Low alcohol (6%) wines were manufactured using Campbell Early. To develop the sterilization process of low alcohol wines, red wines were heat sterilized, and rose wines were nonthermal sterilized by concentration using potassium metasulfite and potassium sorbate. Samples were stored at 25℃ and quality characteristics were investigated by period. Results of this study revealed the pH of the samples after sterilization ranged from 3.15 to 3.19, and the total acidity of wines ranged from 0.011 to 0.024%. The free SO2 contents of wines ranged from 13.00 to 29.678 mg/L, and the total SO2 contents of wines ranged from 47.50 to 121.00 mg/L. L (lightness) of wines decreased whereas a (redness) and b(yellowness) increased. The hue value of wines ranged from 0.52 to 1.03, and decreased significantly(not including rose sweet wines). The color intensity of red and rose dry wines after sterilization increased, whereas red and rose sweet wines decreased. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of red wines and rose wines ranged between 75.50 to 89.23%, and 36.60 to 56.54%, respectively. The total polyphenol contents were 57.51~182.63 mg%. Results of this study provide scientific information to establish the sterilization process of low alcohol wines.
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality characteristics of cookies made with Angelica gigas Nakai fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei. As the content of Angelica gigas Nakai fermented by L. paracasei (AFL) powder increased, the pH of the cookies decreased from 6.3 to 5.2. There was no significant difference in the moisture content depending on AFL powder content. The content of reducing sugar also increased with increasing AFL powder content. Regarding the surface color of the cookies, the L- and b-values decreased with increasing AFL powder content, whereas the a-value increased. As the AFL powder content increased, the total polyphenol content and ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities significantly increased. Cookies with 8% AFL powder (AC8) had the highest levels of 107.16 mg%, 38.69%, and 65.56%, respectively. The texture, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness of the cookies with various AFL powder levels were not significantly different, and hardness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness showed no tendencies toward changes. Taken together, these results showed that when AFL powder was added to cookies, bioactivities such as antioxidant activity increased, making AFL powder a good material with high potential for use in commercially baked products.
This study investigated on the nutritional components and physiological activity of four wild vegetables namely Salvia plebeia R. Br., Angelica acutiloba, Gynura procumbens and Saururus chinensis Baill for the development of representative wild vegetables in Chungbuk. Salvia plebeia possessed the highest radical scavenging activity and beta-carotene, but exhibited the lowest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity compared to the other three vegetables. Angelica acutiloba showed high crude protein content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, but contained low total polyphenol content, radical scavenging ability and beta-carotene compared to the other three vegetables. Gynura procumbens showed high mineral content, beta-carotene, vitamin K1 content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, but showed the lowest total polyphenol content and radical scavenging ability compared to the other three vegetables. Saururus chinensis showed high crude fiber content and total polyphenol content, but contained the lowest mineral and vitamin K1 content. To conclude, it is suggested to use Salvia plebeia or Saururus chinensis as antioxidant food materials and Angelica acutiloba and Gynura procumbens as food materials and sources of α-glucosidase inhibitors. In particular, it is believed that Saururus chinensis, which possessed high content of crude fiber, is suitable for low-calorie food materials such as diet products.
This study examined the quality characteristics of yanggaeng with rice germ; it was incorporated into yanggaeng at different levels (containing 5% rice germ, 10% rice germ, 15% rice germ, and 20% rice germ) based on the total weight of red bean extracts. For analyzing the quality characteristics of yanggaeng, moisture content, hardness, color, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, reducing sugar, and vitamin E were determined. There was no significant difference in the moisture content and hardness except in the control. For color, lightness and yellowness of yanggaeng increased as the concentration of the powder was increased, whereas there was no significant difference in redness. As the rice germ powder was increased, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity increased significantly, whereas reducing sugar decreased. Especially, total vitamin E, including isomers, increased as the concentration of the powder increased from 0.41 mg/100 g to 4.03 mg/100 g. Therefore, it could be possible to develop processed products with functional snack for yanggaeng prepared by adding 10% rice germ.
This study analyzed the quality characteristics of Soksungjang combined with sorghum koji, according to the amount of sorghum added and the length of the fermentation period. The moisture content of Soksungjang was the lowest in the control group when there was no sorghum koji added, but gradually increased as the amount of added sorghum koji increased. The reduction in the sugar content of sorghum Soksungjang did not change according to the fermentation period of the control group, but increased alongside the fermentation period when sorghum koji was added to Soksungjang. The amino nitrogen content increased from 67.20-80.73 mg% from the beginning of the fermentation period to 173.13-383.60 mg% at the end of the fermentation period, and the total polyphenol content increased from 260.25-351.28 mg% from the beginning of the fermentation period to 567.28 mg%-674.93 mg% to the end of the fermentation period. DPPH radical scavenging activity also increased as the fermentation period elapsed, and ABTS radical scavenging activity increased and then decreased slightly over the fermentation period. The antioxidant activity was the highest in the Soksungjang mixture with a 10% concentration of sorghum koji.
Centella asiatica (CA) has been used as a nutritional plant as well as a traditional herbal medicine around the world. This study, quality component (proximate composition, total polyphenol, and triterpenoid compound), and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CA dried using various methods were investigated. Proximate compositions of CA with different drying methods included a large amount of carbohydrates, crude protein, crude ash, and crude fiber. Among the drying methods, cold drying provided the highest total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, while hot-air drying at 75℃ provided the lowest total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. In addition, when the major triterpenoid compounds of CA were analyzed, the highest content of asiaticoside of triterpenoid glycoside was obtained with all drying methods. With respect to the total triterpenoid, the highest content was obtained with cold drying (68.8 mg/g) whereas natural drying (31.4 mg/g) provided the lowest content. In anti-inflammatory activity of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, EtOH extract of cold drying showed a significantly higher inhibitory activity in comparison to the other drying methods. In conclusion, it is considered that the cold drying method is suitable for industrial preparation of functional materials with high physiological ingredients, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from CA.
This study examined the quality characteristics of Makgeolli to investigate the availability of Korean sweet potato cultivars as alcoholic beverages. The following sweet potato varieties were used: Gogunmi, Daeyumi, Shingunmi, Shinyulmi, Shincheonmi, Jinyulmi, Jinhongmi, Jeungmi and Pungwonmi; their alcohol contents ranged from 12.20% to 14.20%, with the lowest value in Makgeolli made with Jeungmi and the highest value in Makgeolli made with Jinhongmi. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was in the range of 37.51~77.02%, with the lowest value in Makgeolli made with rice (control) and the highest value in Makgeolli made with Gogunmi. As a result of analyzing the aroma component of sweet potato Makgeolli, 27 kinds of aroma components were detected, and six kinds of alcohols, 13 kinds of esters, four kinds of acids, and four kinds of other compounds were found. Regarding the number of aroma compounds, Makgeolli made with Shinyulmi showed the lowest number with 14 kinds, while Makgeolli made with Pungwonmi showed the highest number with 27 kinds.
In this study, to develop balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) leaves, which are not used as tea, a method of making green tea was referred to, and several physiological activities were analyzed using the balloon flower leaf tea with different times of roasting and rubbing. The highest total polyphenol and tannin contents were 33.02 mg GAE/g and 5.03 mg/g at two times of roasting and one time of rubbing, respectively. In the case of the total flavonoids, the RO3 + RU2, subjected to three times of roasting and two times of rubbing, showed the highest value, whereas there was no significant difference between the control and the other samples. Except for the green tea as a control, the RO2 + RU1 samples reported the highest antioxidant activity whereas it decreased with increasing number of times of roasting and rubbing. The color, lightness, and yellowness tended to decrease slightly as the number of increasing roasting and rubbing among the samples with no significant difference. All of these things together, to develop tea using the balloon flower leaves would be suitable with two times of roasting and one time of rubbing.
Melon is a fruit consumed and grown globally because of the sweet taste and pleasant aroma. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of melon jams added with various fruits such as apple, aronia, blueberry, grape, kiwi, passion fruit, and peach. We determined quality characteristics such as pH, total acidity, antioxidant activity, content of total anthocyanin, polyphenol and tannin, respectively. The 100% melon jam as the control was the highest pH and lowest total acidity, whereas mixed jams with melon and passion fruit showed opposite results. The mixed jams with melon and aronia of the total anthocyanin, the polyphenol contents, tannin, and ABTS radical scavenging activities, were markedly higher than those of the control and other samples (p<0.001), followed by the mixed jams with melon and blueberry. In the taste sensing analysis, mixed jams with melon and passion fruit revealed higher richness and lower aftertaste-bitterness and aftertaste-astringency than the commercial strawberry jam and other samples. Thus, jams mixed with various fruits, in particular, aronia, blueberry, and passion fruit were superior to the 100% melon jam in terms of physiological activity and palatability.
In this study, sulgidduk was prepared by addition of varying amount of black doraji extract and the physicochemical quality characteristics and antioxidant activities were investigated in order to explore the commercialization potential of sulgidduk supplemented with black doraji extract. The moisture content of sulgidduck supplemented with black doraji extract exhibited a significant decrease compared to the control. The pH of sulgidduck tended to decrease with increasing concentration of black doraji extract, and the reducing sugar content increased significantly from 0.33% to 3.51%. With an increase in the content of black doraji extract, a decrease in lightness (L*) and increase in redness (a*) was observed. A significant increase in the total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity) was observed with the addition of the black doraji extract. Consequently, it is proposed that black doraji extract can be used for recipe development and commercialization of various rice cakes.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Doenjang made by seven different traditional soybean paste manufacturers, in Chungbuk province during fermentation. The moisture content of Doenjang declined in the process of fermentation, from 58.07~68.86% to 52.32~63.79%. The salinity increased from 7.47~14.38% to 10.42~17.73%. Sample B was the lowest, and G was the highest. The pH showed a tendency to decline from 5.36~6.22 to 4.30~5.66 except for sample F, which increased 6.33~7.10. In contrast, the total acidity showed a tendency to increase from 0.56~1.77% to 1.11-1.83% except for sample F, which declined 0.71%~0.54%. The lightness declined from 44.33~55.90 to 26.68~49.66. However, the redness and the yellowness generally increased. The content of amino type nitrogen generally increased with the progress of fermentation from 93.33~408.80 mg/kg to 314.07~1,258.13 mg/kg and sample D, with Aspergillus oryzae added, was the highest. The volatile flavor compounds of Doenjang had 10~20 types. Sample D had the fewest number of volatile flavor compounds (10 types of compounds), and sample C had the largest number of it (20 types of compounds). Four types of compounds, ethanol, 3-methyl butanal, ethyl acetate, and 3-methyl butanoic acid, were detected from all samples.
Beta-carotene is the most prominent member of the group of carotenoids, natural colorants that occur in the human diet. Beta-carotene is also an effective source of vitamin A in both conventional foods and vitamin supplements, and it’s generally safe. In this study, we explored the beta-carotene contents in agricultural products widely and specifically grown in Korea. The beta-carotene contents were ranging from 223 to 27,908 μg/100 g in leaves, and 0 to 7,588 μg/100 g in vegetables. In leaves and vegetables, the amount of beta-carotene was the highest in green tea powder (27,908 μg/100 g), followed by pepper (7,588 μg/100 g). In fruits, the beta-carotene content was found to range from 0 μg/1,011 g to maximum of 293.66 μg/100 g(plumcot). However, there beta-carotene was not detected in strawberry. In the case of cereals and specialty crops, the beta-carotene contents were 326 μg/100 g for non-glutinous rice, 313 μg/100 g for glutinous rice, 57 μg/100 g for amaranth and 15 μg/100 g for pine nut, respectively. However, the beta-carotene content was not detected in other samples. This study revealed the presence of beta-carotene content in agricultural products specifically grown in Korea for nutritional information and food composition database.