The purpose of this study was to develop a functional beverage by using Caragana sinica extract and Tremella fuciformis Berk, which have high physiological effects such as anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-lipidemic and anti-inflammatory. To this end, we used various mixing ratios of Caragana sinica extract, Tremella fuciformis Berk, and isomalto oligosaccharide, and measured the physicochemical properties of those beverages. The analyses showed the following: moisture content of those beverages using Caragana sinica extract and Tremella fuciformis Berk was 50.51~67.64%, pH was 5.19~5.38, and crude fat content was 0.28~0.52%, crude protein content was 1.26~1.80%, ash content was 0.47~0.80 and sugar content was 8.55~26.98°Brix. The lightness (L) of the beverages was 37.70~58.11, the redness (a) was 6.88~16.94, the yellowness (b) was 13.72~23.68, the total polyphenol content was 2.07~3.46 mg/g, and the total flavonoid content was 0.37~0.42 mg/g. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the nutritional components and total polyphenols of functional beverage using Caragana Sinica Extract, Tremella Fuciformis Berk and isomalto oligosaccharide were high at a mixing ratio of 1:1.3:25%. These results will increase the use of Caragana Sinica Extract and Tremella Fuciformis Berk, as functional materials in the future, and provide a framework for the manufacturing of diluted beverages comprising mineral water and carbonated water.
The medicines for treating osteoporosis currently in use have minor to severe side effects, and can be financially burdensome. Thus, there is a need for prevention and alternative supplement that is relatively inexpensive, and can be easily consumed daily as an alternative dietary therapy. In this study, bone marrow density of the spine and femur of osteoporosis patients were checked before and after consuming complex composed of calcium and magnesium, considered to be the core of bone mineral content. November 2017-November 2021, patients with T-score of less than －2.5 or －1.0 < T-score < －2.5 with history of fractures or recent fractures were enrolled. The data of 60 patients who orally administered Ionized Cal/MagTM Complex were reviewed retrospectively, and it was significantly confirmed that the average value of T-score was up-regulated by 0.5. Additionally, the cumulative dose was observed to have a positive effect, on the improvement of BMD in the 2nd Lumbar and Femur neck. It is expected that better results will be achieved if use of the supplement is continued.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the Maillard reaction–related physicochemical properties of three maize varieties (Kwangpyeongok, Sinhwangok2ho and Gangdaok) after roasting them for different times (0, 15, 25, 40, and 55 minutes). The Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic browning reaction involving reducing sugars and amino compounds. The content of reducing sugar, the causative agent of the Maillard reaction, decreased as roasting time increased. Gangdaok showed the lowest reducing sugar content of 1.04 mg/g after 55 minutes of roasting. In the elapsed roasting time, chromaticity ‘L’ and ‘b’ values decreased. At 55 minutes of roasting, wherein the Maillard reaction occurred most actively, Gangdaok showed the lowest ‘L’ value of 56.37 and the highest ‘a’ value of 7.60. Gangdaok had superior conditions for inducing the Maillard reaction compared to other varieties, and it is consider that 'flint–type', an endosperm characteristic, may have been the influencing agent. This study detected a total of 52 types of volatile aroma compounds (VACs), of which 28 were produced after roasting. Of the total VACs detected, 2-Formyl-5-methylfuran and 2-Furancarboxaldehyde accounted for 43.8~45.5% and have been confirmed to be the major VACs present in roasted maize. Most of the correlations between the Maillard reaction–related characteristics showed high correlation coefficients.
To investigate antioxidant effects of tea tree root extracts using various extraction methods, cytotoxicity, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, SOD, nitrite scavenging activity and inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating activity were measured. Cytotoxicity for RAW 264.7 cells was not observed at concentrations treated with below 90 μg/mL in all extracts. The maximum DPPH radical, nitrite scavenging, SOD activity and inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation were obtained at the ethylacetate and 70% ethanol extract. The maximum ABTS radical scavenging activity was obtained at the ethylacetate and hot water extract. However, in the case of reducing power and ferrous ion chelating activity, they were obtained at 70% ethanol and hexane extract, respectively. Nitrate scavenging activity showed the most excellent scavenging ability of 59.6% at 90 μg/mL of ethylacetate. The hexane extract had the highest ferrous ion chelating activity, showing 61.05% at 50 μg/mL, 66.07% at 70 μg/mL and 76.81% at 90 μg/mL, respectively. The results of this research show that the ethylacetate and 70% ethanol extracts of tea tree root can be used as a natural material for scavenging the radicals. However, future study is necessary to understand the mechanism of antioxidant activity by identification of substances.
Recently, consumers’ awareness of the importance of the intestinal action of lactic acid bacteria and intestinal microbes is increasing, as well as interest in yogurt. In this study, yogurt was prepared with three mixed strains (lactic acid bacteria combination, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp., and Bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilussei, 1:1:1) by adding oats flour, and the quality characteristics of yogurt were investigated, while stored at a storage temperature of 4℃ for 12 days. According to the storage period, the control as wel as the oat yogurt showed slight decrease in pH, and no significant change in acidity. Sugar content slightly increased. and brightness decreased, in the control and the oat yogurt. Visible cell numbers increased during storage, and decreased on the 12th day. Viscosity in the oat yogurt was 7,580 cP, which was approximately eight times higher than that of the control group, and decreased gradually according to the storage period. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) was approximately two times higher in the oat-added yogurt, and slightly increased with the storage period, decreased on the 12th day of storage, and β-glucan was detected only in oat-added yogurt.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized one of the leading metabolic diseases globally, and the younger age population with the disease is rapidly growing, especially in developed countries. Since there has been no approved medicine, losing weight is known to be the only best remedy to control or reverse the disease. Recently, the field of microbiome has attracted much attention to offer more practical choices for patients. Here, we provide experimental evidence that Streptococcus thermophilus LM1012 (LM1012), a safe probiotic strain, is effective for improving NAFLD indexes. In the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet induced C57BL/6 mouse model, administration of LM1012 promoted marked reductions of aspartate transaminase (23.8%), total bilirubin (27.8%), hydroxycholesterol (64.2%), triglyceride (29.7%) and IL-1β (68.3%) compared to the MCD diet alone group. Also, the histopathological data imply that LM1012 inhibited fat accumulation and inflammation in the liver, which are the key biomarkers for progression of the disease. Together, these findings suggest that human consumption of LM1012 as a healthy nutritional supplement, may be helpful in reducing the risk of liver damages in NAFLD patients.
Low alcohol (6%) wines were manufactured using Campbell Early. To develop the sterilization process of low alcohol wines, red wines were heat sterilized, and rose wines were nonthermal sterilized by concentration using potassium metasulfite and potassium sorbate. Samples were stored at 25℃ and quality characteristics were investigated by period. Results of this study revealed the pH of the samples after sterilization ranged from 3.15 to 3.19, and the total acidity of wines ranged from 0.011 to 0.024%. The free SO2 contents of wines ranged from 13.00 to 29.678 mg/L, and the total SO2 contents of wines ranged from 47.50 to 121.00 mg/L. L (lightness) of wines decreased whereas a (redness) and b(yellowness) increased. The hue value of wines ranged from 0.52 to 1.03, and decreased significantly(not including rose sweet wines). The color intensity of red and rose dry wines after sterilization increased, whereas red and rose sweet wines decreased. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of red wines and rose wines ranged between 75.50 to 89.23%, and 36.60 to 56.54%, respectively. The total polyphenol contents were 57.51~182.63 mg%. Results of this study provide scientific information to establish the sterilization process of low alcohol wines.
To confirm the applicability of crab apple, the composition and content of amino acids and minerals with ‘Fuji’ apple were measured. Apple and crab apple were extracted with water, 70% and 100% ethanol, respectively. The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid, antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured. The amino acid composition of apples comprised a total of 17 amino acids. The total amino acid contents of apple and crab apple were 2,050.45 mg/kg and 900.05 mg/kg, respectively. For minerals, the total mineral content of apple and crab apple were 489.14 mg%, 529.77 mg%, respectively. The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid of apple and crab apple extracts were highest in 70% ethanol extracts. The content of polyphenols, the crab apple extract, showed a generally higher content than the apple extract. The content of flavonoids, apple and crab apple extracts revealed no difference between extracts. The content of ascorbic acid, apple extract showed a generally higher content than the crab apple extract, but there was no significant difference between extracts. In the case of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities, 70% ethanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, and crab apple showed higher activity than apple extracts.
In this study, the quality characteristics of kimchi, such as its salinity, pH, and acidity, were measured and compared, and the HT-29 human colon cancer cells were used to show the anticancer effects of kimchi. The kimchi samples used herein included standard kimchi (SK), turnip kimchi (TK), and turnip-powder-added kimchi (TPK). The measured pH and acidity of TK and TPK showed no significant differences with those of SK. Compared to SK and TK, TPK had higher DPPH scavenging activity and higher total flavonoid content, confirming its antioxidant activity. The cancer cell growth inhibition rates of TK and TPK were significantly higher than that of SK. In HT-29 cells treated with TPK, the mRNA expression of Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptosis-related gene, was lower, and the mRNA expressions of the apoptosis-related genes Bax, Bad, and caspase-9 were higher. TPK showed significantly higher levels of mRNA expressions for the cell-cycle-related genes p53 and p21 than the other samples, in addition to suppression effects on cancer cell proliferation. Compared to SK, TK and TPK suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells and showed higher anticancer effects. Therefore, it is shown that kimchi with added turnip powder had high anticancer effects.
In this study, we attempted to compare the quality characteristics of korean traditional wines with different amounts of corn and sorghum. These samples were analyzed for pH, total acidity, ethanol contents, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and tannin contents, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The pH of fermented wines ranged from 3.83 to 4.64 and the total acidity of samples ranged from 0.30~0.63% on the 12th day of fermentation period. After 12 days of fermentation, the alcohol content of sorghum and corn fermented wines ranged between 11.6~15.5%. The a value(Redness) of fermented wines was the highest at 8.13 in B treatment and the a value decreased as the rate of corn addition increased. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents had the highest values(162.64 and 18.44 mg/100 mL, respectively) in the E treatment which is the fermented wines of 25% Sorghum and 75% Corn. The ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the samples were 71.06~74.57% and 15.46~36.20% respectively. Antioxidant activity was higher in fermented wines with sorghum and corn than in control. As a result, this study provides useful scientific information that quality characteristics of fermented wines containing sorghum and corn and forms a basis in the food and wine industry.
This study was conducted to determine the proximate compositions, nutritional components, and antioxidant effects of white and brown enoki mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes). The crude protein and carbohydrate contents were higher in the brown than white mushrooms, whereas the moisture, crude ash, crude lipid, and dietary fiber levels were lower. The mineral contents of the white mushroom was higher than levels obtained in the brown mushroom for the detected components (Ca, Cu, K, Mn, Na, and P). The amount of vitamin B3 in the brown mushroom was 1.51 mg/100 g, which was 4.5 times higher than that in the white mushroom. The major fatty acids detected were palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were highest in 70% ethanol extracts of the white and brown mushrooms, respectively. For the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, a 70% methanol extract of the white enoki mushrooms showed an activity of 76.4% (p<0.05). For the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity, a 70% methanol extract of the brown enoki mushrooms showed the highest value. Further, the total flavonoid contents were significantly correlated with the DPPH and FRAP activities.
A total of 51 vegetables and fruits, commonly consumed agriculture products in Korea, were analyzed for their α-carotene, β- carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin contents as provitamin A. The beta-carotene content (μg/100 g) was high in a few green leaf vegetables such as coriander (5,924.07), gegeol radish leaf (5.855.72), and curried mallow (5,138.01), while α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin contents were not detected. The β-carotene in 8 kinds of 20 general vegetables was detected in the range of 214.06~1,437.67 μg/100 g, while α-carotene was detected at 460.17 μg/100 g in only old pumpkin. The β-cryptoxanthin was detected in the range of 106.55~315.49 μg/100 g in Japanese elm, watermelon, white cucumber, and lettuce. However, carotenoids were not detected in 10 kinds of agricultural products including oriental melon, potato, etc. In fruits, the beta-carotene contents ranged from 165.72~3,997.39 μg/100 g, showing maximum value in apple mango and minimum value in persimmon. The β-cryptoxanthin was detected at 232.22 μg/100 g in only passion fruit, while the α-carotene was detected at 77.25 μg/100 g in only darae. Thus, based on the analyzed results of carotenoids of agriculture products consumed or cultivated in Korea, and it was found that green leaf vegetables comprise high beta-carotene overall.