Application of the membrane process to wastewater treatment and reuse has been increasing due to water shortage, water pollution and an increase in water demand. Membrane fouling including biofouling should be controlled to extend its application. In this study, modulation of diffusible signal factor (DSF) system, the quorum sensing (QS) system that regulates EPS formation by microorganisms, was considered as a promising option to manage biofouling. Among many DSF compounds, cis -2-Decenoic acids (CDA) was selected. The experimental results showed that, as the CDA concentration increased, the density and number of stained cells decreased. The lowest density was observed when the CDA concentration of 300 nM was applied. The EPS on membrane surface decreased with increasing concentration of CDA. The CDA dosing also affected the EPS composition. At the 300 nM CDA dose, the total EPS reduced by up to 57% and the protein fraction by 35%. This study revealed the biofilm reduction effect of CDA under various conditions for MBR sludge. The application of CDA can be adapted to control biofouling in the MBR process.
This study analyzed what premium features significantly affect customer satisfaction and their recommendation, and what factors significantly affect product attributes. In the process, first, the loyalty program and the customer compensation program were studied to determine the impact of the customer satisfaction and recommendation. The study analyzed that quality and design of product properties had significant effects on all factors, but the brand was not significantly affected. Second, while superiority, differentiation and scarcity of luxury items are significant to customer satisfaction but superiority is only significant in relation to recommendation intention. Third, the preceding study shows that the customer compensation program has a significant impact on sales growth, but the study found that it was not for imported luxury car customers. Fourth, if the royalties program is low in awareness, it has been analyzed that the scarcity and customer satisfaction relationships among luxury goods have been adjusted. On the contrary, if there is a high level of awareness, it is analyzed that there is a control effect customer satisfaction and differentiation among luxury brands. In the conclusion, in order to satisfy customers at the import luxury car market, the differentiation of luxury goods by standard index must be strengthened and the brand must be strengthened among the attributes of the product. In addition, by raising awareness of the royalties program, the relationship between differentiation and customer satisfaction can be enhanced.
Edible insects have gained recognition worldwide as complementary protein sources. Recently, four edible insects were newly allowed to be used as food materials in Korea: the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), the cricket (Velarifictorus asperses), the white-spotted flower chaffer beetle larva (Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis), and the rhinoceros beetle larva (Allomyrina dichotoma). In this study, we evaluated the oxidative stabilities of these four edible insects during cold storage. The insects were sacrificed by blanching for 3 minutes in boiling water. The blanched insects were then stored at 4℃ in an incubator for 42 days. The color values, titratable acidity, peroxide values, acid values, TBARS, contents of VBN, and total plate counts of the insects were measured at days 0, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, respectively. Blanching decreases oxidative stresses during storage. At day 0, the white-spotted flower chaffer beetle larva showed the highest values for acid value, TBARS, VBN, and microbial counts. Most of the oxidative indicators were significantly changed at day 14 in all four insects, possibly related with the growth on all microbial plates. Based on microbial safety and the oxidative stabilities of lipids and proteins, optimal storage conditions for the cricket, the white-spotted flower chaffer beetle larva, and the rhinoceros beetle larva were 10~14 days at 4℃. Likewise, the mealworm showed rapid oxidation after day 14, but poor qualities were not observed until day 28.
Ginsenosides are major constituents of ginseng and are known to be responsible for its pharmacological properties. This study aimed to investigate the detoxification effect of a mixture containing black red ginseng powder, red ginseng extract, Puerariae radix extract, and Hovenia dulcis extract, on SD (Sprague Dawley) rats treated with 30% ethanol. Thirty minutes before treatment, the animals were orally administered different concentrations of the mixture or water. Results revealed that the concentration of ethanol in blood serum was significantly decreased in the black red ginseng mixture treated group in a dose-dependent manner, as compared with that of the control group. The blood level of acetaldehyde increased until 1 hr after alcohol administration, but the levels rapidly decreased later. Furthermore, ADH and ALDH activities in the hepatic tissue were also increased in the black red ginseng mixture administered group, than in the control group. These results indicate that the black red ginseng mixture has the ability of decomposing alcohol by increasing the ADH and ALDH activities responsible for alcohol metabolism.
In this study, the effectiveness of electrodialysis in removing inorganic arsenic from groundwater was investigated. To evaluate the feasibility of the electrodialysis, operating parameters such as treatment time, feed concentration, applied voltage and superficial velocity were experimentally investigated on arsenic removal. The higher conductivity removal and arsenic removal efficiency were obtained by increasing applied voltages and operation time. An increase of salinity concentrations in arsenic polluted groundwater exerted no effects on the arsenic separation ratios. Arsenic polluted waters were successfully treated with stack voltages of 1.8 ~ 2.4 V/cell-pair to approximately 93.4% of arsenic removal. Increase flow rate in diluate cell gave positive effect to removal rate. However, increase of superficial velocity in the concentrated cell exerted no effects on either the conductivity reduction or on the separation efficiency. Hopefully, this paper will provide direction in selecting appropriate operating conditions of electrodialysis for arsenic removal.
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Acer tegmentosum Maxim. extract (ATE) on non-alcoholic fatty liver in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. During oral administration of ATE, non-alcoholic fatty liver was induced by treatment with DL-ethionine. The lipid, total cholesterol (T-CHO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissue of ATE-fed rats showed lower levels, as compared to ATE-unfed rats. In ATE-fed rats, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were lower than the case of ATE-unfed rats. Oil red staining of the liver showed that the lipid deposits were decreased by feeding ATE. These results strongly indicated that ATE has positive effects of protection against non-alcoholic fatty liver formation.
Photoaging is the main extrinsic aging factor that is induced due to UVB. Many studies have revealed that application of hyaluronic acid to the skin is effective in healing photoaging. However, the effect of hyaluronic acid through oral administration is unclear. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect on skin photoaging after oral administration of hyaluronic acid. During a ten week study, hyaluronic acid was fed to hairless mice, which were illuminated by UV radiation. After ten weeks, wrinkle indicator and histological changes were determined. Compared with the control group, the sample group had a decrease in wrinkle depth, thickness, and number. Especially, the HA 160 mg/kg group had a similar value of wrinkle depth (19.44±0.75 μm), number (654.00±98.34), and thickness (1.35±0.08 mm), when compared with the RA (retinoic acid) group (19.28±0.95 μm, 653.57±83.54, and 1.34±0.07 mm respectively). Also, the treated group showed improved elastosis and decreased collagen degradation resulting from UV irradiation. Thus, we can conclude that hyaluronic acid has a positive effect in improving skin photoaging induced by UV radiation. Hyaluronic acid therefore has the potential to be an ingredient in skin health function foods.
The pre-treatment conditions of butterbur stem such as blanching, freezing, and thawing were studied to optimize it for producing frozen butterbur stem to improve its storage ability. Butterbur stems were hot water blanched at 100oC for 3, 5, or 7 min respectively and then soaked in cold water. After peeling out and cutting into blocks (4.5×1.0×0.5 cm), butterbur stems were air-dried for 5, 10, or 15 min respectively. Dried samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. With blanching, the hardness value increased from 2.91 kg to 3.64 kg (p>0.05); however, adhesiveness decreased drastically after 5 min of blanching (p<0.05), which changed to a crisp texture. In addition, considering other physicochemical properties, it was assumed that 5-min blanching was optimal pre-treatment to maintain the original quality of butterbur stem for freezing. Five-minute blanched butterbur stems were airdried 5 min, frozen and thawed with several methods, and analyzed for their properties. Considering the thawing loss, hardness, and color change, the fastest freezing and thawing method had the lowest changes on the quality of frozen butterbur stem. Therefore, to produce frozen butterbur stem, it was assumed that immersion freezing and running water or room temperature thawing (25oC) were the best process.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Perilla frutescens powder on physiological and sensory characteristics in macaronè. The perilla powders were added to macaronè at a weight percentage of 0, 2.5 and 4%. Color values (L-value, redness and yellowness index), total phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging activity, textures, total sugar contents and sensory characteristics of macaronè made with varying levels of perilla powder were measured. In sensory evaluation, significant differences (p<0.05 and p<0.01) were shown in color, sweetness, nuttyflavor, texture and overall acceptability depending on the addition level of perilla powders.
국내산 녹두전분과 도토리전분을 이용하여 초산 녹두 및 초산 도토리전분을 제조하고, 이화학적 특성 및 겔의 조직감을 비교하였다. 무수 초산 6%를 반응시켜 제조한 초산 녹두와 초산 도토리전분의 %acetyl 함량은 1.88%과 1.53% 였고, 치환도는 0.07과 0.06이었다. 전분의 색도를 측정한 결과, L값과 a값은 증가하였고, b값은 감소하여 초산 처리가 전분의 색에도 영향을 주었음을 알 수 있었다. 또한 초 산전분은 전분 chain 내부에 초산기가 도입되어 원료 전분 에 비해 blue value, 팽윤력 및 용해도가 증가하는 것을 알 수 있었다. 신속호화점도계(RVA)를 이용하여 측정한 호화 특성은 녹두전분과 도토리전분의 호화온도가 각각 70.4oC, 75.7oC로 나타났고, 초산 녹두 및 초산 도토리전분은 각각64.4oC, 74.8oC로 나타나 초산 처리 시 호화온도가 감소하는 것을 알 수 있었으나, 도토리전분의 경우 초산 도토리 전분과의 유의적인 차이는 나타나지 않았다. 초산전분은 원료 전분과 최고점도, setback, breakdown에도 차이를 보였는데, 초산 녹두전분은 최고점도 164.9 RVU, setback 70.9 및 breakdown 53.4로 녹두전분의 최고점도 195.0 RVU, setback 110.6 및 breakdown 69.0에 비해 감소하였고, 초산 도토리전분은 최고점도 212.1 RVU, setback 128.7, 및 breakdown 50.3으로 도토리전분의 최고점도 198.3 RVU, setback 87.0 및 breakdown 38.2보다 증가하는 특성을 나타내었다. 초산전분으로 겔을 제조하여 조직감을 측정한 결과 초산 녹두전분은 겔을 형성하지 못하였고, 초산 도토리전분은 원료 전분 겔에 비해 경도와 탄성이 감소하였으며, 응집성, 검성, 씹힘성이 증가하여 겔이 무른 특성을 나타내었다.
압축을 받는 복합적층판의 보강을 위해 폐단면리브를 적용하는 것이 효과적이나, 적정 크기나 최적 두께에 대한 충분한 연구자료가 제시되지 못하고 있다. 이에 따라 폐단면리브 단면 제원에 따른 복합적층판의 압축좌굴 거동에 대한 영향이 우선 검토되어야 할 필요성이 있다. 본 논문에서는 직교이방성 [(0°)4]s와 Cross-ply [(0°/90°)2]s 적 층단면을 각각 고려하여 U리브 단면강성에 따른 복합적층 보강판의 탄성좌굴강도 및 좌굴모드의 변화를 수치해석 적으로 검토하였다. 구조부재로써 적용성을 고려하여 U리브 단면 모델을 선정하였고 유한요소해석 프로그램인 ABAQUS를 이용하여 U리브 적층두께에 따른 고유치 해석을 실시하였다. U리브와 같은 폐단면 보강재를 적용한 복 합적층판에서는 단순지지 조건의 판좌굴 강도에 비해 상승효과가 있음이 본 연구의 수치해석 결과로부터 입증되었 으며 본 해석연구 대상 모델에 대해 U리브 최적 적층두께를 분석하였다. 본 논문의 연구 결과는 향후 U리브의 최 적 단면 선정방안을 제시하는데 기여할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
The CdS thin film used as a window layer in the CdTe thin film solar cell transports photo-generated electrons to the front contact and forms a p-n junction with the CdTe layer. This is why the electrical, optical, and surface properties of the CdS thin film influence the efficiency of the CdTe thin film solar cell. When CdTe thin film solar cells are fabricated, a heat treatment is done to improve the qualities of the CdS thin films. Of the many types of heat treatments, the CdCl2 heat treatment is most widely used because the grain size in CdS thin films increases and interdiffusion between the CdS and the CdTe layer is prevented by the heat treatment. To investigate the changes in the electrical, optical, and surface properties and the crystallinity of the CdS thin films due to heat treatment, CdS thin films were deposited on FTO/glass substrates by the rf magnetron sputtering technique, and then a CdCl2 heat treatment was carried out. After the CdCl2 heat treatment, the clustershaped grains in the CdS thin film increased in size and their boundaries became faint. XRD results show that the crystallinity improved and the crystalline size increased from 15 to 42 nm. The resistivity of the CdS single layer decreased from 3.87 to 0.26 Ωcm, and the transmittance in the visible region increased from 64% to 74%.
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) used in the antireflection layer and current spreading layer of heterojunction solar cells should have excellent optical and electrical properties. Furthermore, TCOs need a high work function over 5.2 eV to prevent the effect of emitter band-bending caused by the difference in work function between emitter and TCOs. Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) film is a highly promising material as a TCO due to its excellent optical and electrical properties. However, ITO films have a low work function of about 4.8 eV. This low work function of ITO films leads to deterioration of the conversion efficiency of solar cells. In this work, ITO films with various Zn contents of 0, 6.9, 12.7, 28.8, and 36.6 at.% were fabricated by a co-sputtering method using ITO and AZO targets at room temperature. The optical and electrical properties of Zn-doped ITO thin films were analyzed. Then, silicon heterojunction solar cells with these films were fabricated. The 12.7 at% Zn-doped ITO films show the highest hall mobility of 35.71 cm2/Vsec. With increasing Zn content over 12.7, the hall mobility decreases. Although a small addition of Zn content increased the work function, further addition of Zn content over 12.7 at.% led to decreasing electrical properties because of the decrease in the carrier concentration and hall mobility. Silicon heterojunction solar cells with 12.7 at% Zn-doped ITO thin films showed the highest conversion efficiency of 15.8%.
Avian Influenza (AI) is an avian disease that break out by AI virus (AIV). As Hemagglutinin (HA) that is a main antigen surface protein of influenza virus that causes these influenza infection changes continuously, HA escapes bond of guided antibody by host"s immunity system. Specification region (HA91-261) of HA molecule that reconize receptor (sialic acid) of host cell is well-preserved without changing relatively, but is gotten buried on inside of trimer structure in natural conditions, is reported that development of effective vaccine or cure for HA protein is difficult because is not exposed to immunity system. Aptamer is relatively small strand DNA or RNA, and has high affinity to specific proteins. In this study, new aptamer DNAs were screened which can specifically bind to the receptor binding region of HA H9 protein.
최근 들어 환경, 자원 등과 관련하여 연안지역에서의 지구물리 탐사에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있다. 그러나 연안 지역은 수심이 얕기 때문에 탐사선을 이용한 해양 탄성파 탐사는 많은 제약이 있다. 이러한 탄성파 탐사의 제한조건을 극복하기 위하여 상대적으로 적은 비용의 전기 및 전자탐사 기법의 활용이 유망하지만, 전기탐사의 경우는 지하매질이 해수에 포화되어 높은 전기전도도를 갖기 때문에 고출력의 송신부가 필수적이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 일부 천해저 환경이 나타나는 갯벌 지역에서 자연적으로 발생하는 전자기장을 송신원으로 사용하는 자기지전류 탐사를 수행하여, 적용성 및 효용성을 평가 하였다. 서해안의 근흥만 지역에서 AMT와 탄성파 반사법 탐사를 함께 수행한 결과 근흥만 지역의 지층 구조는 갯벌을 이루는 미고화된 머드층, 홀로세 이전의 준고화된 퇴적층, 선캠프리아기의 운모편암과 규암으로 구성된 기반암으로 이루어진 것으로 해석된다. AMT 탐사와 탄성파 탐사 해석 결과 모두 홀로세 이전의 준고화된 퇴적층 상부의 깊이가 13∼20m 부근으로 나타나, AMT탐사 자료로부터 상층부 구조 해석은 타당한 것으로 보인다. 기반암의 경우 전반적인 구조는 유사한 형태를 나타내지만, AMT 탐사에서는 그 심도가 약 30∼50m, 탄성파에서는 27∼33m로 해석되어, AMT 탐사 기법의 분해능과 관련하여 기반암 심도는 다소 과대평가되는 경향성이 나타났다. 그러나, AMT탐사 기법의 상부층에 대한 분해능, 간편성, 안정성, 환경친화성 등을 고려할 때, 연안지역에서 탄성파 탐사나 전기비저항 탐사를 대신할 수 있는 것으로 평가 된다.입을 통하여 발현 관계를 명확히 확인해야 하는 추가실험이 진행되어야 할 것이다.하게 된다.토끼 면역항체를 선모충유충 조직항원에 반응시켰을 때 충체의 표피와 기저층 그리고 EIM 및 stichocyte의 α0 α1 과립에 황금입자가 표지되었다. 따라서 1일 동안 배설되는 분비배설항원은 선모충 유충의 표피와 stichocyte의 α0 α1 과립에서 유도되는 반면에 3일 동안 배설되는 분비배설항원은 표피와 stichocyte의 α0 과립에서 유도되고, 선모충유충 감염후 1주, 4주에 실험쥐에서 형성되는 감염항체는 선모충의 표피와 기저층 그리고 EIM에서 분비되는 항원에 의하여 생성된다. 이상의 결과로 선모충의 분비배설항원과 감염항원은 선모충 유충의 표피와 EIM및 stichocyte의 α0 α1 과립에서 유도되며 이들은 45 kDa 단백을 포함하고 있는 것으로 생각된다.성하고 있는 세포들에는 세포질이 어두운 세포와 밝은 세포가 있었으며, 세포질내에는 전자밀도가 높은 분비과립이 관찰되었다. 전체적인 특징은 눈물샘분비세포 중 장액세포의 것과 비슷하였으나, 과립의 크기는 작았다. 분비관을 구성하는 세포들 사이에도 연접복합체가 매우 잘 발달되어 있었다. 샘포에서 사이관으로 이행되는 곳에서도 샘포세포와 사이관세포 사이에서도 연접복합체가 관찰되었다. 분비관세포의 분비과립 가운데는 중심부분에 전자밀도가 더 높은 중심을 가진 다른 모양의 과립이 관찰되기도 하였다. 의해 사망한 환자는 없었다. 결 론: 자궁경부암 환자에 항암화학요법과
Quinclorac, bentazone, 2,4-D, bensulfuron-methyl, dymuron, capropamide, pencycuron 및 ethofenprox를 동시에 분석할 수 있는 전처리 방법과 0.1% 인산 및 아세토니트릴을 이동상으로하고 225 nm를 측정파장으로 사용한 RP-HPLC(reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography)법을 개발하였다. 동 농약성분들의 검출 및 정량한계는 각각 0.12〜0.84 ppm 및 0.34〜1.20 ppm이었고, 회수율은 78〜96%이었다. 본 방법을 통하여 시료 전처리에서 분석까지 기존 13시간이 소요된 총 분석시간을 3시간 이내로 줄일 수 있었다.