim of this study was to determine the changes in fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of cheonggukjang containing walnuts at 0, 10, 20, or 30%. Amino nitrogen content was decreased with increasing content of walnuts. However, cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts met the standard of food sanitation act. Volatile basic nitrogen contents of cheonggukjang containing walnuts was lower than that of cheonggukjang containing no walnut. There was no significant difference in total amino acid content for cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. However, total amino acid content in cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts was significantly lower than that in cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. The content of essential amino acid in cheonggukjang containing 30% of walnuts was also significantly lower than that in cheonggukjang containing 0%, 10%, or 20% of walnuts. Saturated fatty acid content was decreased significantly from 16.7% to 3.6% when the content of was increased from 0% to 30%. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents was increased with increasing amounts of walnut added to cheonggukjang. Result of sensory evaluation revealed that the taste and overall quality of cheonggukjang made with 10~20% walnuts were significantly higher compared to those of ordinary cheonggukjang. These results suggest that cheonggukjang made with 10~20% walnuts could be developed as a novel fermented food.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of antioxidant activities in some traditional and a few super food mixed rice. Amongst nine chosen samples, traditional five grains were analyzed and results revealed highest content of crude-protein (8.05±1.11%) and lowest crude-fat content (1.74±0.29%); however, the calories was found to be relatively low (358.05±0.34 kcal) in the samples. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were extracted from nine samples with 80% methanol and biochemical activity was measured. The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and total tannin was 206.5~452.0 μg/mL, 0.126~0.340 μg/mL, and 548.1~774.8 μg/mL, respectively. The traditional five grains showed the highest values except for DPPH radical scavenging activity. DPPH radical scavenging activity was 5 to 40.3% higher in eight samples than the traditional five grains sample. From these results, it is conjectured that a mixture of five grains, might exhibit equal or considerably higher effect as healthy diet when compared to super food. The results from this study would serve as basic data for the use of traditional mixed grains rice diet for good health
The purpose of this study was to investigate the purchasing behavior and selection attributes for Home Meal Replacement (HMR) and to identify the selection attributes affecting purchasing frequency and purchasing costs of married women living in a city. Among 837 questionnaires distributed to HMR married women consumers, 752 complete questionnaires (89.8%) were analyzed. The younger married women group showed higher frequency of purchasing HMR than the older age group. The 20s and 30s age groups showed higher purchasing costs for HMR than the 40s and older age groups. A higher proportion of employed married women purchased HMR three or more times per week and spent an average of more than 20,000 won per purchase in comparison with unemployed married women. HMR selection attributes were classified into five factors: ‘taste and sanitation’, ‘economic efficiency’, ‘health and nutrition’, ‘convenience’, and ‘reliability and awareness’; mean scores of these factors’ importance levels were 4.28, 3.93, 3.59, 3.54, and 3.50 out of 5 points, respectively. The importance level of ‘taste and sanitation’ factor was significantly greater as married women’s age decreased. However, the importance level of ‘health and nutrition’ factor was significantly greater as married women’s age increased. The results of the logistic regression analyses indicate that the ‘taste and sanitation’ and ‘health and nutrition’ factors affected frequency of purchasing HMR. The ‘reliability and awareness’ factor had the most significant impact on cost per purchasing HMR. Therefore, a product differentiation strategy according to married women’s age and employment status should be applied. Product qualities and brand value should be improved to enhance competition in the HMR market.
Ginsenosides are major constituents of ginseng and are known to be responsible for its pharmacological properties. This study aimed to investigate the detoxification effect of a mixture containing black red ginseng powder, red ginseng extract, Puerariae radix extract, and Hovenia dulcis extract, on SD (Sprague Dawley) rats treated with 30% ethanol. Thirty minutes before treatment, the animals were orally administered different concentrations of the mixture or water. Results revealed that the concentration of ethanol in blood serum was significantly decreased in the black red ginseng mixture treated group in a dose-dependent manner, as compared with that of the control group. The blood level of acetaldehyde increased until 1 hr after alcohol administration, but the levels rapidly decreased later. Furthermore, ADH and ALDH activities in the hepatic tissue were also increased in the black red ginseng mixture administered group, than in the control group. These results indicate that the black red ginseng mixture has the ability of decomposing alcohol by increasing the ADH and ALDH activities responsible for alcohol metabolism.
This study was conducted to analyze the nutrient compositions of stem and fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OF) and Opuntia humifusa (OH). The results of the two-way analysis of variance test indicated that the parts, varieties and parts*varieties had influence on nutrient content except crude protein, soluble dietary fiber, Fe, Se, I, vitamin E, niacin and vitamin C. Moisture and crude ash content was higher in stem than in fruit, while crude lipid and insoluble dietary content was higher in fruit than in stem. Mineral content revealed that K (1,313.67 mg% in OF, 1,351.38 mg% in OH) was the highest in fruit and Ca (5,146.29 mg% in OF, 1,388.19 mg% in OH) was the highest in stem. Vitamin C was the most abundant vitamin in the fruit of OF (199.98 mg%) and OH (187.12 mg%). Polyunsaturated fatty acid was the highest among fatty acids (66.9~70.1%), with higher content in the stem (753.89 mg%) than fruit (578.01 mg%) in OF, while higher in the fruit (1,093.63 mg%) than stem (475.07 mg%) in OH. Moisture, crude protein, Mg, Se and riboflavin was higher in OF than OH; whereas, crude lipid, insoluble dietary fiber, total dietary fiber and monounsaturated fatty acid were higher in OH than OF. These results indicated that OF and OH could be a good food source for Ca, K and Vitamin C. Also, different nutrient content by parts and varieties, can be helpful in choice of parts or varieties for consumer purposes.
In this study, we analyzed the utensils, covers and mats that were used for making meju, the shape of meju, and the heating method used for making meju from the 225 ways of preparing jang mentioned in the 32 volumes of the ancient cook books from 530 AD to 1950. The heating method of traditional meju bean and starch included 57 kinds of steaming, 59 of boiling, 21 of roasting + boiling, and 2 of cooking. The shape of meju included 41 kinds of egg, 27 of ball, 22 of lump, a kind of doughnut, 8 kinds of hilt, 6 of flat, 4 of chip, and a kind of square. Among the 72 gochoojang meju, the heating method of bean included 9 kinds of boiling, and 6 kinds of steaming; whereas the heating method of starch included 19 kinds of steaming of dough, 11 of rice cooking, and 5 of boiling of dough. The utensils for molding of bean meju were 49 kinds of straw sack, 14 of round straw container, 11 of heating bed, 7 of large straw bowl or Japanesesnailseed, 5 of jar, 4 of ditch, 3 of straw bowls, 2 of pottery steamer of dough, 2 of gourd, and a kind of long round bamboo bowl and sack of straw. The cover and the mat used for molding of meju included 36 kinds of straw, 17 kinds of paper mulberry leaf, 15 of wide straw seat, 14 of mugwort, 11 of pine tree leaf, 10 of soybean leaf, 6 of cocklebur leaf, 6 of sumac leaf, 6 of barley straw, 6 of mulberry leaf, 5 of fallen leaf, 5 of cogon grass, 4 of reed seat, 3 of scrap of cloth, 2 of Indian bean tree leaf, a kind of reed. There were only 5 kinds of hanging.
To enhance the physiological activities and reduce the off-flavor of garlic in kimchi, we manufactured kimchi seasoning replaced with 25~75% black garlic, we evaluated microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory evaluation. The changes of total aerobic and lactic acid bacteria were similar between the control and the kimchi seasoning replaced with black garlic during storage periods. The lightness of the kimchi seasoning replaced with black garlic was lower than that of the control and decrease of lightness was proportional to the concentration of black garlic. The redness and yellowness of the kimchi seasoning replaced with black garlic were decreased to the concentration of added black garlic and changes of the redness in all the samples were slightly increased during storage periods. But the yellowness did not change during storage periods. The changes of pH and acidity did not differ between the control and the samples of replaced with black garlic during storage periods. The sensory parameters including taste and flavor did not differ among treatments during storage periods. But color and overall acceptance of the control and sample replaced with 25% black garlic were higher than those of the samples replaced with 50 and 75% black garlic.
In this study, we analyzed the biochemical factors in lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf, stem, and yeonjabang and their effects on serum factor levels in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The loutus leaf showed 9.47±0.30% moisture content, 8.25±0.39% ash, 21.45±1.25% crude protein, and 2.21±0.13% crude fat content; the lotus stem showed 11.84±0.43% moisture, 10.21±0.64% ash, 17.55±0.92% crude protein, and 4.16±0.23% crude fat content; and the lotus yeonjabang showed 11.86±0.50% moisture, 6.81±0.51% ash, 18.71±1.02% crude protein, and 3.95±0.15% crude fat. Blood triglyceride levels were higher in the HF group (146.43±38.81 mg/dL), and lower in the HF+yeonjabang groups (98.00±17.18 mg/dL). In particular, blood triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the groups that had 10% dry yeonjabang powder added to the high-fat diet. The inclusion of excessive high-fat diet increased concentrations of serum insulin and leptin. Serum leptin concentrations were highest in the HF group mice (3.00±1.35 ng/dL), whereas they were significantly lower in the HF+yeonjabang groups by 1.34±0.52 ng/dL (p<0.05). Thus, addition of dry yeonjabang powder to the high-fat diet was more effective in regulating the levels of serum triglycerides and leptin in mice. Additional studies would help in the development of yeonjabang as a functional food.
This study was aimed to develop a gruel using rice extrudates and to evaluate physicochemical properties of Tarakjuk (milk porridge; MP) prepared with milk (M) and rice powder (RP, control), rice extrudate (RE), or enzyme treated rice extrudates (ETR). Pasting property of ETR was significantly different from those of RP or RE with significantly low peak viscosity, breakdown and setback values in the ETR sample. Viscosity of MP prepared with ETR was also significantly low, as compared to that of control (> 900 cP). The total solids and spreadability of MP with ETR was higher than those with RP or RE. Hunter color values varied significantly depending on enzyme treatment levels in ETR samples with enzyme dose-dependent increase in b-value. Average starch digestibility of ETR sample was higher by 10.2% than that of control sample. DPPH radical scavenging activities of ETR samples were greater than those of RE or RP. These results indicated that ETR could be beneficial for preparing easy-drink and diet food with higher starch digestibility and fluidity, especially for gastric tube-fed patients.
This study aimed to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gastrodia elata Blume fermented by lactic acid bacteria after saccharifying by 3 methods including enzyme, malt, and rice-nuruk. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Pediococcus inopinatus BK-3, isolated from kimchi could reduce the unpleasant taste and odor of Gastrodia elata Blume. The total acidity value of Gastrodia elata fermented by LAB on the malt and rice-nuruk extract solution for 3 days was 2.23% and 2.33%, respectively. After saccharification by malt and rice-nuruk extract solution for 3 days, the viable cell number of fermented Gastrodia elata was 9.14 log cfu/mL and 9.27 log cfu/mL, respectively. The total acidity values were increased above 3.35% by malt and rice-nuruk extract solution for 8 days. Thus, the viable cell number was the highest by malt and rice-nuruk extract solution fermentation for 3 days. The amino acid content of Gastrodia elata fermented by LAB after saccharification by malt extract solution was higher than that of other saccharifying methods. The free sugar content and p-hydroxybenzyl derivatives induced by the enzyme method were higher than those of other saccharifying methods. The overall acceptability was the highest at 4.2 point in Gastrodia elata fermented by malt extract solution.
Nutritional composition and physicochemical properties changes in mustard leaf kimchi were investigated during fermentation of up to 3 months. The pH decreased, and the titratable acidity gradually increased according to increase of fermentation periods. Fructose and glucose were the major free sugars in mustard leaf kimchi, and their amounts were significantly decreased with fermentation periods (p<0.05). Lactic acid content showed a significant increase with maximum increase at 3 months. All types of kimchi contained 20 amino acids, but the content of most amino acid fluctuated during fermentation. Except for K and Zn, the content of other ingredients including Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Se were the highest in kimchi fermented for 2 months. The unsaturated fatty acid of mustard leaf kimchi was higher than that of saturated fatty acid, and total fatty acid of kimchi significantly decreased after 2 months (p<0.05). Most vitamin contents showed a tendency to decrease with fermentation, in particular, vitamin B complex except for B2 significantly decreased after 3 months (p<0.05). The results provide fundamental data for determining the appropriate fermentation period to improve the quality of kimchi.
The aims of this study were to investigate usage status, menu preference, quality evaluation and satisfaction of homedelivered meal box for children from low-income families in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. A total of 320 children and their guardians who had received home-delivered meal boxes participated in 2015. A total of respondents (62.2%) were children and teenagers, and 37.8% were guardians. The 47.7% of children and 43.8% of guardians were using the home delivery service more than one year. Most of the children and guardians answered ‘eat almost’, ‘eat all meals’ served meal box, 75.3%, 81.8%, respectively. After receiving the meal box at home, 35.2% of children consumed meals within 1~2 hours, whereas 32.8% of the guardians were ate within 2~6 hours. It was founded that ‘throw away leftovers’ was the highest and followed ‘give it others’ in a way to treat leftovers. The results of preference survey on meats, seafood, showed that ‘chicken nugget’ (4.07) and ‘stir-fried fish cake with vegetable’ (3.63) were the highest points for children, whereas ‘grilled LA beef ribs’ (3.98) and ‘stir-fried anchovies’ (3.72) were the highest point for guardians. ‘Seasoned leaves marinated in soy sauce’ was the highest preference among vegetables and another dish for respondents. Frozen products were the most preferred types of meal boxes on the menu. In the quality evaluation of home-delivered meal box, although satisfaction with service and packaging of the meal box were high, the satisfaction of food quality was relatively low.
The purpose of this study was to determine the health behaviors and nutritional status related to dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged adults (between 50 and 64 years old) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinations Survey data (2007~2010). A total of 4,721 subjects were analyzed in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups (normal, borderline, and dyslipidemia) according to serum lipid levels. Parameters included in this study were drinking and smoking, anthropometric parameters, blood and nutritional parameters. The latter parameter included food/nutrients intake. All data was adjusted by sex, region, education level, and age. General linear model and logistic regression model were used for statistical analysis. The dyslipidemia group was comprised of more men than women. By contrast, the borderline group was comprised of more women than men (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed for other general characteristics. There were more smokers and drinkers(drinking per time) in the dyslipidemia group (p<0.05). Anthropometric data showed significant difference, ie, height (p<0.05), weight, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, and blood pressure were higher in the dyslipidemia group (p<0.001). Only blood urea nitrogen showed no significant difference among groups. The HbA1c (p<0.01), fasting blood glucose, GOT, GPT, creatinine levels were higher in the dyslipidemia group (p<0.001). So it is required for the management of obesity in dyslipidemia group. The dyslipidemia group ate less sea food (p<0.05). The nutrients intake of energy and protein, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus were lower in the dyslipidemia group (p<0.05). Therefore, to lower dyslipidemia prevalence rates, it is necessary to increase the intake of foods containing ω-3 fatty acids. We also suggest a meal management program and nutritional education to recognize the risk of dyslipidemia, especially for people such as the individual in the borderline and dyslipidemia study groups. Key words: dyslipidemia, Korean middle-aged adults, nutritional status, health behaviors
This study conducted a survey with 203 single households among men and women in their 20s to 40s who were living in metropolitan areas from October 6 to November 4, 2012 in order to investigate the dietary attitude of the single households. The ratio of single households who had three meals a day regularly was 2.85 points, which was lower than the normal level, and it turned out that those in their 20s and 30s had meals more regularly than those in their 40s did (p<0.001). As for the irregular meal time, most were breakfast (85.9%), and it turned out that they often skipped meals mostly because they did not have time to eat and (41.7%) or because that bothered them (26.0%). 62.6% of the single households did overeating and most of them (39.4%) did overeating because of their irregular meals. Of the single households, women or persons who had lived alone for less than 3 years or more than 7 years cooked at home, more often (p<0.05), and most of them (42%) cooked noodles, easy to cook, but women cooked Korean food-based homemade food such as rice (31.7%) or soup and stew (21.2%), often (p<0.05). It turned out that 36.9% of the single households often ate out about two to three times a day, and as for their favorite eating-out menus, 39.4% were Korean food, followed by Western food (23.8%), flour-based food (13.5%), fast food (9.8%), Chinese food (7.3%) and Japanese food (6.2%). Lastly, as for inconveniences when they ate out, most were the ‘price’ (22.8%), followed by ‘too much amount of food for one person’ (20.2%) and ‘limitations in menu selection’ (19.2%). As a result of this study, it appeared that the single households had an irregular dietary life, often did overeating and often ate out, so it is judged that it would be necessary to develop a variety of nutritionally-balanced HMR food and eating-out menus in a reasonable price range for their healthy dietary life.
In this study, we analyzed the dietary style of Chinese singles; in addition, the effect of convenience food consumption on the quality of life of singles was evaluated through construct model development on the relationship between the frequency of consumption and satisfaction with convenience food and quality of life. A statistical analysis of 153 surveys from Tianj was conducted using SPSS 12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The measurement model was confirmed as appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis of the measurement model in conjunction with AMOS. The results of a factor analysis were as follows. Dietary style was categorized into four factors. The level of satisfaction with convenience food was categorized into seven factors and quality of life was categorized into four factors. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all the factors. For the level of satisfaction with convenience food based on dietary style and the quality of life of singles, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. The results of all tests indicated that the model satisfied the recommended level of goodness of fit index and thus, the overall research model was appropriate. The current study highlights the increased interest in eating habits of singles and is necessary for further improvement in nutrition education.
The processing properties of spent hen and broiler chicken were investigated before and after treatment to improve texture characteristics. Each treatment consisted steaming (S) with 85℃ for 20 min, Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) with 1.5 KV/cm for 4 sec, and Super Heated Steam (SH) with an oven temp. of 300℃, a steam temp. of 350℃ for 8 min. The yield of spent hen and broiler were 66.85% and 63.80% respectively in the control, but decreased in every treatment was lowest at 61.05% in the PEF treatment (p<0.05). In the color test, L value decreased, but the a and b values increased regardless of the species of spent hen or broiler. In the test of heating loss, the S treatment of spent hen had the highest result of 45.25% but lowest of 30.66% in the SH treatment of the broiler. When it was compared with various treatments, SH after PEF treatment showed the better result in terms of heating loss than the PEF or SH treatment respectively. In the test of texture, the broiler showed the lowest hardness of 5.57 kg in the SH (p<0.05). Otherwise, the spent hen resulted in 14.08 kg of hardness in steaming after PEF, but it improved significantly to 10.73 kg in SH after PEF. In the test of 9 scored sensory evaluation of overall palatability, 7.8 point was the best score with SH treatment in the broiler. The best score in spent hen was 6.3 point which was SH after PEF treatment. With this experiment, SH after PEF was the condition in the treatments to have the better texture of spent hen.