The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations of breakfast skipping and dietary habits according to breakfast intake frequency. Subjects were 5th and 6th graders of elementary school(n=423) in Gyeonggi area. As a result of analyzing the breakfast intake frequency, ``Having everyday`` showed the highest 63.4%, followed by ``4~6 times`` 16.5%, ``2~3 times`` 13.5% and ``0~1 times`` 6.6%. As a result of analyzing the relations between mother and child in the breakfast intake frequency, it showed that the more mothers skipped breakfast, the more their children skipped it. For the reason of skipping breakfast, ``To be in time for school`` showed the highest percentage. As a result of analyzing the perception of awareness for the importance of nutrition and dietary habit according to the breakfast intake frequency, there was a statistically significant difference in breakfast intake, dietary habits, selection and intake of proper food, disease and health problem according to the breakfast intake frequency. As a result of study, it is necessary that nutrition education should not be limited to children but expanded to their parents in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of nutrition education between school and home.
These studies were conducted to investigate the effects an herbal extract composition(MHE) containing Hovenia dulcis T., Artemisa capillaris T., Pueraria thunbergiana B., Polygonatum falcatum A., Agastache rugosa O., Silybum marianum L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis F. in alcohol administered mice. Prophylactic administration of different doses of MHE(20~100 ㎎/㎏) had beneficial actions toward alcohol degradation in acute alcohol treated mice. In addition, intraperitoneal administration of the MHE showed anti-inflammatory effects in inhibition tests of vascular permeability produced by acetic acid. MHE also reduced the concentrations of nitric oxide(NO) and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α in macrophages that were activated by LPS. These results demonstrate that MHE possesses the potential to stimulate alcohol degradation and inhibit inflammatory effects in mice.
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate anti-tumor activity and detect what compounds affect its activity form Alpinia officinarum Hance. Two fractions, methanol and ethylacetate, were isolated by Amberlite XAD-2 resin column chromatography from methanol extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum. In hollow fiber assay, the methanol extract and methanol fraction were found to inhibit the tumor growth against colon tumor cell lines such as Colo-320, HCT116 and WiDr. Three diarylheptanoids [5-hydroxy-1, 7-diphenyl-3-heptanone, 5-hydroxy-7-(4``-hydroxy-3``-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl- 3-heptanone and 3, 5-dihydroxy-1, 7-diphenylheptane] and two flavonoids [galangin and kaempheride] were isolated and identified from the methanol fraction, which is higher activity than ethylacetate fraction. Among these diarylheptanoids and flavonoids, 3, 5-dihydroxy-1, 7-diphenylheptane, galangin and kaempheride as active components on anti-tumor activity were mainly posited in methanol fraction.
Previous studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids with long carbon chains such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have several health benefits. However metabolic consequences of these fatty acids themselves and their regulation of transcriptional activity involving glucose utilization are not well established. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate how EPA influx affects cellular lipid accumulation and gene expressions involving de novo lipogenesis in hepatocyte cultures. Compared to oleic acid treatment, EPA treatment showed remarkably decreased cellular TG conversion and accumulation, along with phospholipids at a lower extent. As expected, EPA increased mRNA expression involving fatty acid influx and lipid droplet formation, but did not affect mRNA expression involving glucose utilization. EPA increased transcriptional activity of PPAR-α and glucose responsive transcription factor when transcription factor binding protein was activated. Taken together, these data suggest that EPA decreases lipid accumulation through increases of the β-oxidation pathway without interruption of glucose utilization.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use behavior and satisfaction of home-baking premix products. A total of 275 questionnaires were completed and statistically analyzed by the SPSS 14.0 package. The reasons for home-baking were: fun(33.8%), quality time with the family(33.8%), and distrust in foodstuffs(13.5%). The respondents(38.9%) used home-baking premix products 2~3 times per year. And the respondents purchased home-baking premix products primarily for snack foods(83.3%). Among the selection attributes of home-baking premix products, the respondents considered the importance of ``sanitation``(m=4.16) a top priority, followed by ``taste``(m=4.15), ``ease of use``(m=4.12), ``detailed instructions`` (m=4.05), ``quality of raw materials``(m=4.04), and ``origin``(m=3.91). However, in the case of satisfaction, ``ease of use`` (m=3.81) was the most satisfying aspect, followed by ``detailed instructions``(m=3.67), ``sanitation``(m=3.56) and ``manufacturer`` (m=3.48). According to importance-performance analysis(IPA), ``quality of raw materials`` and ``origin``, which were selection attributes, should be quickly improved. Also, ``taste``, ``ease of use``, ``detailed instructions`` and ``sanitation`` should be maintained. This survey found that the satisfaction levels for home-baking premix product selection attributes had a significant influence on overall satisfaction(F=7.91, p<0.001). In particular taste(β=0.32, t=3.53, p<0.001) had a meaningful effect on overall satisfaction. In addition, the satisfaction levels for home-baking premix product selection attributes affected repurchase intention(F=8.61, p<0.001).
This study was conducted to develop a novel salad dressing composite recipe of natural seasoning containing the dried sea tangle(Laminaria japonica) that has a high preference. Sea tangle(Laminaria japonica) is included in the vitamins and minerals, magnesium, calcium, iodine, iron content, such as high, and contained in Sea tangle alginate is not a small conference known as dietary fiber. To manufacture salad dressing with sea tangle, dressing with 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12% added sea tangle were prepared and tested for quality. The pH tended to increase with the increased sea tangle in addition but in contrast, acidity showed. The ``L`` color decreased with added sea tangle, whereas the ``a`` and ``b`` values increased. Brix measurements increase with added sea tangle. The strength texture results, 0% was the highest, lowest 9%. Bitterness and chewiness texture results, 9% was the highest, lowest 0%. According to the sensory test results, in the topic overall quality 3% was by 3.76 point the highest. But, during total nine clause, in clause six, by 6% was the highest.
This study was conducted to investigate the changes in saponin content and antioxidant activity of crude ginseng and extruded ginseng by using different solvent extraction methods. Each of the fractions was first extracted by 80% ethanol followed by ether treatment to remove the lipid components. Water soluble components were separated by ethylacetate and water saturated butanol. Four fraction, including 80% ethanol, ethylacetate, butanol and water were obtained from crude and extruded ginsengs to analyze saponin content and antioxidant activity. Saponin content and antioxidant capacity of each of the four fractions were measured by LC/MS analysis and ORAC(Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay, respectively. It was found that a major portion of saponin was present in ethyl acetate and water saturated butanol fractions. When extracted by 80% ethanol, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were mostly found in crude ginseng, while ginsenoside Re and Rb1 were detected in extruded ginseng. Even though Rh1 and Rg3 were found in a very small quantity in crude ginseng, there was a significant quantity of both in extruded ginseng when extracted by 80% ethanol. Similar tendency was also observed in extruded ginseng fraction when extracted with ethyl acetate and butanol. In crude ginseng, the level of Rg1 was the highest among other ginsenosides upon extraction by ethyl acetate, while Rh1 and Rg3 were predominantly found by employing similar solvent extraction in the extruded ginseng. Also, Rg1, Re and Rb1 were also found in the extruded ginseng with small quantity. Rg1, Re and Rb1 were found in crude ginseng by butanol extraction, while Rb1 and Re were extracted from the extruded ginseng. Overall, there was no difference in the saponin content between crude ginseng and extruded ginseng when extracted by butanol and water, but twice as much of saponin was obtained by 80% ethanol extraction and 6 times more saponin were obtained in ethyl acetate fraction in the extruded ginseng. Antioxidant capacity of crude ginseng as determined by ORAC assay was higher in 80% ethanol(high in many different kinds of biological compounds) and water saturated butanol(high in polar saponin) fractions than the ethyl acetate and water fractions. No difference in antioxidant capacity was observed between crude and extruded ginseng. However, antioxidant capacity of ethyl acetate and water fractions in extruded ginseng was significantly higher than crude ginseng(P>0.05). All the fractions in both, crude and extruded ginseng possessed antioxidant capacity and even water fractions that contained almost no saponin had some antioxidant capacity. While determining correlation coefficient between fractions in extruded ginseng by Pearson correlation, it was observed that 80% ethanol fraction was in correlation with ethyl acetate(P>0.01) and ethanol(P>0.001) and in the case of ethylacetate, correlation was observed only with butanol fraction(P>0.05).
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the cooking process of Bibimbab(cooked rice mixed with various ingredients) appeared in cook books published after Korean modern era, approximately from late 19th century to the present. 7 cook books were chosen to be analyzed. It is found that the ingredients were mixed with the rice before being served in the cook books written in late 19th century until mid 20th century, while the ingredients were separately decorated on top of the rice in the cook books written from mid 20th century until late 20th century. Gochujang(Korean chilly paste), which is common spicy seasoning for Bibimbab in the present time, appeared only in Hangukeumak(1987) which is written in late 20th century. Prior to Hangukeumak(1987), chilly powder or chilly was used for chilly-based spicy seasoning. Cook books written in late 19th century until mid 20th century, ingredients used for Bibimbab had complicated cooking methods such as Jeonyueo(assorted pan-fried delicacies), Nurumi(fried beef skewer with various vegetables) and Sanjeok(grilled beef skewer). From mid 20th century until late 20th century, among the cook books analyzed in this research, only Hankukyoribaekguasajeon(1976) suggested Jeonyueo as an ingredient, and in general, the cooking method for preparing beef became simpler. For further studies, firstly, the cooking procedures used for Bibimbab in the prior period to the Korean modern era need to be examined for more information about the changes of cooking style of Bibimbab. Secondly, new Bibimbab recipes for modern restaurants could be created by using the recipes used in the historical cook books. Finally, the definitions of culinary terms used in historical cook books need to be clarified.
This present study was performed to analyze the efficiency and volatility of a porous film containing Chamaecyparis obtusa extract as a method to effectively package food compounds. Phytoncide was contacted the state of gas and showed effective antimicrobial properties. Limonene can be distilled without decomposition as a relatively stable terpene and was one of the extract components. Chamaecyparis obtusa essential oil. The optimal solvent composition was a ratio 5:20:0.3 of T-500:ethanol:hardener to effectively manufacture film containing phytoncide essential oil and the minimum antibacterial concentration was 2%. The films were made under different conditions(A-50LF1, A-25SF2, B-50SF1, C-50LF1, C-25SF2 and D-50SF1) containing phytoncide and the amounts of limonene inside the 1-L reaction chamber depending on storage were measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detention. The results showed that the 25SF2(width, 25 ㎜; length, 20 ㎝) revealed more amount of limonene compared with 50LF1(width 50 ㎜, length 20 ㎝). We confirmed that the gas emission amount showed a better layer on the film side than on the internal film. An effect of film thickness on phytoncide emissions was observed in that the amounts was less than the expectation for a thicker film at the beginning time, but the emitting amounts increased with increasing storage periods. In the storage testing of various films at 35℃ and 70% humidity for 14 days, 25SF2 showed longer preservation compared with that of 50LF in the case of bread. C. obtusa essential oil is a useful fresh ingredients, hence, analysis of limonene emission kinetics from various film was helpful to develop films with an optimal antimicrobial effect, and will allow application of such films in food packaging systems.
The effects of pH and temperature on degradation of anthocyanin in purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivars(Mokpo No.62, Borami, Jami, Sinjami and Ayamurasaki) were determined at pH ranges of 1 to 5 and temperature ranges of 20 to 80℃. The anthocyanin contents of five sweet potato varieties were 3.9, 3.8, 4.7, 4.1, 4.2 ㎎/g of dried sweet potato, respectively. Degradations of anthocyanins at different pHs and temperatures followed the first-order reaction. Our results clearly showed that the anthocyanin stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato was dependent on the source of the sweet potato cultivars. Anthocyanin obtained from Borami showed the highest stability. The half-life of antocyanin degradation of purple sweet potato cultivars(Mokpo No.62, Borami, Jami, Sinjami and Ayamurasaki) at pH 3 were 22.2, 28.3, 26.3, 23.4, 22.7 days at 60℃, respectively. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at temperatures above 40℃. Activation energies of purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivars at different temperatures were 54.67, 60.93, 71.73, 59.35, 62.28 kJ/mol, respectively.
A study was undertaken to examine the antioxidative activity and the quality attributes of broccoli stem powder pound cakes. Broccoli stem powder was added to the batter at a ratio of 5, 10 and 15% respectively. The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic compounds content and flavonoid content in Broccoli stem powder and pounds cakes. Antioxidative activity was highly correlated with the total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of broccoli stem pound cakes respectively(r=0.937, r=0.981). The effect of cake improver on quality characteristics of cake broccoli stem powder and pound cakes were estimated in terms of the specific load volume, hardness, hunter value of crumb and crust and sensory quality of cakes. The specific volume were increased significantly with increasing substitution level of cake improver and broccoli stem powder(p<0.01). The lightness were significantly decreased with increases in broccoli stem powder of pound cake crust and crumb(p<0.01, p<0.01). The hardness, chewiness and gumminess and cohesivenss were tended to reduce in both of powder. The consumer acceptability score for 5~10% broccoli stem pound cakes ranked significantly(p<0.01) higher than those of the other groups in taste, flavor and overall preference. This results showed that cake improver & broccoli stem powder are a good ingredient to increase consumer acceptability and the healthy.
The purpose of this research was to provide basic educational data on the proper eating habits of children who use the community children center. The results of the research conducted by polling the fourth, fifth, and sixth-grade children of the community children centers are summarized as follows. Male children had more meals and ate them faster than those of female children, and they also tended to watch more TV and read books. Moreover, children of families headed by fathers ate until they were full, whereas children of households headed by mothers ate less. More female than male children skipped breakfast, and the percentage of children who had their meals alone was high among children reared by their grandfathers. Most of the children ate only what they liked. Moreover, male children ate only particular fruits and vegetables, whereas female children ate only beans and miscellaneous cereals. Most of the children recognized that they had eating problems, such as eating only what they liked and eating meals on irregular schedules. Such eating habits were affected mainly by family members such as parents, brothers, and sisters. Female children scored higher than male children in terms of nutrition and hygiene knowledge. Approximately 40~50.3% of all subjects became interested in nutrition and hygiene education at the community children center. Most of the children recognized that nutrition and hygiene education is necessary at the community children center. They also recognized their own eating problems and wanted nutrition and hygiene education to be taught at the community children center. Accordingly, regular educational activities and meals for children in the community children center considered a children`s particular home background to improve eating habits in the children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the cooking process of Pat-juk(red beans porridge), Jat-juk (pine-nut porridge) and Tarak-juk(milk porridge) in cooking books published after Korean modern era, approximately from late 19th century to the present. We analyzed 11 historical cook books were analyzed. It is found that the amount of red beans used for Pat-juk was the same or more than that of rice but never less than rice. Only one cook book suggested sugar as seasoning for final taste, but all the other cook books mentioned salt for final taste. Hangukeumat(1987) suggested the method for obtaining optimum color for Pat-juk. After smashing and passing through the cooked red beans, collecting the red bean water to boil first and then adding the passed through red beans to boil together, in which rice will be added the last to be boiled. For Jat-juk, the ratio of the amount of pine-nut and rice were varied among cook books that the amount of pine-nut can be more, same or less than rice. Jat-juk can have salty or sweet, so sugar, honey or salt were used for final seasoning. Pine-nut and rice were cooked together or cooked successively depending on cook books. The changes in cooking procedures of Tarak-juk were the portion of milk used and the method of preparing rice before making the porridge. Firstly, the portion of milk increased over time. Tarak-juk can be also tasting both sweet or salty, so sugar or salt was used for final seasoning. Secondly, two method of preparing rice were found; one is that rice was ground after soaking in water and the other is that rice was ground and toasted before putting into the porridge. When the ground rice was toasted, the milk was added with water at the same time because the cooking time of the porridge with toasted rice was shortened so that the milk could be added earlier than the other method without the risk of sticking on the bottom of the pot. In further studies, the cooking procedures used in the previous period of the late 19th century should be examined. Also after restoring all the cooking methods suggested in cook books, the comparison of the sensorial and nutritional value needs to be carried out for applying or reinventing new recipe for food industry.
찹쌀전분의 고압처리시 pH 3~10 조건에서 고유점도는 1.328∼1.426 ㎖/g 범위로 원료전분(1.15 ㎖/g)보다 낮았다. 특히, 고유점도는 산성 및 알칼리성 조건에서 감소하였다. 전분의 호화과정 중 열에너지량을 나타내는 호화엔탈피는 pH 3, 4 및 5 조건에서 고압처리한 찹쌀전분이 각각 13.86, 13.47 및 13.42 J/g으로 원료전분(16.3 J/g)보다 낮은 값을 보였다. 찹쌀전분의 호화온도 및 엔탈피 감소는 고유점도가 낮아지는 현상과 일치하였다.
We identified the intake pattern and consumption propensity of milk and sought improvements to promote consumption of milk. We targeted 362 preschool children aged 5~7 years old who attended nursery school in the Bucheon area. Questionnaires were distributed and 328 questionnaires were collected. Approximately 36.2% of boys and 31.2% of gorls drank milk six times per week. A total of 32.9% of the preschool children drank more than 2 cups of milk/day. Approximately 72.9% of them currently drink white milk, and 46.0% preferred milk to processed milk. The reasons why they drink milk included ``want to be tall``(66.5%) and ``good health``(52.4%). Mothers(54.6%)and preschool children(39.3%) were the purchasers with the greatest impact on product purchases. Consumer propensity to buy milk was shown in the order of expiration date(4.80 points), and nutrition facts(4.01 points). (4.88 points) and enhanced nutrients(4.59 points) should be promoted for milk consumption. Therefore, it is thought that continuous nutrition education should be made together in order to increase consumption of milk of children and education targeting teachers and school parents should be conducted as well. And in order for children to drink milk without repulsion, the development of various products satisfying both symbolic aspects and nutritional aspects should continue to be made.
황련은 염증, 항균, 고혈압 및 항암 작용을 지닌 중요한 전통 한약재이다. 황련 뿌리 메탄올 추출성분은 CPC와 HPLC 방법으로 정제하였다. CPC의 최적 용매 조건은 n-butanol:acetic acid:water(4:1:5)이었다. Berberine(16.8 ㎎)은 CPC와 HPLC 방법에 의하여 효과적으로 분리하였다. 이 물질의 화학적 구조는 1H, 13C-NMR과 ESI-MS 데이터 분석에 의하여 확인되었다.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of rice bran dietary fiber powder on serum lipid levels, bowel function, and mineral absorption in rats. Four weeks old male Sprague Dawley rats(SD rat) were divided into four groups : control group fed 5% cellulose as a fiber source, RB10 fed 5% of cellulose and 10% of rice bran dietary fiber powder, RB20 and RB30. The animals were fed the experimental diets for 4 weeks. Serum lipid levels were not significantly different among the groups. But, fecal total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides(TG), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c) excretion increased in the RB30 group. Fecal weight and fecal water content were higher in the rice bran added groups than those in the control group. Transit time was significantly shorter in the rice bran fiber-added groups than that in the control. Weight of the stomach and large intestine in the RB20 and RB30 groups were significantly greater than those in the other groups. Absorption rates of Ca, Mg, P, and Zn decreased significantly in the RB30 group compared to those in the other groups. A high amount of rice bran increased fecal lipids, including TC, TG and HDL-c. Rice bran increased fecal weight and fecal water content and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. However, a high level of rice bran diet decreased mineral absorption rates.
This study was performed to assess the relationships among bone mineral density, anthropometric measurements, maternal factors and exercise in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Anthropometric measurements were taken by a trained practitioner and the maternal factors of the 78 subjects in Gyeonggi-do were acquired by an interview questionnare. The BMD of the lumbar spine(L2~L4), femoral neck, Ward`s triangles and trochanters were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean age of the premenopausal women was 45.23 years and that of the postmenopausal women whose ase of menopause was 49.37 years was 61.27 years. The age, waist and waist to hip ratio of postmenopausal women were significantly higher than those of premenopausal women. BMD of the lumbar spine(L2~L4) in postmenopausal women was significantly higher than that of premenopausal women. Number of children and age at last delivery were significantly higher in postmenopausal women than those in premenopausal women. The BMDs of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of premenopausal women was positively correlated with weight, body mass index, waist and WHR and the BMDs of these two sites in postmenopausal women were positively correlated with height, and weight. In postmenopausal women, BMD of the lumbar spine was negatively correlated with duration time after menopause and BMD of the femoral neck was positively correlated with age at last delivery. These results suggest that it is necessary to maintain adequate body weight. Health management and education about performing more exercise are recommended for postmenopausal women to prevent osteoporosis.
The purpose of this study was to investigate foodservice management practices in the child care centers and kindergartens. Interviews were held from May to July 2008 to understand the current situation concerning foodservices in Seoul and Gyeonggi provinces. Surveys were sent out from August 2008 to April 2009 to 1, 478 child care centers and 299 kindergartens via the postal service. Among them, 203 child care centers(13.7%) and 64 kindergartens(21.4%) responded. One of the largest concerns while preparing the food was nutrition(68.7%, 69.8%, respectively) followed by sanitation(24.4%, 27.0%, respectively). The most frequently referred sources for planning the menu were the Seoul child care information center(55.4%) for child care centers and kindergarten related internet sites(39.0%) for the kindergartens. In general, the child care center principal was in charge of planning the menu(40.1%). Child care centers and kindergartens purchased ingredients mostly from large retailers(55.3% and 44.7%, respectively), whereas 46.0% and 56.3% of those did through foodservice suppliers. Dietitians were rarely employed at these facilities, and this may cause unprofessional foodservice management.
In this study, we made Sulgidduk with commercialized dried nonglutinous rice flour and different levels of soybean curd. For physical properties of the bean curd-Sulgidduk, its water content was increased significantly with a growing addition of soybean curd. In chromaticity, its L value(brightness) and a value(redness) were decreased significantly with more bean curd while b value(yellowness) went up in Sulgidduk with a large amount of rice flour but went down significantly in the Sulgidduk with a small amount of it. Its hardness of texture was found to be the highest in the Sulgidduk with the most dried nonglutinous rice flour and it tended to be higher with more rice flour and less soybean curd. For cohesiveness, it was recorded to be the highest in the Sulgidduk without soybean curd and showed a tendency of decreasing by adding the bean curd but increased later significantly. In addition, its springiness and brittleness became larger with addition of more dried nonglutinous rice flour. From these results, the best ratio of the bean curd-Sulgidduk to increase nutrition and absorption and to satisfy physical and sensory properties, was 420 g to 500 g of soybean curd to dried nonglutinous rice flour. Moreover, it was considered to decline the calorie of Sulgidduk by adding soybean curd as a material and to contribute to its commercialization by extending storage and preservation time of soybean curd with a short expiration date.