This study analyzed the chemical characteristics and physiological activity of five kinds of fresh vegetables produced in trees in early spring and tried to use them as basic data for wild vegetable producers and processed food manufacturers using wild vegetables. The crude protein, minerals, ascorbic acid, folate, total phenol, total flavonoid, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitory activity were determined. Five spring wild vegetables contain high protein and phosphorus, indicating that they are useful food ingredients as sources of protein and phosphorus. Vitamin C content was high in R. venicifera and C. sinensis shoots, and in particular, R. venicifera and A. cortex shoots have high folic acid (folate) contents of 1,903.91 ug% and 1,525.35 ug%, respectively, which is considered a good food for folic acid intake in spring. The total phenol content was between 0.52% and 1.27%, and it was the highest in C. sinensis of 1.27%, followed by the order of R. venicifera, A.cortex, K.pictus, and A. elata, which tended to be consistent with the total flavonoid content. As for DPPH radical scavenging ability, C. sinensis (55.93%) showed the highest activity, and ACE inhibitory activity showed the highest activity in A. cortex (88.04%).
This study aimed to determine the changes in the vitamin B5 content of raw and cooked vegetables. The nineteen vegetables were subjected to different cooking methods, viz. blanching, boiling, pan-broiling, and steaming. Vitamin B5 was quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using photodiode-array (PDA) detection (200 nm). The standard reference materials (SRM) were used to validate the accuracy of vitamin B5 measurement method used in this study. The cooking yields ranged from 82.63 to 107.62% and decreased in most of the vegetables except bitter melon, curled mallow, and eggplant. The raw kabocha squash, Danhobak, had the highest vitamin B5 content (0.671 mg/ 100 g) among the samples. All cooked vegetables showed lower vitamin B5 content compared to the raw samples. The true retention ranged from 0% (crown daisy, blanching) to 84.49% (kabocha squash, steaming). These results indicate that vitamin B5 is degraded after cooking. Pan-broiling and steaming are better cooking methods than the others for retaining vitamin B5. The true retention of vitamin B5 in the samples markedly depends on the cooking method and food matrix. These results can be used as important basic data for nutritional evaluation of meals.
A total of 51 vegetables and fruits, commonly consumed agriculture products in Korea, were analyzed for their α-carotene, β- carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin contents as provitamin A. The beta-carotene content (μg/100 g) was high in a few green leaf vegetables such as coriander (5,924.07), gegeol radish leaf (5.855.72), and curried mallow (5,138.01), while α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin contents were not detected. The β-carotene in 8 kinds of 20 general vegetables was detected in the range of 214.06~1,437.67 μg/100 g, while α-carotene was detected at 460.17 μg/100 g in only old pumpkin. The β-cryptoxanthin was detected in the range of 106.55~315.49 μg/100 g in Japanese elm, watermelon, white cucumber, and lettuce. However, carotenoids were not detected in 10 kinds of agricultural products including oriental melon, potato, etc. In fruits, the beta-carotene contents ranged from 165.72~3,997.39 μg/100 g, showing maximum value in apple mango and minimum value in persimmon. The β-cryptoxanthin was detected at 232.22 μg/100 g in only passion fruit, while the α-carotene was detected at 77.25 μg/100 g in only darae. Thus, based on the analyzed results of carotenoids of agriculture products consumed or cultivated in Korea, and it was found that green leaf vegetables comprise high beta-carotene overall.
The recycling of solid waste materials to fabricate carbon-based electrode materials is of great interest for low-cost green supercapacitors. In this study, porous carbon foam (PCF) was prepared from waste floral foam (WFF) as an electrode material for supercapacitors. WFF was directly carbonized at various temperatures of 600, 800, and 1,000 oC under an inert atmosphere. The WFF-derived PCF (C-WFF) was found to have a specific surface area of 458.99 m2/g with multi-modal pore structures. The supercapacitive behavior of the prepared C-WFF was evaluated using a three-electrode system in a 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. As a result, the prepared C-WFF as an active material showed a high specific capacitance of 206 F/g at 1 A/g, a rate capability of 36.4 % at 20 A/g, a specific power density of 2,500 W/kg at an energy density of 2.68 Wh/kg, and a cycle stability of 99.96 % at 20 A/g after 10,000 cycles. These results indicate that the C-WFF prepared from WFF could be a promising candidate as an electrode material for high-performance green supercapacitors.
시판 유통 중인 건조 인삼류(백삼 24점, 홍삼 26점) 포 장 제품을 수집하여 곰팡이 발생 조사를 수행하였다. 백 삼과 홍삼은 각각 50%와 46%의 시료에서 곰팡이가 검출 되었고 검출 시료의 평균 곰팡이 오염도는 각각 0.5와 0.2 log10 CFU/g이었다. 백삼에서는 Penicillium polonicum, P. chrysogenum, Rhizopus microsporus가 각각 18.2%로 우점하 였으나 홍삼은 Aspergillus spp.이 87.6%로 우점하였으며 이 중 A. chevalieri가 50.0%로 가장 높았다. 이 중 독성 종으로 알려진 P. polonicum, P. chrysogenum, P. melanoconidium, A. chevalieri 균주의 citrinin 독소 생성 가능성을 분석한 결 과, 13 균주 모두 독소 유전자가 검출되지 않았다. 이 결 과는 조사한 시료의 곰팡이독소 오염 위험은 매우 낮지만, 건조 인삼류에 곰팡이 오염이 가능함을 보여준다.
In this study, the dietary fiber content of 33 kinds of agricultural products and seaweeds was compared with that of raw products after heat treatment. To verify the total dietary fiber analysis method, the recovery rate was reviewed by measuring the total dietary fiber content for 4 standard certified substances. As a result, the recovery rate of the analysis value for the true value was 98.8%~103.1%, which was judged to be reliable. The total dietary fiber of vegetables ranged between 0.61~5.36 g/100 g for raw vegetables and 0.55~4.84 g/100 g for heat-treated vegetables. Among the 24 kinds of vegetables used in the analanalysis, the total dietary fiber content of heat-treated Korean radish (3.13 g/100 g) was the highest compared to that of raw radish (0.61 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber of beans was between 13.86~29.69 g/100 g for raw beans and 6.72~18.40 g/100 g for heat-treated beans. In particular, the total dietary fiber content of sword beans was the highest in both raw (29.69 g/100 g) and boiled (18.40 g/100 g) beans. The total dietary fiber content of the three types of seaweed was 1.93~4.85 g/100 g in raw seaweed and 0.99~5.72 g/100 g in heat-treated seaweed.
새싹삼의 곰팡이 발생을 조사하기 위해 18점의 유통중 인 새싹삼을 수집하여 곰팡이 발생빈도를 분석하였다. 전체 시료의 총 곰팡이 발생빈도는 평균 113.3-174.1%였고 Penicillium spp.의 발생빈도가 가장 높았다. 곰팡이 발생 빈도는 이끼가 잎, 줄기, 뿌리보다 유의하게 높았다. 잎과 줄기에서는 Penicillium spp.이, 뿌리에서는 Fusarium spp.의 발생이 높았으며 각각의 우점종은 P. olsonii와 F. oxysporum으로 동정되었다. 계통발생학적 분석을 통해 Fusarium spp.은 총 9개 종, Aspergillus spp.은 A. westerdijkiae와 A. favus, Penicillium spp.은 총 11개 종이 동정되었다. 곰팡이독소 생성 종으로 알려진 25균주의 독소형을 PCR로 검정한 결과 19점의 균주에서 각 독소형이 확인되었다. 이 중 A. flavus 2점과 A. westerdijkiae 11 점이 aflatoxin과 ochratoxin A을 각각 생성하였고 일부 균주는 높은 독소생성능을 보였다. 이 결과는 새싹삼 생산에 있어 곰팡이 발생에 대한 지속적인 모니터링 및 관리방안이 필요함을 시사하였다.
The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in vitamin B6 content according to the varieties, regions, and harvest times of vegetables and fruits in Korea using high performance liquid chromatography. We verified the accuracy of the analytical method with standard reference material 1849a and achieved reliability for internal analysis quality control with a mixture of cereal, whole wheat, and flour. As a result of the analysis, vitamin B6 contents (μg/100 g) were 6.9~86.5 in peppers, 5.1~17.2 in paprika, 4.4~5.0 in strawberries, 4.0~52.9 in tomatoes, 7.7~7.8 in Chinese cabbage, 17.3~23.3 in radishes, 13.4~37.6 in apples, 2.3~12.7 in peaches, and 3.7~12.7 in grapes. In general, the difference in vitamin B6 content showed by varieties, harvest times, and regions. Peppers showed the most difference as 79.6 μg/100 g among the varieties, and apples showed a difference as 22.8 μg/100 g by regions. According to the harvest times in grape ‘Mihwang’, there was a difference of 7.5 μg/100 g. We will collect an amount of nutritional data on various food materials, and continue to build a reliable and integrated nutritional database. And then the database will be used in the 10th revision of the Korean Food Composition Table.
The chemical informs about 70 individual phenolic compounds were constructed from various lettuce samples based on literature sources and analytical data. A total of 30 phenolic compounds including quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-(6''-O- malonyl) glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)glucoside, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid as major components were identified in 6 lettuce samples from Korea using UPLC-DAD-QToF/MS on the basis of constructed library. Among these, quercetin 3,7-di-O-glucoside(m/z 627 [M+H]+), quercetin 3-O-(2''-O-malonyl)glucoside(morkotin C, m/z 551 [M+H]+), quercetin 3-O-(6''- O-malonyl)glucoside methyl ester(m/z 565 [M+H]+), 5-O-cis-p-coumaroylquinic acid(m/z 339 [M+H]+) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester(m/z 369 [M+H]+) were newly confirmed from the lettuce samples. In total content of phenolic compounds, 4 red lettuce samples(2,947.7~7,535.6 mg/100 g, dry weight) showed higher than green lettuce(2,687.3 mg) and head lettuce(320.1 mg).
목적 : 유방암 환자의 자기효능감과 사회적 지지 및 지역사회참여 정도를 알아보고 작업치료중재 프로그램 개발의 기초선을 제공하고자 한다.
연구방법 : 본 연구는 H군에 위치한 병원에 외래로 방문하는 유방암 환자 40명을 대상으로 자가보고형 설문지를 배부하였고, 유방암 환자의 자가관리에 대한 자기효능감(Self-Efficacy Scale for Self-Management of Breast Cancer; SESSM-B), 사회적 지지(Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; MSPSS) 그리고 한국판 지역사회 참여 지표(Korean-Community Participation Indicator; K-CPI)를 측정하였다.
결과 : 자기효능감은 3.70±.38점, 사회적 지지는 3.49±.66점이었다. 지역사회 참여 정도는 주관적 특성 을 반영한 참여권 문항은 3.27±.65점이었다. 객관적 특성을 반영한 20개 활동들에 대하여 참여 빈도와 중요성을 알아본 결과 가장 중요하게 생각하는 활동은 가족과 시간을 보내기, 요리나 집안일을 하기 그 리고 취미나 여가활동에 참여하는 것이었다. 하지만 낮은 참여 빈도를 보였다. 각 변수간의 상관성을 알아본 결과 사회적 지지는 자기효능감(p<.01)와 지역사회 참여에서 양의 상관관계를 나타냈다(p<.001). 결론 : 유방암 환자의 사회적 역할, 관계 등을 고려한 작업치료 중재 프로그램의 개발과 추가적인 연구가 필요하다.
Beta-carotene is the most prominent member of the group of carotenoids, natural colorants that occur in the human diet. Beta-carotene is also an effective source of vitamin A in both conventional foods and vitamin supplements, and it’s generally safe. In this study, we explored the beta-carotene contents in agricultural products widely and specifically grown in Korea. The beta-carotene contents were ranging from 223 to 27,908 μg/100 g in leaves, and 0 to 7,588 μg/100 g in vegetables. In leaves and vegetables, the amount of beta-carotene was the highest in green tea powder (27,908 μg/100 g), followed by pepper (7,588 μg/100 g). In fruits, the beta-carotene content was found to range from 0 μg/1,011 g to maximum of 293.66 μg/100 g(plumcot). However, there beta-carotene was not detected in strawberry. In the case of cereals and specialty crops, the beta-carotene contents were 326 μg/100 g for non-glutinous rice, 313 μg/100 g for glutinous rice, 57 μg/100 g for amaranth and 15 μg/100 g for pine nut, respectively. However, the beta-carotene content was not detected in other samples. This study revealed the presence of beta-carotene content in agricultural products specifically grown in Korea for nutritional information and food composition database.
There has been much interest in recycling electronic wastes in order to mitigate environmental problems and to recover the large amount of constituent metals. Silver recovery from electronic waste is extensively studied because of environmental and economic benefits and the use of silver in fabricating nanodevices. Hydrometallurgical processing is often used for silver recovery because it has the advantages of low cost and ease of control. Research on synthesis recovered silver into nanoparticles is needed for application to transistors and solar cells. In this study, silver is selectively recovered from the by-product of electrodes. Silver precursors are prepared using the dissolution characteristics of the leaching solution. In the liquid reduction process, silver nanoparticles are synthesized under various surfactant conditions and then analyzed. The purity of the recovered silver is 99.24%, and the average particle size of the silver nanoparticles is 68 nm.
The present work investigated the dispersion behavior of Y2O3 particles into AISI 316L SS manufactured using laser cladding technology. The starting particles were produced by high energy ball milling in 10 min for pre- alloying, which has a trapping effect and homogeneous dispersion of Y2O3 particles, followed by laser cladding using CO2 laser source. The phase and crystal structures of the cladded alloys were examined by XRD, and the cross section was characterized using SEM. The detailed microstructure was also studied through FE-TEM. The results clearly indi- cated that as the amount of Y2O3 increased, micro-sized defects consisted of coarse Y2O3 were increased. It was also revealed that homogeneously distributed spherical precipitates were amorphous silicon oxides containing yttrium. This study represents much to a new technology for the manufacture and maintenance of ODS alloys.
In the present work, 6061 Al-B4C sintered composites containing different B4C contents were fabricated and their characteristic were investigated as a function of sintering temperature. For this, composite powders and their compacts with B4C various contents from 0 to 40 wt.% were fabricated using a planetary ball milling equipment and cold isostatic pressing, respectively, and then they were sintered in the temperature ranges of 580 to 660o C. Above sin- tering temperature of 640o C, real density was decreased due to the occurrence of sweat phenomena. In addition, it was realized that sinterability of 6061Al-B4C composite material was lowered with increasing B4C content, resulting in the decrease in its real density and at the same time in the increment of porosity.
In the present work, Al- composite powders were fabricated using a mechanical milling process and its milling behaviors and mechanical properties as functions of sizes ( , 500 nm and 50 nm) and concentrations (1, 3 and 10 wt.%) were investigated. For achieving it, composite powders and their compacts were fabricated using a planetary ball mill machine and magnetic pulse compaction technology. Al- composite powders represent the most uniform dispersion at a milling speed of 200 rpm and a milling time of 240 minutes. Also, the smaller particles were presented, the more excellent compositing characteristics are exhibited. In particular, in the case of the 50 nm added compact, it showed the highest values of compaction density and hardness compared with the conditions of and 500 nm additions, leading to the enhancement its mechanical properties.
This study investigated refinement behaviors of TiC powders produced under different impact energy conditions using a mechanical milling process. The initial coarse TiC powders with an average diameter of 9.3 were milled for 5, 20, 60 and 120 mins through the conventional low energy mechanical milling (LEMM, 22G) and specially designed high energy mechanical milling (HEMM, 65G). TiC powders with angular shape became spherical one and their sizes decreased as the milling time increased, irrespective of milling energy. Based upon the FE-SEM and BET results of milled powders, it was found initial coarse TiC powders readily became much finer near 100 nm within 60 min under HEMM, while their sizes were over 200 nm under LEMM, despite the long milling time of up to 120 min. Particularly, ultra-fine TiC powders with an average diameter of 77 nm were fabricated within 60 min in the presence of toluene under HEMM.
In this work, the dispersion behavior of particles in binary aluminum (Al)-copper (Cu) cast alloy was investigated with respect to Cu contents of 20 (hypoeutertic), 33 (eutectic) and 40 (hypereutectic) wt.%. In cases of hypo and hypereutectic compositions, SEM images revealed that the primary Al and phases were grown up at the beginning, respectively, and thereafter the eutectic phase was solidified. In addition, it was found that some of particles can be dispersed into the primary Al phase, but none of them are is observed inside the primary 6 phase. This different dispersion behavior of particles is probably due to the difference in the val- ues of specific gravity between particles and primary phases. At eutectic composition, particles were well dispersed in the matrix since there is few primary phases acting as an impediment site for particle dispersion during solidification. Based on the experimental results, it is concluded that particles are mostly dispersed into the eutectic phase in binary Al-Cu alloy system.
본 연구는 그림책을 활용한 창의적 극놀이가 유아의 상상력 및 친사회적 행동에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 알아보는데 목적이 있다. 연구 대상은 충남시에 소재한 2개의 사립유치원에 재원중인 2학급 만4세 유아 38 명으로 실험집단 19명과 통제집단 19명으로 배정하여 실험집단에 그림책을 활용한 창의적 극놀이를 10주간 총 10회 실시하였다. 상상력 차이를 알아보기 위하여 실험 집단과 통제 집단의 빈도, 백분율을 산출하였다. 친사회적 행동에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위하여 t검증을 실시한 결과 그림책을 활용한 창의적 극놀이는 유 아의 상상력 향상, 대인관계 형성능력, 유치원 적응능력에는 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.