To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of submerged culture using Cordyceps militaris mycelium, culture-including mycelia was extracted and lyophilized into postbiotics (hot-water extract; CM-HW). HW was fractionated into crude polysaccharide (CM-CP) by ethanol precipitation, and CM-CP was further dialyzed into CM-DCP by dialysis with running water using 12~14 kDa dialysis tube. When the cytotoxicity of subfractions against cells was assessed, no subfraction had a cytotoxic impact that was substantially different from the control groups. In an inflammatory model using LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, CM-DCP significantly decreased IL-6 and MCP-1 production levels compared to the LPS-control group. CM-DCP also inhibited IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in HaCaT keratinocytes stimulated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. In the meanwhile, the neutral sugar content and mannose ratio of anti-inflammatory CM-DCP were higher than the other fractions, and CM-DCP contained β-1,3/1,6-glucan of 216.1 mg/g. High pressure size exclusion chromatography revealed that CM-DCP contained molecules with a molecular weight range of 5.6 to 144.0 kDa. In conclusion, postbiotics of C. militaris mycelium significantly promoted anti-inflammatory activity, suggesting that neutral polysaccharides including Glc and Man contribute to the anti-inflammation in RAW 264.7 or HaCaT cells.
After liquid culture of Phellinus baumii (P. baumii) mycelium (LPBM) was prepared, LPBM was fractionated into A∼E fraction (A; hot-water extract of liquid culture including mycelia, B; crude polysaccharide of A, C; hot-water extract of mycelia, D; crude polysaccharide of C, and E; crude polysaccharide of culture broth) to evaluate for possibility as functional materials with immunostimulatory activity. In macrophage stimulatory activity, E fraction as postbiotics significantly increased secretion of NO and IL-12 from RAW 264.7 cells. Next, when the splenocytes of C3H/HeN mice were primary cultured, E fraction showed significantly mitogenic activity with enhancing mitogen-related cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α) production from splenocyte. E fraction also potently stimulated GM-CSF production from Peyer’s patch cells as well as Peyer’s patch-mediated bone marrow cell proliferation. In addition, the immunostimularoy E fraction contained neutral sugar (73.8%), uronic acid (10.6%), protein (7.8%), and polyphenol (7.5%), and mainly consisted of glucose (39.1%), galactose (21.7%), mannose (11.1%), galacturonic acid (9.9%), and arabinose (8.9%) as component sugars. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that postbiotics including exopolysaccharide fractionated from liquid culture of the P. baumii mycelium could enhanced immunostimulatory activity.
To investigate the industrial availability of liquid fermentation (PL-ferment) by Phellinus linteus mycelium as a postbiotics for the inhibition of inflammation, PL-ferment was fractionated into culture supernatant (CS), hot-water extract (HW) from PL-ferment, EtOH-precipitate (CP) fractionated from HW, and the dialysate (DCP) of CP. Compared to the other fractions, DCP which is expected to contain exopolysaccharide (EPS) as the major component, significantly decreased the production of NO, IL-6, and MCP-1 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, and IL-6 and IL-8 in TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. The general component analysis results showed that no significant difference in components was observed between the fractions, whereas sugar composition analysis revealed that DCP had decreased glucose and increased mannose contents compared to the other fractions. This suggests that mannose played an important role in the anti-inflammatory activity of the active fraction, DCP. Molecular weight distribution analysis revealed that DCP was mainly composed of low-molecular-weight material-removed high-molecular-weight polysaccharides of 18–638 kDa, suggesting that EPS originated from P. linteus EPS. In conclusion, our results suggest that the DCP of P. linteus mycelium fermentation using the anti-inflammatory activity could be used industrially as postbiotic material.
The purpose of this study was to establish valerenic acid as a marker compound for the standardization of ethanol extract of Valerinan officinalis (valerian) root as a functional health food. We established valerenic acid as a marker compound using HPLC. HPLC was used to quantify the marker compound in the valerian extract after validation of methods with linearity, accuracy, and precision. The specificity for retention time was met by comparative analysis of the valerian extract and standard compound using HPLC. The method showed high linearity of the calibration curve with a coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.9999. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 μg/mL. The accuracy of measurement was 99.88~ 00.68% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) value was 0.59%. In addition, our analytical method yielded a 29% mean content of valerenic acid in the valerian ethanol extract. These results indicate that the established HPLC method facilitated the determination of marker compounds in the valerian extract for the standardization of health functional foods. Key words: Valerinan officinalis, valerenic acid, HPLC, validation, functional health food
The purpose of this study was that the optimal hydrolysis conditions of endo- and exo-type enzymes were selected to utilize organic cheese byproducts. Optimal substrate concentration and optimum enzyme ratio were measured by using 4 kinds of endo-type enzymes (alcalase, neutrase, protamex, and foodpro alkaline protease) and two exo-type enzymes (flavourzyme and prozyme 2000P) for whey protein hydrolysis were analyzed using liquid chromatography. As a result, the optimal endo-type enzyme through the first enzyme reaction was selected as alcalse, and as a result of the secondary enzyme reaction, flavourzme was selected as the Exo type enzyme. The concentration of whey protein substrate for optimal primary and secondary enzyme reactions was 10%. In addition, the optimum ratio of enzyme was 0.5% of alcalase and 0.2% of flavourzyme, which showed low molecular weight chromatography pattern compared to 2% of alcalase and 1% of flavourzyme hydrolyzate. Therefore, hydrolyzing the endo-type enzyme alcalase at a concentration of 0.5% for 10 hours and then hydrolyzing the exo-type enzyme flavouryme at a concentration of 0.2% for 4 hours was considered to be the optimum condition.
To enhance the physiological activities of roasted coffee (RC), 30 kinds of green coffee beans (GCB) with different cultivating areas and varieties were fermented with Monascus ruber mycelium (MR) by solid-state culture. After the dried MR-fermented GCB was subjected medium roasting, each RC was extracted with hot-water. Among the hot-water extracts, the highest yield was the hot-water extract of RC from MR-fermented Indonesia Mandheling GCB (15.5%). However, the hot-water extract of RC from MR-fermented Ethiopia Sidamo GCB showed significantly higher polyphenolic contents (3.08 mg GAE/100 mg) and ABTS free radical scavenging activity (25.41 mg AEAC/100 mg). Meanwhile, the hot-water extract of RC from MR-fermented Vietnam Robusta GCB showed not only the effective inhibition of TNF-α level (73.7% inhibition of LPS-stimulated control) from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells but also significant inhibition of lipogenesis (63.5% inhibition of lipid differentiation control) in 3T3-L1 pre-adipose cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that roasted coffees from Ethiopia Sidamo and Vietnam Robusta green coffee beans fermented with Monascus ruber mycelium using solid-state culture could have industrial applications as functional coffee beverages.
This study attempted to find an efficient method for the preparation of high-purity galactooligosaccharides (HP-GOS) using β-galactosidase and yeast fermentation. GOS prepared using Lactozym 3000L showed the greatest enhancement in total GOS of the six β-galatosidases tested. GOS alone achieved 51% conversion of initial lactose. GOS production was enhanced by fermentation with commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); its concentration reached 71% after 36h fermentation with 8% yeast. Component sugar analysis with HPLC indicated that HP-GOS fermented with S. cerevisiae showed significantly increased levels of 4’/6’-galactosyllactose and total GOS as well as a significantly decreased glucose level. HP-GOS facilitated the growth of Lactobacillus sp. (L. acidophilus and L. casei) and Bifidobacterium sp. (B. longum and B. bifidum). In sum, high-purity GOS has been successfully produced through both an enzymatic process and yeast fermentation. GOS encourages the growth of bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that may be beneficial to human gastrointestinal health.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soy hydrolysate fractions on appetite suppression and ghrelin releasing. In a short-term experiment, the cumulative food intake and serum ghrelin level were decreased significantly (p<0.05) during a 4-hr period after the interperitoneal injection of soy hydrolysate fractions (0.5, 1 g/㎏ BW), following a 12-hr period of food deprivation. In a long-term experiment, food efficiency ratio (FER) was also reduced significantly (p<0.05), when soy hydrolysate fractions (0.5, 1% in drinking water) were given orally for 8 wks. Therefore, we found that soy hydrolysate fractions affected food intake through appetite and ghrelin releasing in short-term and long-term experiments. In conclusion, this study indicated that soy hydrolysate fractions would diminish the sensation of hunger by reducing the secretion of orexigenic factors such as ghrelin that send satiety signals to the brain, terminating food intake.
We investigate the changes of fatty acids in blood for an evaluation of the effects of soft and enteric coated capsules containing omega 3 fatty acids. Fish oil, which contained 62.87 g/100 g of sum of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), was used as nutracueticals for omega 3 fatty acids. Lipid releasing amount in soft capsule was 70% in stomach condition. However, there was 10% of releasing amount of lipid observed in enteric coated capsule in stomach condition. In intestinal condition, 50% of lipid releasing amount in enteric coated capsule showed until 6 hr, but soft capsule until 90 min. EPA and DHA contents in soft capsule administration showed higher level than those in enteric coated capsule until 8 hr. However, the administration of enteric coated capsule showed higher level of EPA and DHA in blood after 8 hr. After 24 hr, mono-, poly-unsaturated and saturated fatty acids contents with enteric coated capsule showed higher level than those with soft capsule. The enteric coated capsule containing omega 3 fatty acids was expected to sustain omega 3 fatty acids.
This study investigated the fermentative characteristics and immunomodulating activity in Kimchi added with various salts(salt replacement and herb-salt with Acanthopanax senticosus and Glycyrrhizae uralensis) for the reduction of Na concentration in Kimchi. Kimchi using a salt replacement and herb-salt showed a higher level of acidity (0.8～0.84%) than that of the control (0.7%) at 7-day fermentation. Kimchi using a salt replacement and herb-salt showed a lower level of salinity (1.72～1.98%) than that of control (2.3～2.57%) during fermentation. The growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. recorded the highest level (2.3×108 and 2.8×106 cfu/g, respectively) in control at 6 day fermentation. However, those levels in Kimchi prepared with salt replacement and herb-salt were 3.5～5.4×108 and 6.1×106 cfu/g, respectively. It is assumed that the high level of acidity of Kimchi prepared with salt replacement and herb-salt was caused by the increase in the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp.. When the macrophage stimulating activity of salt replacement kimchi (Salt-R kimchi) supplemented with hot-water extract from Acanthopanax sentisus (AS) or Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU) was investigated on aging period, Salt-RA kimchi with AS 5% at 6 days (2.78-fold of saline control at 100 ㎍/㎖) and Salt-RG kimchi with GU 5% at 9 days (2.02-fold) significantly increased compared to the Salt-RA kimchi without AS or GU. In addition, Salt-RAG kimchi with AS 3% and GU 3% improved the bitter taste of Salt-RA and potently stimulated the macrophage at 6 days (1.28-fold of Salt-R kimchi) even though its activity was lower than Salt-RA (5%, 1.39-fold).
The today many companies are tilting to enjoy the dominant position in the globalization of global market. The past business management is focus on the price and quality, but many companies are doing our utmost for customer satisfaction of various needs of customers. Therefore, The efficient logistics management is a core element in the competitiveness of company that respond more quickly and effectively to market. Now, The companies are building an integrated SCM(Supply Chain Management) system that is able to manage and operate procurement, production, distribution & logistics activity. Among the IT infra, The RFID technique is received special attention for this successful SCM System, continuously it is being researched and developed. Also, they recognize RFID techniques that offer various services at supply chain flow, create value of company. This study propose implications in other industry for biz model development and direction based on RFID in many industry through case study for development of the distribution logistics information system on using RFID.
The interest for public administration service which is regarded as the service industry recently is increasing. This means that the value of customer satisfaction pursued from enterprise section in the past is broadly accepted as the goal of struggle for existence in both public and personal domain. But, it can be said that quality problem in public administrative service is remained if it regards as simple campaign for kindness The kindness is nothing but an one of facts which consist of satisfaction.
In this paper, we develop the Lean model called LPAM(Lean Public Administration Model) to improve the public adminstration service in the base of acceptable methodology which is widely using in improvement. Also we examine that proposed model can work well as the improve process pursuing customer"s satisfaction and improvement of public administration service.
흰쥐의 체중은 실험기간 동안 증가하였으며, 식이별로는 대조군이 가장 높은 체중 증가를 보였다. 콜레스테롤의 첨가는 흰쥐의 정상적인 성장을 억제하였으며, 콜레스테롤 첨가군에서는 콜레스터롤 대조군의 체중증가량이 유의하게 가장 낮았다. Rutin과 메밀채소를 식이에 첨가하였을 때 흰쥐의 콜레스테롤에 의한 성장억제 작용을 효과적으로 감소시키는 것으로 나타났으며, 첨가량의 증가에 따라 헐청에 총콜레스테롤 함량과 과산화지질 함량은 낮아진 반면에 HDL-cholesterol 함량은 높아지는 경향을 보였다. 고콜레스테롤 식이를 급여시킨 흰쥐의 장기에서는 칼슘침착이 나타나는 병리조직학적 변화를 보였으며, 메밀채소 섭취에 의하여 칼슘침착의 정도는 완화되었다.
인삼엽차 제조를 위한 연구의 일환으로 인삼엽의 성숙시기인 7, 8, 9월 중에 인삼엽을 각각 채엽하여 사포닌 함량 및 조성을 비교, 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 인삼엽의 사포닌함량은 7월엽이 17.17%, 8월엽이 16.67%, 9월엽 15.58%로서 채엽시기가 늦어질수록 감소하였으나 ginsenoside pattern은 유사하였다. 2. 인삼엽의 ginsenoside 함량 및 조성은 채엽시기와 관계없이 ginsenosides-Re, -Rd, -Rg_1 등이 총사포닌 성분의 70% 이상을 차지하였고 그 다음으로 -Rb_1, -Rb_2, -Rc 순이었으며 protopanaxadio계 사포닌은 8월엽, protopanaxtriol계 사포닌은 9월엽에서 가장 높은 함량을 나타내었다. 3. 인삼엽의 채엽시기별 protopanaxadiol(PD) / protopanaxatriol(PT)계 사포닌의 함유비율은 7월엽의 1.13에서 9월엽은 0.85로 점차 낮아지는 경향을 나타내었다.
냉동상태로 포장하여 판매되고 있는 생선(대구살)을 대구지역 수퍼마켓에서 구입하여 냉장(R : refrigerating), 냉동(F : freezing), 냉장과 동결을 반복(RFR : repeated freezing and refrigerating)하는 3군으로 나누어 저온저장하면서 저장중의 중온균과 저온세균의 수, free drip량과 pH의 변화를 측정하여 이들의 상관관계를 비교하였다. 저장직전의 해동어육의 생균수는 중온균이 6.5×10 exp (4), 저온세균이 7.4×10 exp (3)cells/g이었으며 냉장한 시료에서는 저장 8일, 냉장과 동결을 반복한 시료에서는 저장 16일 후에 10 exp (7)cells/g을 초과하여 초기 부패에 도달하였다. 동결시료의 경우에는 46일간의 전 저장기간 동안 저장 28일째에 약 10 exp (6)cellls/g으로 생균수가 가장 많았으며 신선한 상태가 유지되었다. 저온저장 중 저장초기에는 중온균의 수가 약간 많았으나 저장기간이 경과하면서 저온세균의 수가 빠르게 증가하여 저장말기에는 저온세균의 수가 중온균의 수보다 증가하였다. 저장중 pH의 변화는 생균수의 변화에 비례하여 증가하였으며 r=0.73∼0.96의 높은 상관관계를 나타내었다. 저온저장 중의 drip량은 냉장시료에서 27.06±9.75, 냉동시료에서 27.56±8.02%로서 전 저장기간 동안 drip량은 큰 변화가 없이 두 시료간에는 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 냉장과 동결을 반복한 시료는 저장기간이 길어질수록 drip량이 증가하는 경향으로서(r=0.84) 전 저장기간 동안의 평균치는 33.97±10.70%로서 냉장과 냉동시료에 비하여 20% 정도 높은 값을 나타내었고 냉장과 냉동시료와 유의적인 차이를 나타내었다.
여러 종류의 coumarin 유도체가 광화학 반응에 의하여 OH^- 라디칼을 생성하는 반응을 ESR ?I 레이저 섬 광분해 반응으로 진행시키고 반응속도 상수를 구하여 반응성과 메카니즘을 알아보았다. 본 연구에서 사용된 9종류의 coumarin 유도체는 모두 OH^- 라디칼 생성반응 메카니즘으로 반응이 진해이되었으나 1-ethyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine은 광조사에 의해 OH^- 라디칼 생성반응이 일어나기 전에 분해하여 카르벤 중가체로 변하였다. 9개의 coumarin 유도체는 DMPO-OH스핀부가 생성물에 해당하는 시그날을 나타내었다. OH^- 라디칼을 소진시키는 NAN_3, EtOH, HCOONa등은 강한 광증감제로 작용하였다. 수화된 전자의 소멸 속도 상수는 N_2O를 첨가했을 때가 K_3Fe(CN)_6를 첨가했을 때보다 크게 나타났다.