The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the consumption behavior of housewives in the Jeonju area with respect to their use of environmentally-friendly agricultural products(EAPs) and to assess the need for EAPs in childcare centers also in the Jeonju area. Self-administered questionnaires were given to and collected from 278 housewives 42.4% of whom employed and 57.6% were unemployed. Statistical data analysis was performed on the data collected using SPSS v. 12.0. The average score of awareness about EAPs was 3.57±0.56. The percentage of subjects who purchased EAPS was 76.3% regularly. On this group, 40.3% purchased EAPs 1～2 times in week. Unemployed housewives purchased more than employed housewives by a statistically significant margin(p<0.05). The most-purchased EAPs were vegetables. The average satisfaction score that housewives reported in relation to foodservice provided in childcare centers was 3.66±0.58. About 65% of the respondents felt that the EAPs-foodservice in childcare centers was an important factor for them in choosing of a childcare centers. Approximately 42% of the housewives responded that EAPs-foodservice in childcare centers was needed to improve the safety of foodservice provided in chidcare centers. The percentage of subjects who wanted to expand EAPs-foodservice in childcare centers even though the parents would have to bear some of the financial burden was 42.5%. A higher proportion of employed housewives wanted to expand EAPs-foodservice in childcare centers more than unemployed housewives, and this finding was statistically significant(p<0.05).
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chestnut inner shell powder on antioxidant activity and the quality characteristics of cookies. Cookies were prepared with different amounts of chestnut inner shell powder(in ratios of 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5% to the flour quantity). The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the total phenol content in chestnut inner shell powder and cookies. For analyzing quality characteristics, bulk density and pH of the dough, spread factor, loss rate, leavening rate, color, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluations were measured. The spread ratio, a values, total phenol contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of cookies significantly increased with increasing chestnut inner shell powder(p<0.001), while the pH of the dough, L values and b values of the cookies significantly decreased with increasing chestnut inner shell powder content(p<0.001). The consumer acceptability score for the 3% chestnut inner shell cookie groups ranked significantly higher(p<0.01) than those of the other groups in overall preference, flavor, taste and color. From these results, we suggest that chestnut inner shell is a good ingredient for increasing the consumer acceptability and the functionality of cookies.
iarrheal diseases constitute one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children globally. One of the main microorganisms causing diarrheal diseases is Campylobacter jejuni. For treatment of these diseases, Portulaca oleracea has been widely used as a folk remedy for a long time. This study was performed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of P. oleracea against gastroenteritis pathogens including C. jejuni. P. oleracea was extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate, methanol, and hot water. The antimicrobial activity of the P. oleracea extracts was determined using the paper disc method, minimum inhibitory concentration, and the liquid culture method. The 10 ㎎/㎖ ethylacetate extract showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteriditis, and Shigella spp.. The hot water extract from P. oleracea showed the highest anti-microbial activity against C. jejuni at 10～20 ㎎/㎖. The hot water extract of P. oleracea retarded the growth of C. jejuni for 36 hr at 42℃.
The inhibitory activities of a water extract of Sanghwang mushroom(Phellinus linteusau)(SWE) against α-glucosidases were evaluated in this study. Inhibiting these enzymes involved in the absorption of disaccharides significantly decreases the postprandial increase in blood glucose level after a mixed carbohydrate diet. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities of the SWE were evaluated to investigate the antioxidant activity of the SWE associated with complications of long-term diabetes. Furthermore, the postprandial blood glucose lowering effect of SWE was compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug(Acarbose®) in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. SWE significantly reduced the blood glucose increase after sucrose loading. These results suggest that SWE, which has high α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and high antioxidant activities, has the potential to contribute to a useful dietary strategy for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia.
After a mixed carbohydrate diet, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase involved in the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates can significantly decrease the postprandial increase of blood glucose level. In the course of screening these useful enzyme inhibitors, we selected five kinds of bean, using an in-vitro enzyme inhibition assay method. To evaluate the effect of germination process on the functionality of the bean, we investigated the inhibitory activities of the water extracts of non-germinated bean and germinated bean against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, relevant to postprandial hyperglycemia. We also investigated the oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC), total phenolics content, and postprandial blood glucose lowering effect in rats(Sprague-Dawley rat model). Most germinated beans showed significantly higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, compared with non-germinated beans. Among germinated beans, Glycine max had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity(53.3%). The water extract of germinated Phaseolus vulgaris L. had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity(95.1%), followed by Glycine max(58.7%), and Glycine max L. Merr(54.1%). Furthermore, the five germinated beans also showed high antioxidant activities in ORAC assay. Results suggested that the germination process may improve and enhance the anti-hyperglycemia potential and antioxidant activity of the bean.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different active gluten and rice Nuruk(Asp. oryzae, Asp. kawachii rice Nuruk) levels on the quality properties of steamed rice breads. Enzyme(amylase and acidic protease) activity of Asp. oryzae rice Nuruk is higher than Asp. kawachii rice Nuruk. Among the loaf volume of active gluten that were tested (10, 13, 15 and 17%) an active gluten loaf volume of 15% produced the best steamed rice bread. As a result of the loaf volume test steamed rice bread with rice Nuruk was decreased than steamed wheat bread. Regarding color, all treatments produced significant differences. The L value was decreased in steamed rice bread more than in steamed wheat bread, and a and b values were increased, respectively. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness of SRB-2, 3, 4 were lower than SWB-1 but springiness were higher. According to the sensory evaluation of steamed rice bread, color, flavor, and uniformity of pores were the highest in the steamed wheat bread, and the chewiness and texture were good in the steamed rice bread containing added active gluten and rice Nuruk. In this study, addition of rice Nuruk in steamed rice bread did not increase loaf volume, but had an advantage for overall desirability.
In this study, we determined total polyphenol content(TPC) and total flavonoid content(TFC) of extracts from Korean cabbage and cabbage using a spectrophotometric method as well as glucosinolates concentration by HPLC. TPCs of Korean cabbage and cabbage extracts were 308.48 ㎍ GAE/g dry weight and 344.75 ㎍ GAE/g dry weight, respectively. TFCs of Korean cabbage and cabbage extracts were 5.33 ㎍ QE/g dry weight and 5.95 ㎍ QE/g dry weight, respectively. We found six different glucosinolates, namely progoitrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucobrassicin and 4- methoxyglucobrassicin in the Korean cabbage extract. In the cabbage extract, there was four glucosinolates, namely glucoraphanin, sinigrin, glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin. We determined the cytotoxic effect of Korean cabbage and cabbage extracts in AGS human stomach cancer cells, HepG2 human hepatic cancer cells and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by MTT assay. Dose-dependent relationships were found between the extract concentrations and cancer cell growth inhibition. The overall results support that both Korean cabbage and cabbage, the major vegetables in Korea, contain bioactive compounds such as polypheol, flavonoids as well as glucosinolates and they may play a positive role in cancer prevention.
The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory quality attributes for the development of soy sauce containing Hutgae(Hovenia dulcis Thunb). Aqueous extracts of Hutgae were prepared from different parts such as trunk, twig, and fruit. These extracts were used for determining the antioxidant effect by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity and sensory evaluation. Hutgae twig and fruit extracts had a strong DPPH scavenging effect compared to Hutgae trunk extract. In sensory analysis, high intensities of roast smell, bitter taste, and astringent taste were observed in Hutgae twig extract, whereas those of sweet smell and sweet taste were predominated within Hutgae fruit extract. Hutgae trunk and fruit extracts obtained higher overall acceptability. Various seasoning items such as anchovy, dried-pollack, katsuobushi, shiitake, radish, and kelp were used to determine the suitable type of soy sauce containing Hutgae extracts regarding the different parts. Hutgae fruit and trunk extracts were evaluated for use as a good source of seasoned soy sauce, and the dried-pollack and radish among the seasoning items were well-matched with Hutgae extracts. From these results, soy sauce containing Hutgae trunk and fruit extracts added to dried-pollack soup may be used as a functional seasoning in order to remove hangovers.
The volatile flavor compounds of the essential oils from Ixeris dentate (Thunb.) Nakai and I. stolonifera A. Gray were investigated. The essential oils were extracted by hydro distillation extraction method. Ninety-three volatile flavor components were identified from I. dentate (Thunb.) Nakai essential oil. Hexadecanoic acid(33.73%) was the most abundant compound, followed by (Z, Z, Z, )-9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid(18.59%), 6, 10, 14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanonel(10.39%) and phytol(5.21%). Ninety-seven volatile flavor components were identified from the essential oil of I. stolonifera A. Gray. Hexadecanoic acid was the most abundant component(39.7%), followed by (Z, Z, Z)-9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid(12.63%), 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester(12.36%), pentacosane(5.2%) and 6, 10, 14-trimethyl- 2-pentadecanone(3.18%). The volatile composition of I. dentate (Thunb.) Nakai was characterized by higher contents of phytol and phthalides than those of I. stolonifera A. Gray. The volatile flavor composition of I. stolonifera A. Gray can easily be distinguished by the percentage of sesquiterpene compounds against I. dentate (Thunb.) Nakai essential oil.
물(water, TW), 에탄올(ethanol, TE) 및 핵산(n-hexane, TH)을 이용하여 탱자씨 추출물(trifoliate orange seed extracts, TSEs)을 각각 제조한 후 그람양성 식중독균 6종(Bacillus cereus KCCM 11341, Bacillus subtilis KCTC 1022, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 12692, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 19111, Streptococcus mutans KCTC 3065 및 Yersinia enterocolitica KCCM 41657)에 대한 항균활성과 Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3025에 대한 프레바이오틱 효과(prebiotic effect)를 측정하였다. 그 결과, 탱자씨 핵산추출물(TH)은 S. aureus ATCC 19111에 대해 배양시간이 증가함에 따라 대조군에 비해 강한 증식저해활성을 보였으며, 탱자씨 에탄올 추출물(TE)은 약간의 증식저해활성을 보였다. 특히, 배양 81시간 후 대조군은 90.31%의 증식활성을 보인 것에 반해 탱자씨 핵산추출물과 에탄올추출물은 64.95%와 75.50%의 증식활성을 각각 보였다. 탱자씨 추출물의 Lb. acidophilus IFO 3025에 대한 프레바이오틱 효과는 대조군에 비해 증식활성을 보이지는 않았으나, 적어도 생육저해효과를 보이지는 않았다. 따라서 탱자씨의 핵산 및 에탄올 추출물은 S. aureus ATCC 19111에 대한 항균활성물질로서의 가능성을 제시하였다
One of the main microorganisms causing diarrheal diseases is Campylobacter jejuni. Purslane or Portulaca oleracea is an edible plant containing polyphenols that has been widely used as a folk remedy for treatment of diarrhea for a long time. This study was performed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of fermented P. oleracea extracts made with probiotics and plant-origin lactic acid bacteria(PLAB) isolated from P. oleracea against C. jejuni. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Bifidobacterium longum were applied to P. oleracea to make a fermentation broth of purslane. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and the lactic acid bacteria isolated from P. oleracea grew best in the fermentation broth of P. oleracea extracts when the broth was combined with 2% yeast extract, 1% peptone, and 0.05 to 1% potassium phosphate. The number of viable cells in the fermentation broth containing purslane extracts after 48 hours increased to 1×1012 CFU/㎖ and remained at 1.3×1010 CFU/㎖ after refrigeration for 2 weeks. The pH and acidity of purslane-fermented broth after 48 hours of fermentation was 3.7 and 3.14, respectively, which show that the fermentation broth was within the range of the general standards of fermented dairy products. The antimicrobial activity of the fermented P. oleracea extracts was determined using the liquid culture method. The 10 ㎎/㎖ concentration of the fermented P. oleracea extract made with Leuconostoc mesenteroides and the lactic acid bacteria isolated from purslane showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against C. jejuni. The fermentation broth of purslane with the probiotics retarded the growth of C. jejuni for 48 hours at 42℃.
n this study, Kimchi usage was examined by nationwide consumers. 1, 000 consumers between 20～60 years olds from 15 cities/province based on an administrative district participated in this questionnaire, which were one-on one interviews from September 23th to October 14th, 2009. 76.1% of the customers prepared Kimchi by them self, 26.9% customers received Kimchi from relatives and, 13.1% purchase Kimchi from the market. In addition, the rate of preparing Kimchi by themselves increased with age(p<0.05). 4～6 cabbage heads(34.5%) was the most preferred quantity for preparing Kimchi at a time, which was followed by more than 10 heads(25.2%) and 2～3 heads(22.9%). Chinese cabbage Kimchi was the most preferred type for purchase. 49.1% of customers purchased Kimchi at the supermarket and warehouse market and the origin of the ingredients, taste and-, price of Kimchi were considered important factors. The satisfactory scores of selling Kimchi were variety 3.60, taste 3.11, freshness of main ingredient 3.10, hygiene 2.86, -appropriate salt usage 2.99 and-, the origin of ingredients 2.94. There were significant difference between gender in taste and hygiene of selling Kimchi (p<0.05). In conclusion, to provide more appropriate Kimchi based on changes in Kimchi usage and consumption patterns at home and in the community, new types of Kimchi should be developed.
Proper skin care promotes good metabolism and the biological activity of skin, helps maintain the skin in a healthy and beautiful state when combined with nutritional nourishment. Health functional foods are being used for the purpose of enhancing efficient skin care. Health functional foods related to skin care maintain the epidermis, dermal fibroblast layer and subcutaneous tissue that form the skin. Efficient functional foods alleviate the signs of endogenous aging that come with getting older and exogenous aging caused by sunlight. Even though the field of skin care related to health functional foods has received less attention and been the subject of less research compared to functional cosmetics which are developing widely, this area of skin care that maintains and improves the layer of dermal fibroblast through the intake of food, is expected to progress with the commercialization of products in many fields when the related technical research development is galvanized and the related patents are applied for. Research into health functional foods related to skin care in Korea started rather late in comparison to other advanced countries where patents for relevant techniques have been applied for since 1990's together with research conducted on how they might be used for practical purposes. This study used the key words ‘skin care, health functional food’ to search for Korean patents that have been applied for at the Korean Intellectual Property Office from 1983 to 2011 using the KIPRIS database, in order to help researchers in the related fields by organizing the patented formulas for health functional foods for skin care which have gained attention recently. According to the number of registrations in each industry field, the total number of patents was 1, 120 we screened the major patents among them, the field with the largest number was food foodstuff non-alcoholic beverage and preparation or treatment(A23L) with 135, then natural plant medicine & medical supplies and cosmetics(A61K) with 112, microorganisms or enzymes(C12N) with 63, heterocyclic compounds(C07D) with 44, horticulture or cultivation of sea weeds, forestry(A01G) 16 times, listed from the highest to the lowest number of applications. It has been revealed that food, foodstuff, non-alcoholic beverage and preparation or treatment(A23L) was the industry field where the most patents for health functional foods related to skin care were registered.
We investigated the quality characteristics of cookies prepared after the addition of various concentration of used guava leaf powder(0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, all w/w) as a substitute for flour. In this study, as guava leaf powder concentration rose, there was a decrease in the water content level. In addition, color, spread factor, hardness and sensory evaluation of the cookies were examined. The results showed that with an increase in guava leaf powder concentration, the L value decreased significantly, while the values for a and b of cookies increased when more guava leaf power was added to cookies. The spread factor of cookies decreased, but the hardness of cookies increased significantly, as guava leaf powder concentration increased. Cookies containing 0% and 3% of guava leaf powder showed a similar sensory evaluation score in terms of color, taste and flavor of the cookies. In the case of texture and overall consumer acceptability, cookies with 3% of guava leaf powder showed the highest score.
The evaluated physicochemical and sensory properties of freeze-dried Shingo pears(Pyus pyritolia Niitaka), cultivated at Cheonan city, prepared using different sugar concentration of blanching solution we evaluated. Sliced Shingo pears(5 ㎜ and 7 ㎜ thickness) were blanched in sugar solution(0, 3, 5, 7, 10%) and freeze-dried to make dried fruits snack. The firmness of the pear snack sliced in 7 ㎜ portions was greater than the pear snacks sliced in 5mm pieces. However in sensory evaluation, pear snacks sliced in 5 ㎜ portions showed higher scores. pH and titratable acidity showed no significant difference in the blanching process. Concentration of total phenollic compound in fresh pear was 3.7 ㎎% but freeze-dried pear snacks showed higher values at 15 ㎎%. Sensory evaluation tests showed that the scores for texture decreased as the thickness of the snack and sugar concentration of blanching solution increased; however the score increased(p<0.05). Color intensity and overall acceptability scores were highest in pear snacks sliced in 7 ㎜ pieces and blanched with 7% sugar solution.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of consumption and consumer satisfaction of dietary fiber supplements. The survey was conducted using a self-recorded questionnaire developed to meet the purpose of this study. The characteristics of the subjects who have taken dietary fiber supplements in the past are as follows: distributions of socioeconomic variables showed that the highest-ranked group(the group that reported the highest consumption of dietary fiber supplements) was professionals with a college degree or higher degree. In addition, the highest-ranked group were the most healthy, nonsmokers and reported drinking habits of ‘1～2 times/week’. Regarding the health status of those surveyed, digestive disease and constipation were the most common complaints. The majority responded with ‘health concerns’ to the question that asked the reason for their purchase of the dietary fiber supplements. Three major places respondents could find dietary fiber supplements were ‘through the internet’, ‘the market’, ‘the pharmacy’ in descending order. The compositions of dietary fiber products varied. ‘konjac’, ‘cellulose’, ‘psyllium husks’ were the most popular components consumed by the subjects. The average duration of product consumption was less than one month. In terms of satisfaction levels(satisfaction was ranked from 1 to 5), ‘taste’ and ‘type’ scored the highest in satisfaction levels while ‘price’ ranked the lowest. When subjects were asked about self-awareness regarding the physiological efficacy of dietary fiber supplements, the responses were positive in ‘bowel movement’ and ‘weight loss’. Further research is required to improve the quality of dietary fiber supplements in order to assist consumers in selecting the appropriate products.
The purpose of this study was to provide basic information regarding desirable body image recognition by examining body image recognition 395 middle school students in the Chungnam area. The average age of the subjects was 13.7 years for boys and 12.6 for girls. Their average height and weight were 165.4 ㎝ and 57.1 ㎏ for boys, and 155.7 ㎝ and 48.8 ㎏ for girls. As for body shape, girls thought that they were overweight more often and wanted to lose weight compared to the boys. Over half of the respondents answered that their weight control efforts were not systematic such ad via professional counseling. Weight control by students was attempted by themselves in order to control their weight by skipping meals. Further, the subjects exhibit dietary behavioral problems such as overeating, skipping meals, unbalanced diet, and eating speed. In conclusion, correct body image recognition is needed and families and schools should make efforts to help students properly control their weight and adopt proper eating habits.
This study aimed to analyze the effect of demographic characteristics of consumers and quality recognition factors on purchase intention of organic wine, and to provide preliminary data necessary for the development of wine industry. By factor analysis of collected surveys, quality recognition factors of both the experienced and non-experienced group of organic wine environment/health, varieties of grapes, price, and four brand elements. First, among demographic characteristics, only income level hae a significant influence on the changes in quality recognition causes. Each of quality recognition causes of organic wine had a significant relation with purchase intent. The result of our analysis suggested that ‘environment/health’ was most influential for the experienced group, and ‘health’ was most influential for the non-experienced group. Therefore, this hypothesis is supported.
To evaluate the antioxidant and potential of Humulus japonicus, total polyphenol and flavonoid content, radical scavenging activities, and antitumor activities were measured. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the methanol extracts from Humulus japonicus were 30.13±1.13 and 13.61±0.49 ㎎ gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of methanol extracts of Humulus japonicus were 60% and 35%, respectively. The Humulus japonicus higher activities of anticancer activities on liver cancer cell lines compared to other cancer cell lines.
Corn has been used for a long time as a traditional remedy, as well as a food source. We previously reported that in vitro supplementation of corn water extracts enhanced the proliferation of splenocytes, compared to the control group. In this study, we examined the immunomodulative effect of a water extract of corn. Seven to eight weeks old mice(Balb/c) were fed an ad libitum chow diet, and were orally administrated a water extract of corn every other day, for four weeks, at two different concentrations(50 and 500 ㎎/㎏ B.W). Cytokine production(IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ) by macrophages stimulated with LPS or not stimulated with LPS was detected by ELISA assay using the cytokine kit. In an ex vivo study, the cytokines IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ were detected at 500 ㎎/㎏ b.w. supplementation group with LPS stimulation in all cases. Also, the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-10 was in the range of 0～3 with mitogen stimulation, such as con A and LPS. In conclusion, this study suggests that in mice, corn extracts may enhance immune function by regulating the cytokine production(IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ) of the activated macrophages.