The purpose of this study was to identify nutrition quotient for elderly (NQ-E) and to investigate factors affecting NQ-E of the elderly using welfare center and senior citizen’s center in Changwon city. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted between June 2021 and early August 2021 for 320 elderly (≥65 years, male, n=52, female, n=268). As a result of the survey, the mean NQ-E score was 61.12, which was within the medium-high grade. The scores of balance, moderation, and dietary behavior factors were within the medium-high grade, while diversity factor was within the medium-low grade. According to the results of the Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis, NQ-E showed positive correlations with the ‘with family’ (p<0.01), ‘education level’ (p<0.01), ‘health functional foods consumption’ (p<0.01), ‘monthly household income’ (p<0.05), ‘nutrition education experience’ (p<0.05), ‘reading nutrition labeling of health functional foods’ (p<0.01), ‘perception of the efficacy of health functional foods’ (p<0.01), and ‘the number of times of leisure activities per week’ (p<0.01) and negative correlations with the ‘gender’ (p<0.05), ‘age’ (p<0.01), ‘smoking’ (p<0.05), and ‘social frailty’ (p<0.01). As a result of multiple regression analysis, ‘gender’ (p<0.05), ‘perception of the efficacy of health functional foods’ (p<0.05), ‘the number of times of leisure activities per week’ (p<0.05), and ‘social frailty’ (p<0.05) were found to be factors affecting NQ-E. Based on the results of this study, customized services by characteristic, nutrition education, and counseling for the elderly should be implemented and the development of various programs and continuous support of the community are necessary so that the elderly can carry out social exchange.
The antioxidant effects by pre-treatment of Hutgae fruit water and ethanol (30°, Soju) extract on refrigerated eels were analyzed. The antioxidant activities were measured through DPPH and ABTS scavenging effect, values of acidity, peroxide, carbonyl, and TBA. The peroxide prevention effects of linoleic acid and eel oil were also assessed. Regarding DPPH radical scavenging, Hutgae ethanol extract presented higher scavenging effects than vitamin C 5 mM solution (p<0.05). The eel’s peroxidation degree was measured through 21 days of refrigeration after cleaning and immersion into the extract solution for one hour. Upon measuring the values of four different peroxide indicators, those of eels pre-treated with Hutgae extracts were lower than those of eels untreated. The POV of Hutgae ethanol extract, vitamin C 5 mM, and the control was 11.1, 11.3, 15.5 meq/kg, respectively. Hutgae ethanol extract showed higher antioxidant activities in TBA value, and carbonyl value than other samples. In linoleic acid or eel oil, Hutgae extract was as superiorly effective in preventing peroxide generation of refrigerated eels as vitamin C 10 mM solution. In conclusion, pre-application of Hutgae water and ethanol (30°, Soju) extract on eels was proved to be competent in stopping peroxidation of eel in refrigeration.
This study compared and analyzed the antioxidant effect of Doenjang prepared from vegetable water, and explored the optimal addition ratio of vegetables of 5 kinds and the possibility of application to Doenjang. The sample is three kinds of vegetable water (VW1, VW2, VW3) prepared by adding different ratios of radish, carrot, green onion, onion and shiitake mushroom and Denjang prepared using it. Doenjang was aged and fermented at about 40°C for 40 days, and then separated and used only solids. The content of their antioxidant compounds was measured the content of total phenolic acid contents and total flavonoid contents. In addition, the antioxidant effect was measured by electron donating activity, SOD-like activity, ABTs radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The total phenolic acid contents and total flavonoid contents were high at VW3 and that Doenjang made with VW3. Electron donating activity and SOD-liked activity were high at VW2 and Doenjang made with VW2. ABTs radical scavenging activity was high in Doenjang made of VW3, and Reducing power was high in VW3. Therefore, if Doenjang is prepared with vegetable water prepared by properly mixing 5 types of vegetables, the possibility of developing Doenjang with high antioxidant effect was suggested.
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality characteristics of byeolmijang prepared several roasted whole grain powders (oat, brown rice, black soybean, corn) for eight weeks. As the fermentation progressed, the pH decreased from 6.10~6.12 to 4.48~4.92 and the total acidity increased dramatically from 0.41~0.48% to 1.67~2.24%. There were no differences in the moisture content. The content of reducing sugar decreased, in particular, brown rice sample(C) decreased significantly than the other samples during fermentation. In color, L and b-value decreased all samples, whereas a-value showed a tendency to slightly increase. The total cell counts and lactic acid bacteria revealed an increasing tendency during fermentation. In case of the amino-type nitrogen contents, it increased significantly during the fermentation period, especially control sample (A) showed the highest content significantly. The total polyphenol of all samples increased in the fermentation period. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities also increased, especially corn sample (E) had the highest levels. In by electronic tongue analysis, corn sample (E) revealed higher umami and sourness than the control. So, by adding roasted corn powder, it can enhance function and taste of byeolmijang.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of Chung-Dae Indigo Pulverata Levis, indigo naturalis) produced during indigo dyeing. As a result of in vitro cytotoxicity experiments using RAW 264.7 cell, Chung-Dae extract did not inhibit cell proliferation in Raw 264.7 cells in the range of 1~32 μg/mL. NO production was significantly reduced when Chung-Dae extracts were treated at concentrations of 2, 8, and 32 μg/mL (p<0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ significantly decreased when the Chung-Dae extract was treated at concentrations of 2, 8, and 32 μg/mL compared to the LPS group, and similarly, the TNFα and IL-6 mRNA levels also decreased. Additionally, the mRNA level of COX-2 was also suppressed. At the protein expression level, the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 were observed with LPS and Chung-Dae extract significantly decreased compared to the group treated with only LPS (p<0.05). From the above results, it shows that Chung-Dae extract, a plant-derived compound, inhibits the inflammatory response induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. and in particular, regulates the inflammatory response by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes.
Comparing the quality characteristics of kimchi were measured and anticancer effects using AGS human gastric cancer cells were observed. Five kinds of kimchi samples were made of Kanghwa Baek kimchi (KB), Kangwha Turnip kimchi (KT), Turnip: Chinese cabbage = 1:1 Baek kimchi (T1B1), Turnip:Chinese cabbage = 4:1 Baek kimchi (T4B1), Turnip mul kimchi (T). As a result T kimchi showed the best fermentation characteristics among the five samples. T kimchi had a lower percentage of the total number of aerobic bacteria, while the number of lactobacillus was higher than that of other samples. The mRNA and protein expression levels of apoptosis-related factors found that T kimchi significantly increases the mRNA expression levels of caspases-3 and caspases-9 in AGS human gastric cancer cells as compared to the other kimchi samples. It showed high anticancer effects in the order of T, T1B1, and KB kimchi. As the anticancer effect of Turnip mul kimchi made only of turnip was higher, the higher the turnip content, the higher the anticancer effect. These results show that there were changes in fermentation characteristics such as pH, acidity, number of lactic acid bacteria, and anticancer effects according to the ratio of turnip and cabbage.
The purpose of this paper was to analyze domestic patents for food using edible insects. From January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2021, patents filed with the Korean Intellectual Property Office were searched, and a total of 242 valid patents were selected. The trend of Korean patent applications for edible insect food has increased since 2015, with 57 cases (the highest number) in 2017. As for the edible insects used in food, Bombyx mori L. were the most common with 127 cases, followed by Tenebrio molitor L. with 118 cases. By type of applicant, individuals accounted for the most, with 132 cases. As a result of grouping patents by food classification, 67 cases of edible insects were used in snacks, breads, and rice cakes. As a result of patent analysis, an effort was made to supplement insufficient nutrients by adding nutritionally excellent edible insects to existing foods, and efforts were made to improve the sensory properties of insect foods. It is expected that this study will contribute to establishing future R&D directions and patent application strategies related to edible insect food.
The purpose of this study was to assess consumption and satisfaction with fresh-cut produce in Korean adults. In this study, an online survey November 9~13, 2020 was conducted with 982 Korean adults age 19~64 (490 males and 492 females) with experience in purchasing fresh-cut produce in the past year. Among all respondents, the percentage with experience in buying ‘washed or peeled vegetables’ was the highest (71.18%), followed by those in buying ‘packaged salads/sprouts/ssam vegetables’ (64.15%), ‘pre-cut fruits/fruit cups’ (59.98%), ‘pre-cut or minced vegetables’ (56.01%), and ‘washed or peeled fruits’ (53.67%), respectively. Among the types of fresh-cut produce, ‘packaged salads/sprouts/ssam vegetables’ showed the highest satisfaction score at 3.73 pts, and the overall satisfaction score of fresh-cut produce consumption was also 3.73 pts. Compared to male respondents, female respondents showed a significantly higher percentage of respondents that purchased ‘packaged salads/sprouts/ssam vegetables’ (p=0.0409), significantly higher satisfaction scores (p=0.0124), and a higher percentage of respondents considering ‘freshness’ important when purchasing (p<0.0001). Additionally, the group with high household income comprised a significantly higher ratio of respondents considering ‘eco-friendly or organic status’ important. The study results may facilitate identify areas for improvement of fresh-cut produce in the future.
The purpose of this study was to explore the marketability by developing a fresh HMR product for improving hyperlipidemia and dieting for elderly chronic disease patients and young people pursuing healthy beauty. The diet menu increased the ratio of fresh vegetables and mushrooms, and chicken breast and cheese were used as protein sources. By using whole grains, the supply of vitamins and minerals was strengthened while minimizing calories. Regarding the recipe, the diet menu was mainly prepared in the form of salads, risotto, and pasta. In the hyperlipidemia improvement menu, the proportion of fresh vegetables was increased, and as protein sources, pork shank, tofu, seafood, etc. with minimal fat were used. As a carbohydrate source, whole grains were mainly used to minimize calories while strengthening the supply of vitamins and minerals. In the recipe, it was prepared in the form of steamed or bibim-myeon, and it was also produced in a form such as paella. As a result, the developed menu was analyzed as low-calorie and evenly comprised of essential nutrients, which can satisfy palatability and nutrition.