The study was to investigate the quality characteristics of American waffles substituted with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of kamut whole wheat flour (KWF). The KWF samples had maintaining the specific gravity of the batter until the 25% substitution. The spreadability decreased as the ratio of the KWF increased, and the pH of the 100% substitution sample were the lowest. The KWF samples had increasing baking loss rates until the 75% substitution while decreasing the water activity. Lightness and yellowness significantly decreased with increasing the KWF while redness increased. Hardness, chewiness, and gumminess of the 25% substitution sample were the highest, while the springiness and resilience were maximum with the 100% substitution. The KWF samples had increasing overall acceptability, acceptability of color, flavor, and texture until the 50% substitution. The characteristics intensity rating of crust color, bran flavor, and sweetness increased with increasing the KWF. The KWF samples had significantly higher crispiness than the control group. The frequency of the bran flavor, sweetness, nuttiness, and unpleasant increased while the egg and milk flavor, and flour taste decreased. These results suggest that the substitution of the 25~50% KWF could be the optimal to improve the quality characteristics of American waffles.
This purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of jellies added with lemon myrtle extract. Lemon myrtle leaves were extracted for 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 minutes, respectively, in 90℃ water and used for jelly preparation. The moisture content of control showed the lowest value and the content increased significantly as the extraction time of lemon myrtle increased. The pH of L0 was significantly high and increased significantly with the increase of extraction duration time. The lightness value was the lowest in the L3. The redness showed the lowest value in the L9. The yellowness showed the lowest value in the L0. In texture properties the hardness of L9 showed the highest value and the lemon myrtle extraction duration increased significantly. The cohesiveness was highest in the L0 and lowest in the L5. Gumminess and chewiness increased significantly with increasing extraction duration. Total polyphenol content was the highest in the L5 and the jellies with lemon myrtle extracts were significantly higher than the L0. DPPH radical scavenging activities increased significantly with increasing extraction duration. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the L0 was the lowest. In the sensory evaluation overall preference, color, sweetness, texture, and lemon myrtle flavor did not show any significant differences among the samples.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of jelly added with 0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% rhubarb stem juice (RSJ). The moisture content and water activity of jelly samples increased significantly with increasing content of RSJ. The pH was highest in control samples; and the more the amount of RSJ added, the lower. Hunter color value of the jelly showed that L was highest in control samples, but it was not significant in RSJ-added samples. The A value was increased significantly with the addition of RSJ. Hardness, gumminess, and chewiness was highest in samples with 0~8% RSJ, and it decreased by increasing RSJ addition. DPPH radical scavenging activity results showed 60% activity in samples with 32% RSJ. ABTS radical scavenging activity was lowest in control samples and samples with 8~32% RSJ showed 70~80% activity, but it was not significant in samples with 8~32% RSJ. The total polyphenol was increased respectively with increasing levels of RSJ. In terms of consumer acceptance, overall acceptability did not show any significant difference among samples, and the color showed the highest value in samples with 32% RSJ and the lowest value in samples with 8% RSJ.
Cabbage is a biennial plant that is native to the shores of the Mediterranean. It contains dietary fiber, minerals, vitamin A, vitamin C, and anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. For the test, cabbage powder was added (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) to flour. The addition of cabbage powder significantly increased the specific gravity and viscosity of the batter and pH of both the batter and chiffon cake. The moisture in the chiffon cake increased due to the addition of cabbage powder. Also, the lightness of the cake significantly increased, whereas the redness and yellowness decreased as the amount of cabbage powder increased. The lightness and redness of crumbs from C0 were higher than other samples as each 59.48, －3.17, respectively. Except for the resilience, the hardness, gumminess, fracturability, and adhesiveness showed similar values in the C0, C5, and C10. In terms of consumer perception, the color, softness, flavor and overall consumer preference for the control chiffon cake were higher than C5, C10, C20, and C30. Nonetheless, for those that contain cabbage powder, C5 and C10 had relatively higher consumer preferences than C20 and C30. As a result, the optimum amount of cabbage powder for the chiffon cake would be from 5~10%.
In this study, we investigated the quality characteristics and optimum conditions of porridge containing rice incubated with Phellinus linteus mycelium (PLMR). Composition measurements of PLMR were moisture 13.05%, ash 0.88%, carbohydrate 78.65%, crude protein 6.29%, and crude lipid 1.13%, also glutinous rice composition was moisture 13.99%, ash 0.32%, carbohydrate 77.18%, crude protein 7.85%, and crude lipid 0.66%. The water absorption rate of PLMR increased with increasing soaking time during 6 hours. However, the water absorption rate of glutinous rice increased until 30 minutes of soaking time. The pH of porridge was decreased as PLMR contents increased. The viscosity of porridge was increased as PLMR contents increased, and it was the lowest for the control at 914.77 cP. However, spreadability of porridge was decreased as PLMR contents increased. In terms of color, lightness was the highest for the 50% level, redness was the highest for the 75% level, and yellowness was the highest for the 25% level. In terms of textural characteristics, hardness and fracturability were increased as PLMR contents increased, whereas springiness, cohesiveness and resilience showed reverse results. In terms of consumer acceptance, flavor, appearance, viscosity, delicate taste, and overall acceptability were not significantly different between samples. Hot taste was decreased as PLMR contents increased, whereas grittiness showed reverse results. In conclusion, the results indicate that adding 25~50% PLMR to porridge is optimal for a recipe.