The purpose of this study is to analyze information about dietary information presented in the television broadcast media in order to determine the optimal communication method that will provide desirable information to the general public. To that end, stakeholders were recruited and trained before and during the study. Three airwaves broadcasters and four comprehensive programming channels were monitored for Three months. The results are as follows. In total 172 food and nutrition programs are reported on. As information from the monitored programs was investigated, results showed a frequency of 136 separate informative programs (79.1%) and 36 entertainment programs (20.9%). Second, the broadcasters included are KBS, MBC, SBS, while the channels are TV Chosun, JTBC, Channel A, and MBN. Third, 109 reports (63.3%) were about ingredients & cuisine, followed by 63 reports (36.7%) on health and diet. This research provides transitional knowledge regarding the correlation between dietary information and the media. Moreover, this research contributes to advocating public health by enhancing the quality from broadcast media about dietary information.
This study was undertaken to examine the quality characteristics of nonblanched carrots (CON) and carrots blanched in distilled water, 2% NaCl water and 2% citric acid at 100oC for 3 minutes. This moisture contents of CON was the highest at 85.91%, whereas NT had the lowest moisture at 83.92% (p<0.01). Compared to CON values the L values of pretreatment groups were decreased whereas the b values were increased (p<0.001) A comparison of true retention (TR), revealed that NT had the highest TPC TR 101.04% and TFC TR 91.59% (p<0.001). β-Carotene contents were determined to be higher in NT (1.98 mg/100 g) and CT (1.94 mg/100 g) than in other groups, with highest levels obtained in NT (106.64%) (p<0.001). Examination of the DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging activities revealed that the NT group had maximum scavenging activity. The total bacterial count was determined to be 3.37 log CFU/g in the CON, whereas no microorganisms were observed in all the pretreatment groups. Our study indicates that blanching in 2% NaCl water is the most desirable in order to increase the biochemical content and nutrient preservation rate of carrots, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
Theobroma cacao L., a fruit of cacao trees, is a perennial plant, which belongs to Sterculiaceae, and is native to the Amazon in South Africa. It also has been known for its various biologically active effects, such as anti-oxidation, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial. The spleen cell proliferations of mice were measured at 48 hours after treatment of Theobroma cacao L. water extracts in seven concentrations(0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1,000 μg/mL) an ELISA assay. The production of cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ), is secreted by macrophages stimulated with LPS, was detected by ELISA assay using the cytokine kit. From the results of in vitro study, both splenocytes and cytokine production activated by peritoneal macrophages have increased when water extracts were supplemented in the range between 250 and 500 μg/mL concentration. Notably, splenocytes production has a signigicant proliferation at 500 μg/mL concentration. The result from this research suggests that supplementation with Theobroma cacao L. water extracts may enhance the immune function by stimulating the splenocyte proliferation and improving the cytokine production activating macrophage in vitro.
Pumpkin sweet potato (Ipomoea batas L.) has been known as a traditional remedy and food source, not only in South Korea but worldwide. It is rich in fiber, potassium, vitamin C, and other minerals and vitamins, making it a nutritional food loved by many. showed that pumpkin sweet potato had antioxidant biological effects. The in vitro study showed that both splenocytes and cytokine production byactivated peritoneal macrophages increased when water extracts were supplemented at 100 and 250 μL/mL. Notably, the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by splenocytes was significantly increased at 100 μL/mL. The results suggest that supplementation with pumpkin sweet potato (Ipomoea batas L.) water extract may enhance immune function by stimulating splenocyte proliferation and improving cytokine production, activating macrophages in vitro.
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn has been usedas a traditional remedy and food source in South Korea. It promotes gastrointestinal function and controls blood pressures. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn water extracts supplement at 5, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1,000 μg/mL after a 48 h pre-treatment with the mitogen (ConA or LPS) increased the mouse splenocytes proliferation. Water extract supplement also increased the cytokine production (IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ), measured by a cytokine ELISA kit. For the result of in vitro study, the proliferation of splenocytes and cytokine production activated by peritoneal macrophages increased when water extracts were supplemented in the range of 50~500 μL/mL concentration. Specifically, the levels of the splenocytes proliferation, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were the highest at 250 μL/mL concentration. This in vitro study suggestedthat supplementation with Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn water extracts may enhance the immune function by regulating the splenocyte proliferation and enhancing the cytokine production activating macrophage in vitro.
버섯은 우리나라를 비롯한 전 세계적으로 널리 이용되고 있는 식품 중의 하나로 최근 다양한 생리 활성 효과 등 다양한 분야에서 활발하게 연구가 진행되고 있다. 본 연구는 여러 다양한 버섯 중에서 우리나라에서 식용으로 널리 이용되고 있는 새송이 버섯과 팽이버섯 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 세포독성 효과를 살펴보고자 하였다. 실험결과, 새송이버섯과 팽이버섯추출물의 총 페놀 함량은 각각 19.60±0.10 mg/g 과 22.28±1.10 mg/g으로 나타났으며, 플라보노이드 함량은 각각 15.21±1.31, 20.51±4.52였다. 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 mg/mL 농도에서의 DPPH radical 소거능은 새송이버섯과 팽이버섯 각각 2.5 mg/mL의 농도에서 7.98±0.58, 8.71±0.45였고, 10 mg/mL 농도에서 각각 35.35±0.52, 39.39±0.26으로 고농도에서 높은 DPPH 라디컬 소거능을 보여주었다. 환원력은 10 mg/mL의 농도에서 각각 1.417±0.011, 1.171±0.006으로 시료의 농도가 증가할수록 흡광도 값도 증가하여, 높은 환원력을 보여주었다. 새송이버섯 추출물과 팽이버섯 추출물의 인간 정상 신장세포 HEK293으로 본 정상세포에 대한 세포독성을 측정한 결과에서는 새송이버섯, 팽이버섯 추출물 모두 80%의 생존력을 나타내어 독성이 없는 것으로 보여진다. 한편, 위암세포, 유방암세포 및 간암세포에서 암세포 성장억제율이 높게 나타나 항암 효과의 가능성을 보여주었다.
Flammulina velutipes is an edible mushroom and contains a lot of fiber, vitamin B1, B2, niacin and folic acid. This study was conducted to explore the effects of the Flammulina velutipes mushroom on immune cells and immunity. Th1 cytokine productions as IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 were measured in an activated macrophage by Flammulina velutipes water extract in seven concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 μg/mL). Also, the splenocyte proliferation index was measured at 48 hours after treatment of the Flammulina velutipes water extract in seven concentrations or mitogen, LPS and ConA. The IFN-γ and TNF-α productions were increased by treatment of the Flammulina velutipes water extract. The TNF-α production was significantly higher in the 50~1,000 μg/mL Flammulina velutipes water extract treated macrophages. The IFN-γ production of macrophages treated with the Flammulina velutipes water extract increased significantly in all groups, and the highest 1000 μg/mL concentration. The splenocyte proliferation index was enhanced when the 10~1,000 μg/mL Flammulina velutipes water extracts were treated compared to the control. These primary results suggest that Flammulina velutipes may enhance the immune function by activation of the macrophage and spleen cell.
King oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii), an improved species of oyster mushroom, is a popular ingredient in Asian cuisine. Spleen cells were treated with various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 μg/mL) of king oyster water extracts (KOWE); then, the proliferation of the cells was measured 24, 48, and 72 h after each treatment. Also, type 1 T helper cytokine productions (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2) were measured in activated macrophage by KOWE in seven concentrations. Under the condition of its 50, 100, 250, and 1,000 μg/mL for 48 h, the proliferation of cells was increased. However, there was no significant fluctuation in the spleen cells proliferation for 24 and 72 h-long KOWE exposure. To determine cytokine (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2) productions of type 1 T helper cells, macrophage was stimulated by KOWE for 48 h. Treatment of KOWE gave a rise to the levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, but not in that of IL-2 productions. These results suggest that king oyster mushroom water extracts may be beneficial for enhancing immune functions in its high concentration.
Plantago asiatica L., observed frequently in East Asia, is a known herb used in traditional medical remedies several studies report that P. asiatica L has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. To determine the production of cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and non-LPS-stimulated macrophages, an ELISA assay was conducted using cytokine kits. Mice splenocytes were cultured for 48 h with various concentrations of P. asiatica L. (5, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 μg/mL) or with mitogens (ConA or LPS). P. asiatica L. increased the proliferation of mice splenocytes, especially under the condition of its concentration ranging from 250 to 1,000 μg/mL. In addition, Plantago asiatica L. notably induced cytokine production of (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) at its concentration of 250~500 μg/mL. These results suggest that supplementation with P. asiatica L. water extracts may play a potential role in enhancing immune function by mediating splenocyte proliferation and cytokine production through its anti-inflammatory activit.
It has been reported that the increased uric acid level is associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors in both male and female. However, there has not been enough studies to investigate gender differences of this association in Korea. To evaluate relation between serum uric acids and metabolic syndrome markers, anthropometric and biochemical analyses data was obtained from National Health Examination 2005 and 5,523 (M=3,097; F=2,426) data was analyzed. Results by quartile of serum uric acid levels in females showed that increased serum uric acid level was associated with elevated levels of total-. LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, whereas association between serum uric acid and total cholesterol levels was not observed in male subjects. In both female and male, higher quartile of serum uric acid level were linked with lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. In regression analysis, association of serum uric acid levels with fasting glucose levels was significant in female subjects only. In conclusion, higher serum uric acid levels were associated with metabolic syndrome indices, however gender differences were existed for total cholesterol.
The quality characteristics, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of rice nutritional bar with added powder of aronia byproducts were investigated in this study. The rice nutritional bar was prepared by adding aronia byproducts powder at concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%. The pH of the rice nutritional bar batter was lowered for the control and 2% aronia byproducts powder was added. The moisture content, baking loss rate, leavening rate and specific volume of the rice nutritional bar decreased with as the aronia byproducts powder content increased. In relation to measurements of the colors of the rice nutritional bar crust and crumbs, as the content of aronia byproducts powder increased, the L and b values decreased while the a value increased. From texture analysis, the hardness and chewiness increased according to the level of added aronia byproducts powder, but the springiness and cohesiveness decreased. The total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and DPPH radical scavenging activity showed the highest values in the rice bar with 6% aronia byproducts powder added. According to a sensory evaluation, overall preference was highest for the rice bar with 4% added aronia byproducts powder, whereas the color and taste was rated higher for the rice bar added with 4% and 6% aronia byproducts powder.
In vitro 실험을 통한 가시오가피 물 추출물 첨가가 마우스 의 면역세포 증식에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구 결과, 음의 대 조군에 비해 가시오가피 물 추출물을 첨가한 모든 농도에서 비장세포 증식능이 증가하였으며, 특히 고농도인 500~1,000 μg/ mL 농도에서 유의적으로 증가하였다. 반면, 복강 대식세 포로부터 유도된 사이토카인 생성의 경우, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF- α 사이토카인 생성량을 측정한 결과, TNF-α 사이토카인은 가시오가피 물 추출물 50 μg/mL 농도와 250~1,000 μg/mL 농 도에서 대조군보다 유의적으로 높은 분비량을 보인 반면, IFN-γ에서는 변화를 보이지 않았다. IL-2의 경우, 100~500 μg/ mL에서 유의적으로 증가하는 경향을 보여주었다. 이상의 결 과에 의하면 가시오가피 물 추출물은 마우스 비장 세포를 증 식시키고, 사이토카인 분비량에도 영향을 줄 것으로 보이며, 면역 기관의 주요 기능을 증진시킬 가능성이 있을 것으로 사료된다. 따라서 가시오가피 물 추출물이 면역 증진 기능성식 품 개발의 소재로 활용될 가능성이 있을 것으로 기대된다
버섯은 우리나라에서 식용으로 널리 이용되고 있는 식품으로 많은 연구들에서 다양한 생리활성 효과에 대한 연구가 활발하게 이루어지고 있다. 본 연구는 다양한 버섯 중에서 최근 많이 이용되고 있는 느타리버섯 추출물을 이용하여 항산화 활성 및 세포 독성 효과를 확인하고자 하였다. 연구결과, 느타리버섯의 총 폴리페놀 함량과 플라보노이드 함량은 각각 30.2±0.7 mg%와 20.4±0.6 mg%로 나타났다. 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 mg/mL 농도에서의 DPPH radical 소거능은 0.625의 농도에서 4.5±0.1%, 1.25의 농도에서 11.0±0.4%, 2.5 mg/mL 농도에서 23.2±0.1%, 5.0 mg/mL 농도에서 44.1±0.6%의 결과를 보였다. 환원력은 5 mg/mL의 농도에서 1.648±0.047로 가장 높은 환원력을 보여주어 시료의 농도가 증가할수록 흡광도 값도 증가하여 높은 환원력을 나타내었다. 느타리버섯 물 추출물의 인간 정상 신장세포 HEK293을 이용한 정상세포에 대한 세포 독성을 측정한 결과에서는 느타리버섯 물 추출물 80.5%의 생존력을 나타내어 독성이 없는 것으로 보였다. 한편, 이들 버섯 추출물의 암세포 성장 억제에 미치는 영향을 검색한 간암세포 생육 저해능의 결과는 최고 5 mg/mL의 농도에서 70.0± 5.3%의 세포 생존력을 나타내어, 암세포 성장에는 영향을 미치지 못하는 것으로 사료된다.