High-temperature oxidation of a Ni-based superalloy was analyzed with samples taken from gas turbine blades, where the samples were heat-treated and thermally exposed. The effect of Cr/Ti/Al elements in the alloy on high temperature oxidation was investigated using an optical microscope, SEM/EDS, and TEM. A high-Cr/high-Ti oxide layer was formed on the blade surface under the heat-treated state considered to be the initial stage of high-temperature oxidation. In addition, a PFZ (γ’ precipitate free zone) accompanied by Cr carbide of Cr23C6 and high Cr-Co phase as a kind of TCP precipitation was formed under the surface layer. Pits of several μm depth containing high-Al content oxide was observed at the boundary between the oxide layer and PFZ. However, high temperature oxidation formed on the thermally exposed blade surface consisted of the following steps: ① Ti-oxide formation in the center of the oxide layer, ② Cr-oxide formation surrounding the inner oxide layer, and ③ Al-oxide formation in the pits directly under the Cr oxide layer. It is estimated that the Cr content of Ni-based superalloys improves the oxidation resistance of the alloy by forming dense oxide layer, but produced the σ or μ phase of TCP precipitation with the high-Cr component resulting in material brittleness.
In this study, defects generated in the YSZ coating layer of the IN738LC turbine blade are investigated using an optical microscope and SEM/EDS. The blade YSZ coating layer is composed of a Y-Zr component top coat layer and a Co component bond coat layer. A large amount of Cr/Ni component that diffused from the base is also measured in the bond coat. The blade hot corrosion is concentrated on the surface of the concave part, accompanied by separation of the coating layer due to the concentration of combustion gas collisions here. In the top coating layer of the blade, cracks occur in the vertical and horizontal directions, along with pits in the top coating layer. Combustion gas components such as Na and S are contained inside the pits and cracks, so it is considered that the pits/cracks are caused by the corrosion of the combustion gases. Also, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer of several μm thick composed of Al oxide is observed between the top coat and the bond coat, and a similar inner TGO with a thickness of several μm is also observed between the bond coat and the matrix. A PFZ (precipitate free zone) deficient in γ' (Ni3Al) forms as a band around the TGO, in which the Al component is integrated. Although TGO can resist high temperature corrosion of the top coat, it should also be considered that if its shape is irregular and contains pore defects, it may degrade the blade high temperature creep properties. Compositional and microstructural analysis results for hightemperature corrosion and TGO defects in the blade coating layer used at high temperatures are expected to be applied to sound YSZ coating and blade design technology.
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) occurring in underground buried pipes of API 5L X65 steel was investigated. MIC is a corrosion phenomenon caused by microorganisms in soil; it affects steel materials in wet atmosphere. The microstructure and mechanical properties resulting from MIC were analyzed by OM, SEM/EDS, and mapping. Corrosion of pipe cross section was composed of ① surface film, ② iron oxide, and ③ surface/internal microbial corrosive by-product similar to surface corrosion pattern. The surface film is an area where concentrations of C/O components are on average 65 %/ 16 %; the main components of Fe Oxide were measured and found to be 48Fe-42O. The MIC area is divided into surface and inner areas, where high concentrations of N of 6 %/5 % are detected, respectively, in addition to the C/O component. The high concentration of C/O components observed on pipe surfaces and cross sections is considered to be MIC due to the various bacteria present. It is assumed that this is related to the heat-shrinkable sheet, which is a corrosion-resistant coating layer that becomes the MIC by-product component. The MIC generated on the pipe surface and cross section is inferred to have a high concentration of N components. High concentrations of N components occur frequently on surface and inner regions; these regions were investigated and Na/Mg/Ca basic substances were found to have accumulated as well. Therefore, it is presumed that the corrosion of buried pipes is due to the MIC of the NRB (nitrate reducing bacteria) reaction in the soil.
The effect of solidification rate on micro-segregation in investment casting of IN738LC superalloy was studied. In Ni-based superalloys, the micro-segregation of solute atoms is formed due to limited diffusion during cast and solidification. The microstructure of cast Ni-based superalloys is largely divided into dendrite core of initial solidification and interdendrite of final solidification. In particular, mosaic shaped eutectic γ/γ’ and carbides are formed in the interdendrite of the final solidification region in some cases. The micro-segregation phenomena formed in regions of dendrite core and interdendrite including eutectic γ/γ’ and carbides were analyzed using OM, SEM/EDS and micro Vickers hardness. As a result of analysis, the lack of (Cr, W) and the accumulation of Ti were measured in the eutectic γ/γ’, and the accumulation of (Cr, Mo) and the lack of Ti were measured in the interdendrite between dendrite and eutectic. Carbides formed in interdendritic region were composed of (Ti, W, Mo, C). The segregation applied to each microstructure is mainly due to the formation of γ’ with Ni3(Al,Ti) composition. The Ni accumulation accompanied by Cr depletion, and the Ti accumulated in the eutectic region as a γ’ forming elements. The Mo tends to diffuse out from the dendrite core to the interdendrite, and the W diffuse out from the interdendrite to the dendrite core. Therefore, the accumulation of Mo in the interdendrite and the deficiency of W occur in the eutectic region located in the interdendrite. Heat treatment makes the degree of the micro-segregation decrease due to the diffusion during solid solution. This study could be applied to the heat treatment technology for the micro-segregation control in cast Ni-based superalloys.
This study was conducted to evaluate the functionality of fermented black garlic extracts under various conditions. Black garlic powder was prepared by aging for 0~72 hours at 80℃ depending on relative humidity (RH). It showed the highest antioxidant effects among the samples; the total antioxidant activity of black garlic powders at RH 75%, 84%, and 90% for 72 hours was increased 31.9 times, 28.2 times, and 22.6 times compared with that of the fresh garlic powder, respectively. Also, the alliin content was gradually decreased. S-ally-L-cysteine and S-ethyl-cysteine levels were increased; the highest values were 495.9 μg/g and 1,769.7 μg/g after aging for 72 hours at RH 75%. Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were increased following high fat diet feeding, but the rise was obviously reduced by administration of black garlic extract. The total cholesterol, LDL/VLDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride contents in serum were significantly lower in methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet treatment groups than in the positive control group. The concentration was increased following the intake of black garlic and fermented black garlic extracts. Therefore, black garlic extracts could be an ideal material as a dietary supplement in healthy functional foods to improve the effects on fatty liver.
알츠하이머병의 발병원인과 기전에 대하여 많은 연구가 진행되었으나, 아직까지 완전히 밝혀지지 않고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 STZ로 유도된 세포독성으로부터 노인성 질병의 예방과 항산화 효과로 잘 알려진 비타민 C를 이용하여 SH-SY5Y 신경세포 내 보호 기전을 살펴보고자 하였다.
본 연구 결과에 의하면, STZ를 SH-SY5Y 신경세포에 처리하였을 때, 세포사멸이 유도되는 것을 확인하였으며, 비타민C를 전처리함으로써 세포생존도가 증가하는 것을 확인하였다. 비타민 C가 신경세포를 보호하는 기전을 알아보기 위하여 세포자멸사 과정에서 신호전달을 통해 다양한 유전자를 발현시키는 MAPKs의 인산화를 살펴보았다. 비타민 C 처리시 ERK의 인산화가 증가하며, 세포증식을 유도하는 것으로 확인하였으며, ERK와는 반대로 염증, 세포사멸과 관련된 JNK의 인산화는 비타민 C에 의해 인산화가 억제되는 것으로 확인되었다. 또한 STZ는 Bax 단백질의 발현 증가와 Bcl-2 단백질의 발현을 감소시켰으며, apoptosis antibody array로 확인한 결과, Cytochrome C가 유도됨을 확인하였다. 이뿐만 아니라, 비타민 C 처리에 의해 Bcl-2가 증가하여 세포사멸이 억제되는 것을 확인하였으며, 항산화 효소인 Sod-1의 발현을 증가하는 것 또한 확인하였다. 이는 비타민 C가 항산화 방어체계를 강화시켜 STZ에 의한 세포손상을 보호하는 것으로 사료된다.
본 연구를 통하여 STZ로 유도된 SH-SY5Y 신경세포 손상 에서 비타민 C가 여러 기전을 통하여 세포자멸사를 억제하여 세포를 보호하는 효과가 있는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 그러나 연구는 일부 기전들만을 확인한 것으로 추후 연구에서는 다양한 비타민 C의 농도 및 처리시간에 따른 기전의 차이를 분석하고, 실험동물을 통한 검증 및 스트렙토조토신에 의한 아밀로이드베타와 타우의 관련성을 확인하고자 한다.
Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to examine the relevance between nutrition intake, meal quality, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Koreans with metabolic syndrome. The 2,536 subjects, aged 19~64, who participated in 2015 National Nutrition Survey were included in this study. The 24-hour recall method was employed to analyze nutrition intake and dietary quality. Subjects were grouped into either the non-metabolic syndrome group (n=1,938) or the metabolic syndrome group (n=598). Total males and females were divided into 3 groups according to the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level to study its relationship to metabolic syndrome and its components, including odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI). Results showed the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value was higher in the metabolic syndrome group (3.37) than non-metabolic syndrome group (1.57) (p<0.001). In the Index of Nutrition Quality, males in the non-metabolic syndrome group showed higher niacin (p<0.05) than males in metabolic syndrome group. Females in the non-metabolic syndrome group had higher vitamin B1 (p<0.01), vitamin B2 (p<0.001), niacin (p<0.05), calcium (p<0.001), and phosphate (p<0.01). Female in the high hs-CRP group showed high OR in blood glucose component (OR 2.488, 95% CI: 1.269~4.879) and metabolic syndrome risk (OR 2.856, 95% CI: 1.292~6.314). Females in the middle hs-CRP group had high triglycerides component (OR 2.956, 95% CI: 1.920~4.551), compared to the low hs-CRP group. The study showed females with higher hs-CRP had a higher risk of metabolic syndrome.
The purpose of this study was to establish valerenic acid as a marker compound for the standardization of ethanol extract of Valerinan officinalis (valerian) root as a functional health food. We established valerenic acid as a marker compound using HPLC. HPLC was used to quantify the marker compound in the valerian extract after validation of methods with linearity, accuracy, and precision. The specificity for retention time was met by comparative analysis of the valerian extract and standard compound using HPLC. The method showed high linearity of the calibration curve with a coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.9999. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 μg/mL. The accuracy of measurement was 99.88~ 00.68% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) value was 0.59%. In addition, our analytical method yielded a 29% mean content of valerenic acid in the valerian ethanol extract. These results indicate that the established HPLC method facilitated the determination of marker compounds in the valerian extract for the standardization of health functional foods. Key words: Valerinan officinalis, valerenic acid, HPLC, validation, functional health food
The purpose of this study was that the optimal hydrolysis conditions of endo- and exo-type enzymes were selected to utilize organic cheese byproducts. Optimal substrate concentration and optimum enzyme ratio were measured by using 4 kinds of endo-type enzymes (alcalase, neutrase, protamex, and foodpro alkaline protease) and two exo-type enzymes (flavourzyme and prozyme 2000P) for whey protein hydrolysis were analyzed using liquid chromatography. As a result, the optimal endo-type enzyme through the first enzyme reaction was selected as alcalse, and as a result of the secondary enzyme reaction, flavourzme was selected as the Exo type enzyme. The concentration of whey protein substrate for optimal primary and secondary enzyme reactions was 10%. In addition, the optimum ratio of enzyme was 0.5% of alcalase and 0.2% of flavourzyme, which showed low molecular weight chromatography pattern compared to 2% of alcalase and 1% of flavourzyme hydrolyzate. Therefore, hydrolyzing the endo-type enzyme alcalase at a concentration of 0.5% for 10 hours and then hydrolyzing the exo-type enzyme flavouryme at a concentration of 0.2% for 4 hours was considered to be the optimum condition.
Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is known to increase free radical production in neuronal cells, leading to cell death by oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of PineXol® on Aβ25-35 induced neuronal cell death. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells were pre-treated with 100 μg/mL of PineXol® for 2 h. The cells were exposed to single dose of 30 μM Aβ25-35 for 24 h. Cell death was assessed by a cell count kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, lactate and dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. An Apoptotic process was analyzed by a protein expression of the Bcl-2 family using western blotting. Cell viability increased in PC-12 cells treated with both Aβ25-35 and PineXol®, compared to the control group. PineXol® induced a decrease of the Bcl-2 protein expression (p<0.05), while Bax and Sod1 increased (p<0.05), indicating attenuation of Aβ25-35 induced apoptosis. These results suggest that PineXol® may be a good candidate for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease(AD).
In this study, we optimized the coffee extraction conditions for instant coffee production in two stage percolators, which is the most common coffee extractor for instant coffee production. A central composite design was used to build mathematical model equations for response surface methodology (RSM). In these equations, the yield and overall acceptability of the coffee extracts were expressed as second-order functions of three factors, the feed water temperature, draw-off factor (DOF), and extraction time (cycle time). Based on the result of RSM, the optimum conditions were obtained with the use of desirability function approach (DFA) which find the best compromise area among multiple options. The optimum extraction conditions to maximize the yield and overall acceptability over 40% of yield were found with 163℃ of feed water temperature, 4.3 of DOF and 27 minutes of extraction time (cycle time). These results provide a basic data for the coffee extraction conditions for the competitive instant coffee in the industry.
본 연구는 서울시내 150개 음식점에서 수거한 계절별 음식 8종류 400건의 나트륨 및 칼륨 함량을 조사하였다. 계절별 음식은 여름철 메뉴 물냉면, 비빔냉면, 가을철 메뉴 떡볶이, 어묵꼬치, 튀김, 겨울철 메뉴 짬뽕, 우동, 해물 칼국수를 포함하였으며, 각 시료의 나트륨과 칼륨 평균함 량 분석결과는 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다(p < 0.05). 나트륨 평균함량은 짬뽕 391.4 ± 72.7 mg / 100 g, 튀김 385.1 ± 92.7 mg / 100 g, 떡볶이 373.3 ± 90.6 mg / 100 g, 어묵 꼬치 366.9 ± 81.8 mg / 100 g는 다른 그룹에 비해 유의적으로 높게 나타났으며, 비빔냉면 255.3 ± 67.0 mg / 100 g, 해물칼국수 261.9 ± 57.2 mg / 100 g으로 가장 낮게 나타났다. 칼륨 평균함량은 짬뽕 88.6 ± 21.4 mg / 100 g, 비빔냉면 84.8 ± 24.1 mg / 100 g, 떡볶이 81.7 ± 23.7 mg / 100 g으로 다른 그룹에 비해 유의적으로 높게 나타났으며, 물냉면 41.2 ± 10.4 mg / 100 g, 어묵꼬치 39.5 ± 18.4 mg / 100 g, 우동 36.3 ± 17.8 mg / 100 g으로 가장 낮게 나타났다. 음식점에서 제공하는 각 메뉴의 1인분 기준으로 나트륨 함량은 짬뽕 3,780.7 ± 878.8 mg, 물냉면 3,463.2 ± 1178.7 mg, 어묵꼬치 2,715.9 ± 1078.3 mg, 해물칼국수 2,671.1 ± 786.5 mg, 우동 2,298.8 ± 592.3 mg으로 WHO에서 정한 1 일 권장 나트륨 섭취량 2,000 mg 보다 높은 결과를 보였다. 조리하는 음식점에 따라서 짬뽕은 많게는 5,768.9 mg 까지 나트륨이 함유되어 있어 나트륨 1일 권장 섭취량보 다 2.9배나 섭취하게 되므로 나트륨 과다 섭취로 인한 건강문제를 야기시킬 수 있다. 나트륨/칼륨 섭취비율에 대해 분석한 결과 어묵꼬치 10.8 ± 4.3, 우동 10.2 ± 4.0, 물냉면 8.6 ± 2.3, 튀김 5.9 ± 1.9 순으로 높게 나타났다. 비빔냉면이 3.2 ± 1.0으로 Na/K 섭취비율이 1에 가까운 비율을 나타냈고, 어묵꼬치의 Na/K 섭취비율이 최고 26.6로 칼륨함량에 비해 나트륨함량이 높은 것을 알 수 있었다. Na/K 섭취비율은 바람직한 섭취비 율인 1:1의 1/3이하로 칼륨 섭취가 크게 부족한 것을 알 수 있었다. 칼륨의 섭취량이 증가하면 나트륨 흡수를 감소시킬 수 있으므로 나트륨의 과잉 섭취로 유발되는 고혈 압에 대해 보호 작용을 한다고 알려져 있다. 나트륨 섭취 를 줄이기 위해서 정부의 시책과 더불어 국민건강을 위하여 나트륨 섭취를 줄이고 칼륨 섭취를 증가시킬 수 있는 효과적인 식단 및 나트륨을 비롯한 영양성분표시를 의무화해 소비자들에게 정확한 영양정보를 제공함으로써 올바른 식품의 선택뿐만 아니라 실천할 수 있는 생활습관의 교육 등 Na/K 섭취비율을 높일 수 있는 메뉴 및 방법을 다각적으로 연구할 필요가 있다.
Probiotic functional foods are known to have various functional effects such as intestinal regulation, modulation of immune system, reduction of allergies, and lowering of cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to select probiotic strain that is most suitable for freeze-dried coffee for the development of functional coffee products. The survival rate of probiotics, at drinking condition of coffee, at acid, at bile and after freeze-dried in coffee were measured on 1 strain isolated from commercial freeze-dried coffee, 8 strains used as fermented milk starter, 1 Bifidobacterium and 1 Bacillus coagulans. Bacillus coagulans showed the highest survival rate from 2.4×107 cfu/g to 2.0×107 cfu/g especially after freeze-drying. The results at drinking condition of coffee, at acid tolerance, at bile tolerance and at storage test showed significantly better survival rate of Bacillus coagulans than that of control (Lactobacillus casei). Especially, Bacillus coagulans showed 3.8-fold higher survival rate at acid tolerance (pH 1, 120 minutes) than control. Thus, the lactic acid-producing Bacillus coagulans is characterized as a probiotic strain suitable for functional coffee formulation and commercialization.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of PineXol® on H2O2-induced cell death in SK-N-MC cells, and in early stage focal ischemia rodent model. SK-N-MC cells were pre-treated with 200 μM H2O2 or various concentrations of PineXol® (10, 30, and 50 pg/mL) for 24 h, and then exposed to H2O2 for 3 h. Cell death was assessed by the CCK-8 assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and lactate and dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expressions were also analyzed by western blotting. Focal ischemia rodent model was used as the in vivo model, and different concentrations of PineXol® (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg) were administered. One week after administration, reduction of infarct volume was analyzed by TTC staining. Cell viability of H2O2-treated SK-N-MC cells significantly increased by pre-treatment of PineXol® (p<0.05). PineXol® pre-treatment also induced significant decrease of ROS and LDH expressions. However, PineXol® did not affect the infarct volume. These results suggest that PineXol® has significant neuroprotective effect in vitro, but statistical significance was not confirmed in the in vivo focal ischemia mo
This study attempted to find an efficient method for the preparation of high-purity galactooligosaccharides (HP-GOS) using β-galactosidase and yeast fermentation. GOS prepared using Lactozym 3000L showed the greatest enhancement in total GOS of the six β-galatosidases tested. GOS alone achieved 51% conversion of initial lactose. GOS production was enhanced by fermentation with commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); its concentration reached 71% after 36h fermentation with 8% yeast. Component sugar analysis with HPLC indicated that HP-GOS fermented with S. cerevisiae showed significantly increased levels of 4’/6’-galactosyllactose and total GOS as well as a significantly decreased glucose level. HP-GOS facilitated the growth of Lactobacillus sp. (L. acidophilus and L. casei) and Bifidobacterium sp. (B. longum and B. bifidum). In sum, high-purity GOS has been successfully produced through both an enzymatic process and yeast fermentation. GOS encourages the growth of bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that may be beneficial to human gastrointestinal health.
Menopausal status and hormonal changes are important factors related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women. Nutrient intake is also a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Although, postmenopausal status and hormonal changes result in a 60% increased risk for metabolic syndrome, there has been no method to elucidate the effects of nutrient intake on metabolic syndrome following menopause. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nutrient intake by menopausal women on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. All data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Menopausal women showed a 1.8-fold increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome group showed significantly lower values in calcium, iron, vitamin A, carotin, retinol and riboflavin intake than those of normal group in premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, there are significant differences in crude fiber, calcium, iron, potassium, riboflavin and niacin. Indeed, different patterns of nutrient intake were observed by menopausal status and metabolic syndrome. As menopause cannot be controlled, a diet with adequate nutrient intake may be useful to control the rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome due to menopause.
This study was conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Cheonggukjang extract in in-vitro and in-vivo models. T98G-human glioblastoma cells were pretreated with various concentrations (1~10 mg/mL) of Cheonggukjang extract for 24 h and then exposed to H2O2 (1 mM) for 3 h. The neuroprotective effects of Cheonggukjang extract were measured using a CCK-8 kit assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The early stage focal ischemia rodent model was used as the in-vivo neurotoxicity model. Various concentrations (10~200 mg) of Cheonggukjang extract were administered to the animal models for 1 week. Peripheral blood was analyzed for glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression by ELISA, and infarct volume reduction was analyzed by TTC staining. Cheonggukjang extract significantly (p<0.05) increased cell viability in T98G cells against H2O2 as well as against the induced neurotoxicity. Indeed, treatment with the Cheonggukjang extract induced a decrease in ROS and LDH expression and increased TAC significantly (p<0.05). However, Cheonggukjang extract did not induce a decrease in infarct volume or an increase in GPx expression in the in-vivo model. Despite the limitation in neuroprotection, Cheonggukjang extract may be useful for treating ROS injury.
Probiotics is known improve the microenvironment of colon; however, the metagenomic DNA study of its lactic acid bacteria in constipation induced by loperamide is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the reduction of the lactic acid bacteria in case of constipation, in normal and loperamide-induced rat. Lactic acid powder (lactic acid bacteria 19) was prepared from Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Corporation. After 2 weeks of oral administration, the group treated with the higher concentration of lactic acid bacteria (109 CFU/mL per kg of body weight) following loperamide treatment was the most effective in increasing number, weight, and water content of feces. A similar but significant increase was found in the group treated with lower concentration of lactic acid bacteria (107 CFU/mL per kg of body weight) after loperamide treatment. The concentrations of acetic acid and propionic acid in feces in the loperamide-induced rat with high concentration lactic acid, were significantly higher than that of others. Furthermore, gastrointestinal transit ratio as well as the length and area of intestinal mucosa were significantly increased after treatment with lactic acid bacteria in loperamideinduced rat. Metagenomics DNA analysis indicated that the microorganism homology in cecum was similar between the groups of normal (NOR) and HIG. Our results show that lactic acid bacteria were effective in improving the constipation.