Photoaging is the main extrinsic aging factor that is induced due to UVB. Many studies have revealed that application of hyaluronic acid to the skin is effective in healing photoaging. However, the effect of hyaluronic acid through oral administration is unclear. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect on skin photoaging after oral administration of hyaluronic acid. During a ten week study, hyaluronic acid was fed to hairless mice, which were illuminated by UV radiation. After ten weeks, wrinkle indicator and histological changes were determined. Compared with the control group, the sample group had a decrease in wrinkle depth, thickness, and number. Especially, the HA 160 mg/kg group had a similar value of wrinkle depth (19.44±0.75 μm), number (654.00±98.34), and thickness (1.35±0.08 mm), when compared with the RA (retinoic acid) group (19.28±0.95 μm, 653.57±83.54, and 1.34±0.07 mm respectively). Also, the treated group showed improved elastosis and decreased collagen degradation resulting from UV irradiation. Thus, we can conclude that hyaluronic acid has a positive effect in improving skin photoaging induced by UV radiation. Hyaluronic acid therefore has the potential to be an ingredient in skin health function foods.
The quality characteristics, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of rice nutritional bar with added powder of aronia byproducts were investigated in this study. The rice nutritional bar was prepared by adding aronia byproducts powder at concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%. The pH of the rice nutritional bar batter was lowered for the control and 2% aronia byproducts powder was added. The moisture content, baking loss rate, leavening rate and specific volume of the rice nutritional bar decreased with as the aronia byproducts powder content increased. In relation to measurements of the colors of the rice nutritional bar crust and crumbs, as the content of aronia byproducts powder increased, the L and b values decreased while the a value increased. From texture analysis, the hardness and chewiness increased according to the level of added aronia byproducts powder, but the springiness and cohesiveness decreased. The total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and DPPH radical scavenging activity showed the highest values in the rice bar with 6% aronia byproducts powder added. According to a sensory evaluation, overall preference was highest for the rice bar with 4% added aronia byproducts powder, whereas the color and taste was rated higher for the rice bar added with 4% and 6% aronia byproducts powder.
Probiotics is known improve the microenvironment of colon; however, the metagenomic DNA study of its lactic acid bacteria in constipation induced by loperamide is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the reduction of the lactic acid bacteria in case of constipation, in normal and loperamide-induced rat. Lactic acid powder (lactic acid bacteria 19) was prepared from Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Corporation. After 2 weeks of oral administration, the group treated with the higher concentration of lactic acid bacteria (109 CFU/mL per kg of body weight) following loperamide treatment was the most effective in increasing number, weight, and water content of feces. A similar but significant increase was found in the group treated with lower concentration of lactic acid bacteria (107 CFU/mL per kg of body weight) after loperamide treatment. The concentrations of acetic acid and propionic acid in feces in the loperamide-induced rat with high concentration lactic acid, were significantly higher than that of others. Furthermore, gastrointestinal transit ratio as well as the length and area of intestinal mucosa were significantly increased after treatment with lactic acid bacteria in loperamideinduced rat. Metagenomics DNA analysis indicated that the microorganism homology in cecum was similar between the groups of normal (NOR) and HIG. Our results show that lactic acid bacteria were effective in improving the constipation.
This study was conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Cheonggukjang extract in in-vitro and in-vivo models. T98G-human glioblastoma cells were pretreated with various concentrations (1~10 mg/mL) of Cheonggukjang extract for 24 h and then exposed to H2O2 (1 mM) for 3 h. The neuroprotective effects of Cheonggukjang extract were measured using a CCK-8 kit assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The early stage focal ischemia rodent model was used as the in-vivo neurotoxicity model. Various concentrations (10~200 mg) of Cheonggukjang extract were administered to the animal models for 1 week. Peripheral blood was analyzed for glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression by ELISA, and infarct volume reduction was analyzed by TTC staining. Cheonggukjang extract significantly (p<0.05) increased cell viability in T98G cells against H2O2 as well as against the induced neurotoxicity. Indeed, treatment with the Cheonggukjang extract induced a decrease in ROS and LDH expression and increased TAC significantly (p<0.05). However, Cheonggukjang extract did not induce a decrease in infarct volume or an increase in GPx expression in the in-vivo model. Despite the limitation in neuroprotection, Cheonggukjang extract may be useful for treating ROS injury.
This study was conducted to investigate the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school children belong to multi-cultural families and ordinary families. The data were obtained by interview based on questionnaire from November to December in 2012. The subjects of multi-cultural families and ordinary families were 99 and 376 children, respectively. In comparison with eating habits, the ordinary children showed higher scoring in the items of eating proteins, green and yellow vegetables, and fruits or fruit juice than those of multi-cultural children. The ordinary children ate less midnight-meals than those of multi-cultural children (p<0.05). Furthermore, the ordinary children ate kimchi more frequently than the multi-cultural children. It was significantly different (p<0.05) on the items of ‘eating-out types’ dietary habits between two groups. Education of mothers correlated with the ordinary children’s eating habits more than multi-cultural families. In the investigation of the food preference to Korean foods, ‘beef and radish soup’, ‘pumpkin porridge’, and ‘wheat flakes noodles’ were more preferred by children of ordinary families than by those of multi-cultural families (p<0.05). To conclude, nutritional education for their parents should be done and maintained to keep a right eating habit of children of multi-cultural families even at home.
Menopausal status and hormonal changes are important factors related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women. Nutrient intake is also a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Although, postmenopausal status and hormonal changes result in a 60% increased risk for metabolic syndrome, there has been no method to elucidate the effects of nutrient intake on metabolic syndrome following menopause. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nutrient intake by menopausal women on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. All data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Menopausal women showed a 1.8-fold increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome group showed significantly lower values in calcium, iron, vitamin A, carotin, retinol and riboflavin intake than those of normal group in premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, there are significant differences in crude fiber, calcium, iron, potassium, riboflavin and niacin. Indeed, different patterns of nutrient intake were observed by menopausal status and metabolic syndrome. As menopause cannot be controlled, a diet with adequate nutrient intake may be useful to control the rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome due to menopause.
This study was to investigate the association among satisfaction of nutrition labeling, change of purchase behaviors, and dietary life care, based on the awareness of nutrition labeling at expressway rest areas. The subjects (n=903) were divided into two groups, according to the awareness of nutrition labeling: Awareness of Nutrition Labeling (ANL) group, n=367; Non Awareness of Nutrition Labeling (NANL) group, n=536. Effort of health care and identification of nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. As for the main reason for not identifying nutrition labeling, ‘not interested in nutrition labeling’ was the highest in the ANL group, and ‘Don't know nutrition labeling is provided’ in the NANL group. Identification ratio of nutrition labeling in future was significantly higher in the NANL group, compared with the ANL group among the subjects who didn't identify nutrition labeling before. After their becoming aware, a change of food purchase after reading the nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. Health beliefs on the nutrition labeling were significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. Satisfaction of nutrition labeling was also significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. The ANL group also expressed a necessity of expansion of nutrition labeling, compared with the NANL group. In the ANL group, identification of nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the hard effort group, compared with the little effort group of dietary life care. Therefore, improvement and campaign of nutrition labeling for consumers at expressway rest areas, especially for the NANL group, will be effective in identifying nutrition labeling for their health care.
This study was conducted to investigate the changes in the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of cheonggukjang with the addition of walnuts. The pH of cheonggukjang did not change significantly with the addition of walnut. But the water content decreased significantly. Walnut addition to the soybean was expected to have a positive effect because the number of Bacillus subtilis was not reduced. The viscous substance content was significantly decreased when more than 20% of walnut was added to cheonggukjang. The addition of walnut made the color darker. The flavonoid and polyphenol content was sharply increased in proportion to the walnut addition and the DPPH radical scavenging activity of cheonggukjang also increased. Altogether, it was found that the addition of walnut had a positive influence on the cheonggukjang by increasing the antioxidant activity.
The effects of mixing speed (3, 6 and 10 speed) and time (2, 5 and 10 min) on the dynamic viscoelasticity of dough and the baking properties of gluten-free rice bread were investigated. The specific gravity of the dough was not affected by the mixing speed and time before and after fermentation. The elasticity (G') and viscosity (G") of the dough increased and the tan δ (G"/G') decreased with higher mixing speeds and longer mixing times. The specific volume of the gluten-free rice bread was affected by the mixing time in response surface methodology (RSM). The hardness of the gluten-free rice bread showed a decreasing trend as the specific volume for the gluten-free rice bread increased. The appearance of the gluten-free rice bread was symmetrical at high mixing speeds and long mixing times. Overall results indicated that the quality of gluten-free rice bread could be improved by controlling the mixing speeds and mixing times for the dough.
The influence of aging on the flavor precursors and volatile compounds of top round beef was studied. The concentrations of free amino acids, nucleotides, creatine, dipeptides, and volatile compounds were measured after top round from Hanwoo was aged at 4℃ for 21 days. The amount of free amino acids in top round significantly increased with the increase of aging period. There was no effect of aging on the concentrations of adenosine monophosphate or inosine in top round. The inosine monophosphate content of top round significantly decreased with age, while the hypoxanthine content increased. The concentrations of creatine, carnosine, and anserine in top round were not influenced by aging. In total, 24 volatile compound were identified in aged, cooked top round. Of these, the quantities of aldehydes (propanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal), hydrocarbons (pentane and octane), 2-butanone, ethyl acetate, and pyridines (4-ethynyl-pyridine and 4-acetyl-pyridine) significantly increased after aging. We conclude that the flavor of top round can be improved by aging.
This study attempted to find an efficient method for the preparation of high-purity galactooligosaccharides (HP-GOS) using β-galactosidase and yeast fermentation. GOS prepared using Lactozym 3000L showed the greatest enhancement in total GOS of the six β-galatosidases tested. GOS alone achieved 51% conversion of initial lactose. GOS production was enhanced by fermentation with commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); its concentration reached 71% after 36h fermentation with 8% yeast. Component sugar analysis with HPLC indicated that HP-GOS fermented with S. cerevisiae showed significantly increased levels of 4’/6’-galactosyllactose and total GOS as well as a significantly decreased glucose level. HP-GOS facilitated the growth of Lactobacillus sp. (L. acidophilus and L. casei) and Bifidobacterium sp. (B. longum and B. bifidum). In sum, high-purity GOS has been successfully produced through both an enzymatic process and yeast fermentation. GOS encourages the growth of bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that may be beneficial to human gastrointestinal health.
During the Joseon period, kimchi was mostly made by heating the ingredients. Since salt was pricey at the time, in order to save salt and time, people used a method that involved destroying the cell wall by heating the vegetables. However, this method is no longer passed down. Thus, in this paper, we re-discovered how kimchi was made through heating while analyzing the recipes for kimchi during the Joseon period. There were 27 kinds of kimchi made through blanching. To keep the vegetables from becoming soggy, 2 kinds of kimchi were made by putting the ingredients in potassium aluminum sulfate water and 3 kinds were made through blanching the ingredients in limewater. There were 7 kinds of kimchi made by heating in vinegar, 5 kinds by boiling the ingredients, 6 kinds by stir-frying the ingredients, 2 kinds by stir-frying the ingredients with salt, and 3 kinds by steaming the ingredients. In order to eradicate unwanted germs, leaving only Lactobacillus, 25 kinds of kimchi were made by draining the boiled mixture. A total of 17 kinds of kimchi were made by heating the kimchi pot with compost including that of horses. For elders with weak teeth and poor digestion, 7 kinds of kimchi were made after heating, including 3 kinds of sukkkakdugi (cubed radish kimchi made with boiled radish). 3 kinds of chaekimchi (julienned kimchi) and 3 kinds of chaekkakdugi (kimchi with julienned radish) for elders existed as well.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the eating habits and nutritional knowledge of elementary school students in regards to seafood in school meals. More than 80.6% of elementary school students reported an ‘average’ preference for seafood. While ‘taste’ and ‘healthy food’ were common reasons to prefer marine products, ‘unpleasant taste and smell’ was a common reason not to prefer seafood. Students in general stated ‘eating if possible’ as their attitude towards seafood in school meals, 38.1% responded ‘eating all’ as their intake level. There was a significant difference between preference for seafood by gender [boys, 3.44; girls, 3.64 (P<0.01)]. Also, students significantly difference preferred some types of seafood over others. The students who enjoyed eating seafood had more regular and balanced diets and a better attitude toward dietary life and health than did the counterparts who did not prefer seafood. A significant difference (P<0.05) in knowledge existed according to gender; girls had a higher level of knowledge than did boys.
This study was designed to provide the basic data of an effective nutrition education for desirable lifestyle and dietary habits to improve the nutritional status for the elderly by investigating health-related lifestyle, dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and food intake of the elderly. The subjects included 58 elderly men and 146 elderly women. 35.8% had no more than an elementary school education. Most subjects (54.4%) were widows/widowers. Most subjects (71.0%) made over 150,000 won. 52.5% of subjects lived in houses. Smoking, drinking, exercise, the average sleeping time were significantly difference between the gender (p<0.05). In terms of dietary habits, our results showed that 80.9% of respondent eat regularly meals, including breakfast (83.5%). Both sexes prefer soft and salty food. Women enjoys more spicy and salty food compared with men and then shows meaningful difference (p<0.05). Their favorite meals are soup, stew, salad and boiled vegetables. Compared to women, men have a higher rate of correct answers about questions related to nutrition knowledge as showing significantly difference (p<0.05). In a study of dietary habits, they take in carbohydrates with the highest percentage and following by vegetables and fruits. The amount of meat, first and egg they eat is more than the previously. Eating meat is higher men as showing significant difference (p<0.05). In summary, nutritional status for the elderly shows healthy lifestyle and diet about half of those and most them try to live healthy life in future. It is hope that the elderly may need to learn proper nutrition knowledge for healthy lifestyle and nutrition education and counseling for building up healthy lifestyle and desirable dietary habits. Furthermore, it is necessary to start work to establish a baseline nutritious evaluation for the elderly and at a time to study the development of standard eating tool proven reliability and validity, consequently to provide a basic framework for the evaluation of nutritional status.
A high-yield Korean rice cultivar cv. Boramchan and Hanmaeum, and rice cultivar for use in staple cv. Hopum were prepared and investigated for their physiological characteristics. Water content, water holding capacity, amylose content, damaged starch content, particle size, and pasting properties of the rice flours were measured. Moisture content of the Boramchan and Hanmaeum, made under wet and dry milling conditions, were as follows: wet conditions (14.79% and 13.56% respectively) and dry conditions (7.98% and 7.14% respectively). Water holding capacity of the Boramchan and Hanmaeum made by wet milling condition was 236.67% and 231.35%, respectively. Water holding capacity of the samples made by dry milling condition showed a higher score compared with other samples. The amylose content of Hopum, Boramchan, and Hanmaeum made by dry milling condition were 19.12%, 19.55% and 19.59%, respectively. Damaged starch contents of the samples made by wet milling showed a lower score. Final viscosity of Hopum, Boramchan, and Hanmaeum made by wet milling condition was 2,604, 3,052, and 2,917 cp, respectively. In this study, the results indicated that the super-yield Korean rice flour made by wet milling condition tends to show a lower water holding capacity, damaged starch contents and particle size, as compared to controls. However, a setback of the super-yield Korean rice flour was a higher score as compared to the controls, regardless of the milling conditions.
Environment-friendly agricultural products are consumed widely, but little is known about consumers’ acceptability. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine consumers’ acceptability of cucumber when consumed raw, 2) determine differences in appearance liking between environment-friendly and conventionally grown cucumber samples, and 3) analyze the physicochemical properties of cucumber. White dadagi, gasi, non-pesticide mini cucumber, organic gasi, and organic Joseon cucumber samples were evaluated for consumers’ acceptability using a nine-point hedonic scale; White dadagi, organic Joseon, and organic gasi cucumber samples showed the highest acceptability scores. However, there were three consumer segmentations differing their degree of cucumber liking and preference. Consumers liked the appearance of organic gasi best. Consumers’ preference of cucumbers did not change upon evaluation of the acceptability of the appearance of whole fruit with and without a label indicating an environment-friendly status. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the cucumbers—including color (skin and flesh), length, circumference, weight, water activity, brix, and texture (hardness and fracturability)—were measured. All measurements showed significant differences among samples, with the exception of water activity and hardness. White dadagi was 3.8 brix, which was the highest among cucumbers, followed by non-pesticide mini cucumber and organic Joseon. White dadagi, organic Joseon, and organic gasi showed greater fracturability than the other cucumber samples.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food neophobia on restaurant image, customer satisfaction, and loyalty in ethnic restaurants. A self-administered survey for data collection 581 customers who visited an ethnic restaurant in August, 2015. Statistical analyses included descriptive analysis, t-test, ANOVA and regression analysis for SPSS 21.0. The finding of the study indicated that the differences of food neophobia score in demographic characteristics showed significant differences by age, occupation, dining-out frequency, and source of dining-out information, not by gender. The mean value of food neophilic group was significantly higher than food neophobic group in all items of restaurant image, overall satisfaction and customer loyalty. The regression analysis showed that tangible aspect, price aspect, and food aspect of restaurant image had positive effects on overall satisfaction and customer loyalty however employee service showed different result by groups. The finding of the study offer marketing strategies for ethnic restaurants to induce customer revisit.
Traditionally, mistletoe is known as an effective anti-cancer medicinal plant, and lectin is recognized as a major component with cytotoxic and immuno-stimulant activity in mistletoe. A Korean mistletoe lectin (KML) has specificity to galactose and galactosamine and is distinguish from European mistletoe lectin (EML). When we examined the concentration of lectin in mistletoe originated from five different types of host trees, the result indicate that the lectin concentration is variable depending on the host tree. Noticeably, mistletoe from chestnut tree contains ten folds higher lectins than that of an oak tree. We also tested the concentration of KML and crude extract (KM-110) of Korean mistletoe that shows 90% cytotoxicity in L5178Y-ML25 lymphoma cell. In addition, the cells show 90% and 70% viability by the treatment of two neutralizing antibodies of KML, 9H7-D10 and 8B11-2C5 neutralization effect with two monoclonal antibodies of KML, 9H7-D10 and 8B11-2C5. Therefore, the result expected that the mistletoe contain some other cytotoxic components except lectin. Finally, the production of TNF-α and IL-6 by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lectin free-crude extract (LFKM-110) following neutralization by 9H7-D10 monoclonal antibody shows higher than that of lectin containing-crude extract (KM-110). These results suggest that the Korean mistletoe lectin ha a great potential to be developed as therapeutic agent of cancer.
This study aimed to investigate antioxidant activities from 11 forest plants, and determine their total phenolics, flavonoids and proantocyanidins contents. In addition, the antioxidant activities were correlated with antioxidant compounds. Among the samples, Cornus officinalis, Castanea crenata, Lindera erythrocarpa, Carpinus laxiflora and Pourthiaea villosa showed significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50=21.12~28.93 μg/mL) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothia zoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) (IC50=28.18~52.55 μg/mL) radical scavenging ability with reducing power (IC50=59.91~93.64 μg/mL) than other plants; and C. crenata, L. erythrocarpa and Rubus coreanus showed strong nitric oxide (NO) inhibition activity (≥60%). In addition, L. erythrocarpa, C. laxiflora and P. villosa showed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values (≥1,100 μM TE/g sample) than other samples. High total phenolic contents were observed in C. crenata (429.11 mg GAE/g), L. erythrocarpa (437.11 mg GAE/g), C. laxiflora (408.67 mg GAE/g) and P. villosa (404.11 mg GAE/g). The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity with reducing power were significantly correlated with total phenolic contents (R2=0.71~0.79), but total phenolic contents were not correlated with NO inhibition and ORAC (R2=0.35~0.43). Therefore, these results suggested that C. officinalis, C. crenata, L. erythrocarpa, C. laxiflora and P. villosa are potential natural antioxidative candidate ingredients.