The consumption of ready-to-eat side dishes is rapidly growing in South Korea. These foods are particularly vulnerable to microbiological contamination as they are often cooked without any treatment, such as heating or stored at room temperature after cooking. Hence, in 2022, we analyzed the ready-to-eat side dishes sold in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea for microbiological contamination. We collected 100 samples from supermarkets in 7 cities, and then examined them for presence of food-borne pathogens and sanitary indicator bacteria. In the analysis of the food-borne pathogens, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens were isolated from 51 samples (51.0%) and 3 samples (3.0%), respectively. However, both quantitatively met the Korean Food Standards Codex. Genes of five different enterotoxins and one emetic toxin were analyzed from the 51 isolated B. cereus strains. We detected enterotoxin entFM (100.0%), nheA (94.1%), hblC (58.8%), cytK (56.9%), and bceT (41.2%) in 51 isolates, and emetic toxin gene, CER, in only one (2.0%) isolate. We did not detect C. perfringens toxin gene (cpe) that causes food poisoning in any one of the three C. perfringens isolates. In the case of sanitary indicator bacteria, Kimchi had the highest levels of total aerobic bacteria and coliforms, followed by Saengchae, Jeotgal, Jeolim, Namul, and Jorim, respectively. We counted total aerobic bacteria at two different storage temperatures (4oC and 20oC) to determine the effect of storage temperature. When stored at 20oC, total aerobic bacteria count increased in most of the ready-to-eat side dishes, except for Jeotgal. This result conclusively shows the need for refrigerating the ready-to-eat side dishes after purchase. Further research is needed to assess the risk and safety of the ready-to-eat side dishes available in the market and determine appropriate safety management practices.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of beyolmijang prepared with corn (steamed and roasted corn) with different pretreatments and simultaneously added starter (Bacillus velezensis JH1). pH decreased, whereas total acidity showed a tendency to increase. The moisture content decreased slightly according to the fermentation period. In color, the L and b values decreased in all samples, whereas the a value showed a tendency to increase significantly. In microorganisms, sample D had more lactic acid bacteria, whereas the mold content was lower. The total polyphenol content was highest at six weeks in sample E, and other samples showed a tendency to decrease over eight weeks. Antioxidant activity increased significantly. In particular, the content in sample E was significantly higher. Reducing sugar showed a tendency to increase as the fermentation period increased. The highest content was found in sample C containing roasted corn at six weeks of fermentation. Amino nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen content increased in all samples. As a result of electronic tongue, sample E prepared with steamed corn, roasted corn, and lactic acid bacteria showed a low salty taste, sour taste, and high umami taste and was considered a good material for the development of byeolmijang.
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality characteristics of byeolmijang prepared several roasted whole grain powders (oat, brown rice, black soybean, corn) for eight weeks. As the fermentation progressed, the pH decreased from 6.10~6.12 to 4.48~4.92 and the total acidity increased dramatically from 0.41~0.48% to 1.67~2.24%. There were no differences in the moisture content. The content of reducing sugar decreased, in particular, brown rice sample(C) decreased significantly than the other samples during fermentation. In color, L and b-value decreased all samples, whereas a-value showed a tendency to slightly increase. The total cell counts and lactic acid bacteria revealed an increasing tendency during fermentation. In case of the amino-type nitrogen contents, it increased significantly during the fermentation period, especially control sample (A) showed the highest content significantly. The total polyphenol of all samples increased in the fermentation period. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities also increased, especially corn sample (E) had the highest levels. In by electronic tongue analysis, corn sample (E) revealed higher umami and sourness than the control. So, by adding roasted corn powder, it can enhance function and taste of byeolmijang.
This study analyzed the quality characteristics of Soksungjang combined with sorghum koji, according to the amount of sorghum added and the length of the fermentation period. The moisture content of Soksungjang was the lowest in the control group when there was no sorghum koji added, but gradually increased as the amount of added sorghum koji increased. The reduction in the sugar content of sorghum Soksungjang did not change according to the fermentation period of the control group, but increased alongside the fermentation period when sorghum koji was added to Soksungjang. The amino nitrogen content increased from 67.20-80.73 mg% from the beginning of the fermentation period to 173.13-383.60 mg% at the end of the fermentation period, and the total polyphenol content increased from 260.25-351.28 mg% from the beginning of the fermentation period to 567.28 mg%-674.93 mg% to the end of the fermentation period. DPPH radical scavenging activity also increased as the fermentation period elapsed, and ABTS radical scavenging activity increased and then decreased slightly over the fermentation period. The antioxidant activity was the highest in the Soksungjang mixture with a 10% concentration of sorghum koji.
본 연구는 현재 올레핀/파라핀 분리에서 사용되는 극저온 분리법을 대체하기 위한 촉진수송 분리막에 대한 연구이 다. 촉진수송 분리 막을 상업화하기 위해서는 비용 절감 또한 매우 중요한 요소이다. 하지만 많은 연구가 이루어지고 있는 AgBF4 는 상대적으로 고가인 은 염이기 때문에 이를 대체하기 위해 비교적 저렴한 AgCF3SO3를 이용하여 PEBAX-2533/AgCF3SO3/ Al(NO3)3 복합막을 제조하였다. 분리막의 특성은 SEM, FT-IR, RAMAN을 통해 분석되었으며, 이번 연구를 통해 고분자 매 트릭스가 장기 안정성에 영향을 준다는 사실을 확인하였다.
This study investigated the microbial community and quality characteristics of traditional soybean pastes (doenjang) based on the aging period in Gyeongnam province. The samples were collected from seven regions in Gyeongnam Province (Goseong, Hadong, Haman, Hamyang, Sacheon, Sancheong and Uiryeong). Contents of moisture, salinity, pH, and acidity of doenjang after 210 days aging were 56.40~65.21%, 9.05~16.08%, 4.88~6.86 and 0.64~2.14%, respectively. Lightness significantly decreased over the aging period, while the redness tended to increase over the aging period. Yellowness was from 21.39~26.81 to 21.10~28.36. Reducing sugar content was from 0.31~1.45% to 0.11~3.13%. The amino-type content increased from 141.87~495.13 mg/100 g to 328.53~823.67 mg/100 g. In contrast, the ammonia-type content declined from 136.74~364.70 mg/ 100 g to 128.62~331.00 mg/100 g. The overall total microbial count did not significantly differ, but it tended to decrease in sample GD4. Fungus declined overall or was not detected. Coliform groups were not detected in all samples. Lactobacillus and Bacillus cereus tended to decrease over the aging period. The common fungus and bacterium were Aspergillus oryzae and Tetragenococcus halophilus, respectively. After the aging period, the predominant fungi were Candida versatilis, Candida apicola, and Debaryomyces hansenii. The predominant bacteria were Tetragenococcus halophilus and Cronobacter sakazakii.
In this study, we developed vinegar depending on the quantity consumed and type of peeled and unpeeled roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) using Acetobacter pasteurianus A11-2, analyzed vinegar samples using colorimeter and HPLC for 15 days to assess the characteristics on quality, and evaluated their antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picry1 hydrazy1 (DPPH) and 2.2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. The major result in PG vinegar was the high acidity of 6.39~6.74% and alcohol was totally converted on the 15th day of fermentation. When we fermented vinegar from peeled roots of 8% PG with a starter culture, we observed high contents of acetic acid, platycodin D, and total polyphenol and high antioxidant activity. Moreover, the vinegar fermented using 8% peeled roots of PG had the high intensity on umami and sour taste and low salty, bitter, and astringent tastes. Consequently, we could develop the PG vinegar with quality and functional characteristics from 8% peeled roots and A. pasteurianus A11-2.
본 연구는 푸드표현활동 프로그램이 노인의 주관적 기억력, 우울, 자기표현에 미치는 효과를 파악하기 위한 단일집단 사전사후 원시실험연구이다. 연구방법은 S시에 위치한 2곳의 경로당 이용 노인 대상자 36명이 참여하였으며, 2020년 1월 8일부터 2월 17일까지 총 6회기 프로그램을 시행하였다. 프로그램 전후에 주관적 기억감퇴, 우울, 자기표현의 변화를 설문지로 조사하였다. 중재 프로그램은 신체적 이완활동, 인지활동 및 다양한 ‘푸드’를 이용하여 손의 움직임과 자기표현을 할 수 있게 구성하였다. 연구결과, 푸드표현활동 프로그램은 대상자의 주관적 기억력(t=2.67, p=.011), 우울(t=3.88, p<.001), 자기표현(t=2.09, p=.044)을 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 본 연구 결과를 바탕으로 푸드표현활동 프로그램은 경로당 이용 노인의 우울 감소와 기억력 및 자기표현을 향상을 위한 간호중재로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
Melon is a fruit consumed and grown globally because of the sweet taste and pleasant aroma. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of melon jams added with various fruits such as apple, aronia, blueberry, grape, kiwi, passion fruit, and peach. We determined quality characteristics such as pH, total acidity, antioxidant activity, content of total anthocyanin, polyphenol and tannin, respectively. The 100% melon jam as the control was the highest pH and lowest total acidity, whereas mixed jams with melon and passion fruit showed opposite results. The mixed jams with melon and aronia of the total anthocyanin, the polyphenol contents, tannin, and ABTS radical scavenging activities, were markedly higher than those of the control and other samples (p<0.001), followed by the mixed jams with melon and blueberry. In the taste sensing analysis, mixed jams with melon and passion fruit revealed higher richness and lower aftertaste-bitterness and aftertaste-astringency than the commercial strawberry jam and other samples. Thus, jams mixed with various fruits, in particular, aronia, blueberry, and passion fruit were superior to the 100% melon jam in terms of physiological activity and palatability.
호흡(prāṇa)은 삶의 근원이며 생명이다. 요가에서 호흡법(prāṇāyāma)은 들숨, 날숨, 멈춤 세 유형의 숨을 조절하는 기본적인 원리에서 출발한다. 호흡을 조절함으로써 신체에 있는 통로(naḍī)를 정화하고, 나디가 정화됨에 따라 몸의 불순물이 청결해지면서, 신진대사와 신경계통이 안정되어 몸의 구성요소가 조화로워진다. 그리고 마음까지 평온하게 유지하게 된다. 특히 소리를 동반한 호흡수련은 각성과 동시에 공명에 의한 신경계의 안정으로 심신에 유의미한 영향을 준다. 따라서 소리호흡수련은 심신치유의 기제로 충분히 활용될 수 있다. 이에 대한 방법이나 효과, 주의점, 치유방안의 기본사항을 주요문헌을 통해 살펴보았다. 현대 요가의 호흡수련은 요가자세(āsana)와 호흡법(prāṇāyāma)을 중심으로 하는 하타요가를 강조하기 때문에 Yoga Sūtra 를 근간으로 하고, 하타요가의 대표적인 경전 Haṭhayogapradīpika, Gheraṇḍa Saṁhita를 중심으로 하되 소리를 중심으로 한 호흡만 선택하였다. 승리호흡(ujjāyī prāṇāyāma), 냉각호흡(sītalī prāṇāyāma), 풀무호흡(bhastrikā prāṇāyāma), 벌소리호흡(bhrāmarī prāṇāyāma)은 일정한 소리세기로 수련하며, 풀무호흡을 제외하고는 길고 부드럽게 소리내는 것을 주로 하기 때문에 일반인들에게 기관지, 폐기능, 심혈관계에 관련된 몸의 구성요소를 안정시키는데 효과가 있다, 또한 규칙적인 호흡으로 신경계가 안정되고, 기억력이 좋아지며, 심신의 평안을 얻게 될 뿐만 아니라 초의식상태인 삼매에까지 다다를 수 있게 된다. 그러나 소리호흡수련은 적어도 12주 이상 요가전문선생(Yoga master)의 지도에 따라 단계별로 수행하는 것이 좋다. 호흡수련자에 특성에 맞게 단계별로 진행하는데 ⓵수련자의 몸상태 파악 ⓶심신의 질병 유무 및 원인 파악 ⓷조건에 맞는 호흡법 선정하기 ⓸호흡기간, 호흡단계, 시간, 횟수, 장소 등 구체화 ⓹회기 후 문진표와 지속적 관리로써 수련을 진행해 가야 한다. 중단없이, 바르게 소리호흡수련을 해나간다면 나디가 정화되면서, 감각이 조절되어 몸과 마음이 산란해지는 것을 제어하게 되고, 심신은 이전보다 좀더 안정된 상태로 발전해 나가게 된다. 이에 따라 요가의 마지막 단계인, 모든 것이 정화된 대자유(mokṣa)의 평안에 이르게 된다.
Suaeda asparagoides (Miq.) is a salt marsh plant, long been prescribed in traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension and liver toxification in Asian countries. The powder of S. asparagoides was added at the ratio of 0, 5, and 10%, respectively, of grain-type Meju to manufacture Doenjang in brine according to the salt concentration (8 and 12%). After 24 weeks of fermentation, the Doenjang samples were determined to have an anti-inflammatory effect on RAW 264.7 cells. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of Doenjang added S. asparagoides powder extracted using 80% EtOH, was performed to study the inhibition of pro-inflammatory factors such as NF-κB (nuclar factor κB), NO (nitric oxide), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha), IL-6 (interleukin-6), iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The results showed that the Doenjang extracts reduced the production of NO, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS increased in the LPS-stimulated RAW cell without cytotoxicity. In the case of the NF-κB and TNF-α there was no significant difference between the control and samples. In conclusion, these results suggest that Doenjang added with the S. asparagoides powder acts as functional fermented food with anti-inflammation effect.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity by collecting four times on six samples of Jeonbuk regional soybean pastes (Doenjang) traditionally prepared for this study. The water content of samples decreased according to progress of the aging period and the water content of the fourth sample collected was 42.40~59.64% (p<0.05). The salinity of the fourth Doenjang samples was 11.80~18.60%. The amino-type nitrogen content was 122.67~540.33 mg% immediately after the preparation of Doenjang in the Jeonbuk region and the content of the fourth collection samples increased from 251.49 to 982.36 mg% (p<0.05). The isoflavone glycosides decreased but daidzein, genistein and glycitein, which are aglycones, increased during aging periods. The total polyphenol content of the fourth collected samples was 11.99~19.27 mg GAE/g (p<0.05). The DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and FARP of the fourth Doenjang samples were 51.88~81.21%, 84.14~90.32%, and 1.08~3.11 mg Trolox/g, respectively. As a result of quality analysis on Doenjang, the superiority of traditional Doenjang has been proven by the increase of amino nitrogen content and antioxidant activity according to the aging period. However, factor analysis on quality differences of regional Doenjang should be conducted to ensure standardization and quality improvement.
Today, the fashion business environment of the 4.0 generation is changing based on fashion technology combined with advanced digital technologies such as AI (Artificial Intelligence), big data and IoT (Internet of Things). “Digital Transformation” means a fundamental change and innovation in a digital paradigm including corporate strategy, organization, communication, and business model, based on the utilization of digital technology. Thus, this study examines digital transformation strategies through the fashion brand Burberry. The study contents are as follows. First, it examines the theoretical concept of digital transformation and its utilization status. Second, it analyzes the characteristics of Burberry’s digital transformation based on its strategies. For the research methodology, a literature review was performed on books and papers, aligning with case studies through websites, social media, and news articles. The result showed that first, Burberry has reset their main target to Millennials who actively use mobile and social media, and continues to communicate with them by utilizing digital strategy in the entire management. Second, Burberry is quickly delivering consistent brand identity to consumers by internally creating and providing social media-friendly content. Third, they have started real-time product sales and services by using IT to enhance access to brands and to lead consumers towards more active participation. In this study, Burberry’s case shows that digital transformation can contribute to increased brand value and sales, keeping up with the changes in the digital paradigm. Therefore, the study suggests that digital transformation will serve as an important business strategy for fashion brands in the future.
올레핀/파라핀 분리를 위해 silver nanoparticle을 운반체로 이용하는 촉진수송막이 최근 많은 관심을 받고 있다. 기존 연구에서는 silver nanoparticle의 전구체로서 AgBF4가 사용되어 왔다. 하지만 상대적으로 고가에 속하는 AgBF4는 상업화에 적합하지 않기 때문에 비교적 저렴한 AgClO4를 전구체로 이용해 제조된 silver nanopaticle를 활용해서 PEBAX-5513/AgNPs (전구체: AgClO4)/7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) 복합막이 제조되었다. 그러나 여러 조성의 복합막이 제조되었으 나 올레핀 분리성능은 관찰되지 않았다. FT-IR 분석 결과는 PEBAX-5513 고분자 내에서 silver nanoparticle이 형성되고 TCNQ에 의해 표면이 양극성화 되는 것을 확인하였지만 형성된 silver nanoparticle이 안정화 되지 못한 것으로 분석되었다. 이러한 결과들을 통해 은염 전구체의 음이온이 올레핀/파라핀 분리막에서 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로 판단되었다.
목적 : 서로 다른 디자인의 시표를 사용하여 자각적 원거리 수평 주시시차 교정 값을 비교 및 분석해 보고자 하였다.
방법 : 35명의 시각적 불편함(설문지 기준)을 느끼는 대상자를 선정하였다. MKH 차트, 말렛 유닛, 중심융합자 극점이 있는 차트프로젝터 십자시표를 사용하여 원거리 주시시차 교정 값을 측정하고, 주시시차 교정 전후의 최소 입체각을 측정하였다.
결과 : MKH 차트, 말렛 유닛, 중심융합자극점이 있는 차트프로젝터 십자시표에서 자각적으로 측정된 원거리 수평 주시시차 교정 값은 각각 0.99±0.50 △, 0.31±0.30 △, 0.52±0.46 △으로 측정되었고 유의한 차이가 있었다(F=23.002, p=0.000). 주시시차 교정 전 최소입체각은 85.43±54.68″이었다. MKH 차트, 말렛 유닛, 중심 융합자극점이 있는 차트프로젝터 십자시표를 사용한 주시시차 교정 후에 증가된 최소입체각은 각각 58.00±40.2 1″(t=4.280, p=0.000), 75.14±54.09″(t=3.111, p=0.000), 69.14±50.66″(t=2.503, p=0.000)로 측정되었고 유의한 차이가 있었다.
결론 : 시표의 디자인에 따른 주시시차 교정 값에는 유의한 차이가 있었고, 주시시차 교정 후의 최소입체각은 모든 시표에서 유의하게 향상되었다. 본 연구에서는 서로 다른 디자인의 3가지 시표 중 MKH 차트를 통해 주시시차를 교정한 후 최소입체각이 가장 많이 향상되었다.