To enhance the physiological activities of roasted coffee (RC), 30 kinds of green coffee beans (GCB) with different cultivating areas and varieties were fermented with Monascus ruber mycelium (MR) by solid-state culture. After the dried MR-fermented GCB was subjected medium roasting, each RC was extracted with hot-water. Among the hot-water extracts, the highest yield was the hot-water extract of RC from MR-fermented Indonesia Mandheling GCB (15.5%). However, the hot-water extract of RC from MR-fermented Ethiopia Sidamo GCB showed significantly higher polyphenolic contents (3.08 mg GAE/100 mg) and ABTS free radical scavenging activity (25.41 mg AEAC/100 mg). Meanwhile, the hot-water extract of RC from MR-fermented Vietnam Robusta GCB showed not only the effective inhibition of TNF-α level (73.7% inhibition of LPS-stimulated control) from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells but also significant inhibition of lipogenesis (63.5% inhibition of lipid differentiation control) in 3T3-L1 pre-adipose cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that roasted coffees from Ethiopia Sidamo and Vietnam Robusta green coffee beans fermented with Monascus ruber mycelium using solid-state culture could have industrial applications as functional coffee beverages.
This study was performed to develop and evaluate cookies prepared with various amounts (0 g, 12.5 g, 25 g and 37.5 g) of mealworm powder to serve as not only sports snacks but also for the general population as a new protein source. In the chromaticity of mealworm cookies, lightness and yellowness decreased whereas redness increased with more mealworm powder. The hardness of the mealworm cookies increased as more mealworm powder was added. In sensory evaluation, higher preference was shown with the measure of color, taste, and overall preference for mealworm cookies prepared with 50% mealworm powder (MP2). For the general composition of MP2, the moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash were higher compared with the control cookie. For the mineral contents of MP2, the contents of Ca (33.44 mg/100 g), P (225.13 mg/100 g), Mg (82.21 mg/100 g), Na (246.22 mg/100 g), and K (503.49 mg/100 g) were higher compared with the control cookie. The essential amino acids (valine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and histidine) in MP2 were also higher compared with the control cookie. It was concluded that MP2 can be used as a new protein source for not only the maintenance of muscle but also for the prevention of muscle loss in old people.
Mulberry (oddi) is one of the most popular functional foods with many physiological components. This study investigated and compared the nutritional compositions and physiological activities of four mulberry fruits from Morus albo L. including Cheongilppong, Iksuppong, Suwonppong and Cheongsuppong (a new cultivar from Chungcheongbuk-do). To analyze the nutrient contents, mulberry fruits were freeze-dried. The results showed that the proximate compositions of the four mulberry cultivars ranged from 9.61~14.11% for moisture, 8.28~11.90% for crude protein, 3.70~4.86% for crude ash, 4.28~5.54% for crude lipid and 7.46~10.78% for crude fiber. The above proximate contents of mulberry cultivars were not significantly different. However, Cheongsuppong had the highest content of reducing sugar, 74.7%. Chungsuppong and Iksuppong showed higher contents of total polyphenol and anthocyanin than other mulberry cultivars, while all mulberry cultivars showed high antioxidant activities. Hypoglycemic effect had a slightly higher level in Suwonppong and Cheongsuppong than in the other samples. Taken together, the new cultivar “Cheongsu” oddi can be suggested as a potential source of functional food.
The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of K+, Na+, Cl－ by ionometer with check salt strip, simple salimeter and Ion-selective electrode (ISE) and compare the results of each mensuration; furthermore, the possibility of inferring the Na+ concentration from Cl－ concentration of urine and the impact of K+ on the concentration of each ion was examined. The results showed that ISE determined Na+ and Cl－ concentrations in the urine are highly interrelated (R=0.9039); in addition, concentrations of Cl－, measured with strip and ISE from urine are highly interrelated (R=0.9338). The concentration of Na+ in urine, inferred by measuring Cl－ concentration with strip, has a high relationship (R=0.8580) with the concentration of Na+ in urine, measured by ISE. The results of our study will increase awareness of Na+ intake and the utility of check salt strip, as well as the possibility of inferred Na+ concentration from measures of Cl－ concentration as a screening test for reducing sodium intake.
Carbonic anhydrase is essential for the cellular transportation of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions and plays a key role in a wide variety of physiological processes. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss is an important freshwater fish in aquaculture industry and is known to be one of the most susceptible species to environmental contamination. In this study, carbonic anhydrase was detected in the kidney and intestine of rainbow trout. Carbonic anhydrase was isolated from cytosolic proteins and identified by using SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, and immunohistochemical methods. A specific protein band with molecular weight of 30 kDa and pI of 7.0 was detected by Western blotting. The immunohistochemical results showed that carbonic anhydrase was located at various cells in the kidney and intestine of rainbow trout.
To develop an elderly diet food that can easily be chewed and swallowed, we manufactured elderly diet food using chicken breast meat with various amounts (0.9, 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 g) of gelatin used as a viscosity agent, and evaluated their physico-chemical and sensory properties. As the amount of gelatin decreased, the lightness were increased, but the redness and yellowness were decreased. In the texture profile analysis, hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were significantly increased with increased amounts of gelatin, but adhesiveness gradually decreased. Cohesiveness was no significantly difference. Free amino acid contents in elderly diet food using chicken breast meat did not show trend to increase or decrease, but the tyrosine contents were significantly decreased with increased amounts of gelatin. The sensory evaluations including taste, flavor and color were not significantly different. However, the texture and overall acceptance of elderly diet food using chicken meat containing 1.3 g of gelatin had the highest acceptance.
This study aimed to evaluate the health concern, eating habits, dietary behavior, and psychological stress among middleaged adults in Chungnam according to their exercise status. A total of 437 adults with a mean age of 42.6 years participated in this study and completed a questionnaire survey. The subjects were divided into one of three groups according to their exercise status: never doing exercise (NDE; n=144), doing exercise once a week (DEO; n=186), and doing exercise twice a week or more (DET; n=107). Results demonstrated significant differences in concern about health, subjective health status, meal regularity, dietary problems, and stress score among the three groups. The DET and DEO groups were more concerned about their health (p<0.001), and had a perception that their health status was better than that of the NDE group (p<0.01). A larger percentage of the DET group had breakfast everyday (p<0.05) and a smaller percentage of the DET group had dietary problems such as irregular mealtime and skipping meals (p<0.01), compared to the other groups. The average stress score of the DET group was significantly lower than that of the DEO and NDE groups (p<0.05). The results reveal that doing regular exercising at least twice a week is associated with higher health concern, more desirable dietary habits, and lower psychological stress in middle-aged adults. These findings support the beneficial effects of regular exercise for health, dietary habits, and stress control.
This research study aimed to examine the seriousness related to sodium over intakes that is becoming a global issue, evaluate how the recognition of sodium-reduced products and its acceptance can influence the intention of purchasing sodium-reduced products, and generate basic data for establishment of marketing strategy of campaigns such as reducing sodium intake and commercialization of sodium-reduced products. According to the results of the research, the acceptance of sodium-reduced products significantly influenced the purchasing intention of sodium-reduced products, while the attitude towards sodium and recognition of sodium did not significantly influence the purchasing intention of sodium-reduced products. Extension of these research findings to ordinary people and the analysis of main causes that affect the recognition of sodium-reduced products and purchasing intention provide a solid basis for efficient sodium-reduction publicity and development of directions for campaigns.
This study was conducted to investigate the health effects of the general components of acorns in animals. In Korea, acorns have been used as food material in the form of acorn starch. Acorns contain tannin, gallic acid, digallic acid, and gallotannin. Therefore, the health effects of acorns as functional food are actively being studied. The chemical composition of acorns may vary according to the harvest time, region, and breed. Acorns have excellent antioxidant properties and might be beneficial in controlling hyperlipidemia, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and dementia, as well as strengthening immune competence. Further study is necessary to better understand the benefits of acorns, as it is expected to represent a large part of the food industry.
Black tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is known to have more β-carotene, lycopene, and vitamin C than general redcolored tomatoes. In this study, we evaluated the quality properties, antioxidant activities and sensory characteristics of black tomato cookies. Cookies were prepared by replacing 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7% of flour with black tomato powder. Density of black tomato cookies tended to be decreased between control (1.20) and 3% added groups (1.12). pH value was decreased from control (6.66) to 7% added group (5.16). Spread factor and loss rate were increased with increasing amounts of black tomato powder. Hardness was gradually increased from 107.77 g/cm2 in control to 170.50 g/cm2 in 7% added group. Color measurement indicated that L-value (brightness) was highest in control (70.46) and lowest in 7% added group (45.23); whereas, a-value (redness) increased while b-value (yellowness) tended to decrease with increasing amounts of black tomato powder. Total polyphenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities were directly proportional to the amount of black tomato powder. Consumer preference scores in color and flavor of black tomato powder added group were higher than those of control. Characteristic strength test was not significantly different among the groups. Overall, the results indicated that adding 5% black tomato powder is desirable for making black tomato cookies.
Propolis possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and immunostimulating activities. The aim of this study was to evaluated chemical composition and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of eight propolis ethanolic extracts form different region in Korea. The chemical composition of eight Korean propolis was investicated by absorption spectrophotomety and UHPLC. Total penolic and total flavonoids content ranged between 21±1.5 and 31±1.8 gallic acid g/100 g and 7.2±0.9 and 24.4±1.9 quercetin g/100 g, respectively. The p-coumaric acid as standard components content ranged between 0.29±0.00 and 2.34±0.02 mg/g using UHPLC. Cinnamic acid content between 0.43±0.00 and 1.33±0.01 mg/g. 80% ethanolic extract of propolis against H. pylori was evaluated by using the disc diffusion method. Ethanol was used as a control. Mean diameters of H. pylori growth inhibition using 10 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL or 100 μg/mL ethanol propolis per disc were 0, ranging from 0.9 to 2.1 mm and from 1.9 to 3.5 mm, respectively. In conclusion, variation in the chemical composition of Korean propolis were mainly due to the difference in the preferred regional plants visited by honeybees. Also Korean propolis possesses considerable antibacterial activity against H. pylori. There was not confirmed a correlation between the chemical composion contens and anti-H. pylori effect. The potential of propolis in the prevention or treatment of H. pylori infection is worth further extensive evaluation.
This study was analyzed to provide fundamental data of food safety education way on the recognition, knowledge and purchase attitude of GMO foods. Data was collected from 270 University students in the Gyeong-gi region through a self-administered questionnaire. According to the results of the reliability and factor analysis, the knowledge and purchase attitude of GMO foods showed 0.742 and 0.832 in Cronbach alpha coefficient, 0.791 and 0.831 in KMO. There were significant differences in the recognition and intake possibility and purchase will, safety and absorption to a GMO foods between the specialty person and non-specialist (p<0.05). By the kind of GMO foods it appeared highly by the order corn (70.0%), tomato (67.5%), beans (63.3%) and potato (51.3%). There were significant differences in the general knowledge of GMO foods (p<0.05), whereas no significant differences in question ‘There were no genes in ordinary beans’ by a presence of a specialty (p>0.05). After the purchase attitude difference to the GMO foods was analyzed by a presence of a specialty, I appeared most highly in the question to which I say ‘I think a GMO foods is ethical.’ by a negative question and ‘I think a GMO foods is mass-produced, and it's possible to make a food problem decrease.’ by an affirmative question. Therefore, the purchase attitude of GMO foods showed a significant differences of University students according to their major (p<0.05). Based on this study, it is considered that provision of detailed and continuous education must be accomplished by raising the recognition of GMO foods and its acceptance level, allowing a proper understanding of GMO foods to be conveyed and assisting subjects from receiving the information they desire effectively by various education mediums.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the food-related lifestyle choices of female baby boomers and to investigate variables regarding home meal replacement (HMR) buying behaviors and future needs. This study was conducted on 358 female baby boomers 53 years of age living in Gyeonggi and near Seoul. Out of 420 distributed questionnaires, 358 were returned and used for analysis (response rate: 85.2%). As a result of cluster analysis, three groups were identified based on the food-related lifestyles : a value-seeking group, a convenience-seeking group, and a health-seeking group. Among the three groups, there were significant differences in two socio-demographic characteristics, education level (p<0.05) and regular exercise (p<0.01), and in several health- and food-related habits, type of breakfast (p<0.01), type of dinner (p<0.05), dinner details (p<0.05), frequency of eating out (p<0.05), and eating habits score (p<0.01). The health-seeking group was significantly more likely to purchase ready to cook (RTC) items (59.1%) than were the other groups (p<0.001). However, the ratio of HMR purchasing for the purpose of meal replacement (p<0.05) and an HMR purchasing frequency of more than twice a week (p<0.001) were significantly lower in the health-seeking group. Reasons for selecting HMR showed a similar tendency among groups in taste (26.2%), convenience (18.7%), price (16.9%), safety (15.3%) and type of food (14.3%). However, the satisfaction scores for hygiene and safety reported by the health-seeking group were significantly lower than those reported by the other groups. More than two-thirds of all respondents were willing to purchase HMR in the future, though there were significant differences according to group: convenience-seeking group, 73.1%, health-seeking group, 70.1%, and value-seeking group, 65.7% (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the number of baby boomers purchasing HMR products will continue to grow and baby boomers will want HMR products to be more healthy (52.0%), safe (28.5%) and delicious (13.4%). An emphasis on taste was high in the convenience-seeking group, whereas an emphasis on health was high in the health-seeking and value-seeking groups. In conclusion, this study shows various food-related lifestyles amongst female baby boomers and illustrates the need to develop HMR marketing strategies targeted to these different lifestyles.
In this study, we investigated protection motivation and behavioral intention to prevent serious illnesses related to excessive sodium intake among the university students in Gyeongnam and Busan. Within the protection motivation theory (PMT) framework, a survey questionnaire was developed to measure participants’ perceptions on the severity of and the vulnerability to the threat of serious diseases due to the high sodium intake as well as the effectiveness of preventive measures (response efficacy), and the ability to perform them (self-efficacy) along with their willingness to follow recommendations (behavioral intention). Data was collected in June 2015. Study participants were divided into either low (n=117) or high (n=177) sodium intake behavior groups based on their current behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to measure construct validity and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to check reliability of measurement items. The high sodium intake behavior group perceived higher vulnerability than the low sodium intake behavior group among four PMT factors. Differences of the other three factors were not significant between the two groups. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy and response efficacy affected behavioral intention of high sodium intake behavior among students. Hence, development of strategies to increase self-efficacy and response efficacy are strongly recommended.
In this study, we compared diet related attributes such as food taste preference, food consumption frequency and nutrition intake between elderly residents in their 80’s of areas in Jeollanam-do that are well known for longevity and those of a part of Seoul. Structured in-depth interviews were conducted by trained interviewers on 125 consented subjects (67 Jeonnam and 58 Seoul). Differences of groups were tested using Chi-square tests for nominal or ordinal data and t-tests and ANOVA tests for ratio data. The elderly from Jeonnam tended to sleep longer, express emotion more freely, and interact with others more often than those from Seoul. The elderly tended to prefer sweet or salty tastes, which might be highly related to serious health problems. The most frequently consumed foods were napa cabbage kimchi (2.19 times/day) and multigrain rice (1.99 times/day). Elderly from Jeonnam tended to consume garlic, milk, beans and roasted barley/corn teas less often; whereas, they consumed porridge, dried radish greens, potato, fermented fish, dried fish, pork rib, pork belly, soybean paste soup, soybean paste/Ssamjang, other kimchis, pickled vegetables, snacks, cookies, and green/black teas more often than elderly residents from Seoul. Differences in nutrition intake between the regions were greater than differences between the perceived levels of household economic status. NAR and INQ for folate were lower among elderly from Jeonnam than those from Seoul, while those for protein, vitamin C, niacin, vitamin B6 were higher. The study results indicated that elderly from Jeonnam engaged in a more diverse diet than the elderly from Seoul.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of the flowers, leaves, and roots of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.). The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the leaves were higher than those of the flowers and roots. However, the DPPH radical-scavenging and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities of the flowers were higher than those of the leaves and roots. The nitrite-scavenging ability under acidic conditions was high in Jerusalem artichoke flower extracts. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and α-amylase inhibitory activity of a methanol extract of Jerusalem artichoke roots were about 60% (5 mg/mL concentration). Based on these experiments, it can be concluded that the flowers leaves, and roots of the Jerusalem artichoke can be used as natural preservatives. Therefore, they can be developed as functional foods, to take advantage of their antioxidant activity and abundant polyphenols. This study suggests that the whole Jerusalem artichoke, including roots, leaves, and flowers, is useful as a functional, nutritious food product.
We evaluated the antioxidant properties of adzuki beans and the quality characteristics of sediment using various cultivation methods. There were significant differences in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in beans grown using different methods of cultivation (p<0.05). Also, DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities were significantly different depending on cultivation method (p<0.05). The sediment yield before drying of Chungju-pat, Hongeon, and Arari was 296.64~339.01, 271.36~282.24, and 268.21~292.32%, respectively, and the sediment yield after drying was 71.68~85.41, 77.90~85.19, and 74.15~78.65%, respectively. The L-value of Chungju-pat and Arari sediments revealed a significant difference given different cultivation methods (p<0.05), but Hongeon sediment did not show a significant difference. There was a significant difference in the a- and b-value of adzuki bean sediments cultivated using different methods (p<0.05). The particle size of Chungju-pat, Hongeon, and Arari sediments was 66.21~98.80, 61.62~97.07, and 82.96~106.71 μm, respectively, and all were significantly different depending on cultivation method (p<0.05). There were also significant differences in the water absorption index, water solubility index, and swelling power when different cultivation methods were used (p<0.05).