The purpose of this study was to compare differences in the main food components of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivated in Hongcheon after steaming, boiling, and roasting. Among the general components, crude protein, fat, and ash content were the highest in raw quinoa. Dry matter and carbohydrate content was the highest in steamed quinoa, while total dietary fiber content was highest in roasted quinoa. Total amino acid contents were the highest in boiled quinoa and lowest in steamed quinoa. Fatty acid content was highest in raw quinoa and lowest in boiled quinoa. The mineral (calcium, potassium, and phosphorus) and vitamin content was most enriched in raw quinoa, while iron, magnesium, zinc, and manganese were highest in boiled quinoa. For free sugars, the fructose and sucrose levels were highest in raw quinoa, while glucose level was highest in roasted quinoa. The water-soluble vitamin and free sugar contents were lowest in boiled quinoa. In summary, nutritional levels of vitamins vulnerable to heat and unsaturated fatty acids decreased after cooking with heat, while those of amino acids and saturated fatty acids increased after cooking with heat, although there were variables based on different cooking methods.
This purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of jellies added with lemon myrtle extract. Lemon myrtle leaves were extracted for 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 minutes, respectively, in 90℃ water and used for jelly preparation. The moisture content of control showed the lowest value and the content increased significantly as the extraction time of lemon myrtle increased. The pH of L0 was significantly high and increased significantly with the increase of extraction duration time. The lightness value was the lowest in the L3. The redness showed the lowest value in the L9. The yellowness showed the lowest value in the L0. In texture properties the hardness of L9 showed the highest value and the lemon myrtle extraction duration increased significantly. The cohesiveness was highest in the L0 and lowest in the L5. Gumminess and chewiness increased significantly with increasing extraction duration. Total polyphenol content was the highest in the L5 and the jellies with lemon myrtle extracts were significantly higher than the L0. DPPH radical scavenging activities increased significantly with increasing extraction duration. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the L0 was the lowest. In the sensory evaluation overall preference, color, sweetness, texture, and lemon myrtle flavor did not show any significant differences among the samples.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, toxin gene profiles, and enterotoxin producing ability of Bacillus cereus isolated from environment-friendly vegetables and good agricultural practices (GAP) vegetables. A total of 49 vegetables including 40 environment-friendly vegetables and 9 GAP vegetables were tested. The Vitek 2 system was used to identify B. cereus and the PCR was used to detect 6 toxin genes, respectively. B. cereus was detected in 34 (69.3%) of 49 vegetables and the prevalence of B. cereus in GAP vegetables (44.4%) was lower than in the environment-friendly vegetables (75.0%). The detection rates of entFM, nheA, hblC, and cytK enterotoxin genes, respectively, among all isolates were 100%, 97.0%, 88.2%, and 73.5%, respectively. All of the isolates had at least one or more enterotoxin gene and 20 isolates (58.8%) had hemolysin BL enterotoxin producing ability. The risk of food poisoning from the environment-friendly vegetables and the GAP vegetables has been shown as constant. Thus, it is necessary to expand the supply of GAP vegetables showing lower B. cereus contamination than the environment-friendly vegetables. The characteristics of the environment-friendly vegetables and the GAP vegetables that must be consumed after cleaning should be disseminated to consumers regarding food poisoning prevention.
The purpose of this study was to investigate antioxidant characteristics and anti-adipogenic effects of colored rice and brown rice extracts in 3T3-L1 adipocyte depending on cultivar (Josaengheugchal, Heugjinmi, Hongjinju, Geongganghongmi, Seolgaeng, Milyang 320, Sindongjin, Baegjinju). Colored rice and brown rice was extracted with 100% ethanol, followed by the analysis of polyphenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, antioxidant, and anti-adipogenic activity. Total polyphenol and flavonoid content ranged from 6.86~314.08 mg GAE/g and 1.47~56.88 mg CE/g the highest total polyphenol and flavonoid content was observed in Heugjinmi cultivar. Anthocyanin composition was analyzed by HPLC, cyanidin-3-gluoside and peonidin-3-glucoside was found in black rice including Josaengheugchal and Heugjinmi. Also, the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity of colored rice cultivars was higher than that of brown rice cultivars, the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity also was observed in Heugjinmi (128.20 mg TE/g). The anti-adipogenic effects of colored rice and brown rice extracts on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes evaluated that extracts of Heugjinmi cultivar significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation. These results provide valuable information for the use of Korean colored rice cultivar as a functional food materials relative to anti-obesity.
Melon is a fruit consumed and grown globally because of the sweet taste and pleasant aroma. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of melon jams added with various fruits such as apple, aronia, blueberry, grape, kiwi, passion fruit, and peach. We determined quality characteristics such as pH, total acidity, antioxidant activity, content of total anthocyanin, polyphenol and tannin, respectively. The 100% melon jam as the control was the highest pH and lowest total acidity, whereas mixed jams with melon and passion fruit showed opposite results. The mixed jams with melon and aronia of the total anthocyanin, the polyphenol contents, tannin, and ABTS radical scavenging activities, were markedly higher than those of the control and other samples (p<0.001), followed by the mixed jams with melon and blueberry. In the taste sensing analysis, mixed jams with melon and passion fruit revealed higher richness and lower aftertaste-bitterness and aftertaste-astringency than the commercial strawberry jam and other samples. Thus, jams mixed with various fruits, in particular, aronia, blueberry, and passion fruit were superior to the 100% melon jam in terms of physiological activity and palatability.
To increase the functional material content of soybean, a repetitive steaming and drying process was used. We investigated the changes in the total polyphenol content, the antioxidant activity, and the angiotensin-Ⅰ converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in soybean following nine rounds of steaming and drying. Soybean was steamed 9 times for 2 h and then dried 9 times from 55℃ to 73℃ for 3 h. The total polyphenol content in the soybean reached a maximum value of 60.47 mg GAE eq./100 g at 73℃ while the total polyphenol content in the raw soybean reached 25.17 mg GAE eq./100 g. In the raw soybean samples, the DPPH radical scavenging activity (5 mg/mL) was 8.04% but it increased by 43.29% after drying 9 times to 73℃. ABTS radical scavenging activity also improved following 9 rounds of steaming and drying. ACE inhibitory activity of the soybean dried 9 times at 73℃ was 58.94% at 10 mg/mL. These results showed that steaming and drying soybean 9 times enhanced the antioxidant activity and the ACE inhibitory activity of soybean. Therefore, more research on the biological and anti-hypertensive activity of soybean using this steaming and drying method is necessary.
Probiotics improve the immune system. However, the effects of its lactic acid bacteria on atopic dermatitis relief and inflammation improvement is not fully understood. Recently, one of the probiotics, Lactobacillus helveticus HY7801 (HY7801), was found to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we investigated the effects of HY7801 on atopic dermatitis-induced animal models. After four weeks of oral administration, the group treated with HY7801 showed amelioration of the atopic dermatitis compared to the group receiving placebo. In the HY7801 treated group, the epidermal hyper-proliferation and collagen deposition were inhibited compared to the placebo group, and the secretion amount of the inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α, IL-4 were reduced. In conclusion, these results suggest that HY7801 acts as a functional probiotic via amelioration of the atopic dermatitis such as a decrease of epidermal hyper-proliferation, and collagen deposition and anti-inflammatory effects.
The study was to investigate the quality characteristics of American waffles substituted with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of kamut whole wheat flour (KWF). The KWF samples had maintaining the specific gravity of the batter until the 25% substitution. The spreadability decreased as the ratio of the KWF increased, and the pH of the 100% substitution sample were the lowest. The KWF samples had increasing baking loss rates until the 75% substitution while decreasing the water activity. Lightness and yellowness significantly decreased with increasing the KWF while redness increased. Hardness, chewiness, and gumminess of the 25% substitution sample were the highest, while the springiness and resilience were maximum with the 100% substitution. The KWF samples had increasing overall acceptability, acceptability of color, flavor, and texture until the 50% substitution. The characteristics intensity rating of crust color, bran flavor, and sweetness increased with increasing the KWF. The KWF samples had significantly higher crispiness than the control group. The frequency of the bran flavor, sweetness, nuttiness, and unpleasant increased while the egg and milk flavor, and flour taste decreased. These results suggest that the substitution of the 25~50% KWF could be the optimal to improve the quality characteristics of American waffles.
The purpose of this study was to develop a functional senior mixed soymilk for seniors and to provide functional senior-mixed soymilk to prevent disease outbreaks. The isoflavone content of senior soymilk was 0.15±0.01 mg/g. The β-glucan content of senior soymilk was 9.82±0.01 mg/g. The weight gain of mice were significantly higher in the high-fat diet group than in the other groups. The serum triglyceride content was high at 102.67±40.61 mg/dL in the high-fat diet group, but significantly lower at 83.00±42.43 mg/dL in the 20% senior soymilk group. Thus, the results of this study comprehensively suggest that food intake should be ingested for each life cycle with reference to the dietary reference intakes for Koreans. In particular, the elderly in their 50s and older are deficient in protein and weakened immune capacity, so it is imperative that they maintain their health through various foods such as soymilk, which is evenly nutritious.
We investigated the physicochemical properties of brown rice by cultivar to select cultivar suitable for making brown rice porridge. The moisture content of the brown rice ranged from 8.79~11.78% with the highest varieties being ‘Geonyangmi’. The crude ash and crude lipid content ranged from 1.02~1.65% and 1.65~3.26%, while the rest were similar except for ‘Daebo’. Crude protein also had the lowest ‘Daebo’ and generally glutinous rice showed higher crude protein content than common rice. The hardness showed that ‘Seolgaeng’ and ‘Keunnun’ were the lowest, and ‘Haiami’ was the highest. In the RVA analysis, the setback was in the range －80.61~22.44 and was low in the order of ‘Wolbaek’, ‘Baekjinju'', and ‘Dongjinchal’. As a result of water binding capacity (WBC) measurement, ‘Sindongjin’, ‘Geonyang’ and ‘Samkwang’, were high in common rice, and ‘Dongjinchal’ and ‘Hwaseonchal’ were high in glutinous rice. Generally, solubility and swelling power in common rice was found to be lower than in glutinous rice. As a result, ‘Samkwang’ is considered suitable for brown rice porridge production because of high WBC, breakdown, and low setback.
In this study, polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured, and DPPH, OH, H2O2 radical scavenging activity, and the α-amylase inhibitory activity were measured to study the antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extract from Morinda citrifolia L. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of noni 70% ethanol extract were 29.52 GAE/g and 12.48 CE/g, respectively. Also, the IC50 values of DPPH, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of 70% ethanol extract from noni were 18.70 mg/mL, 26.45 mg/mL, and 35.67 mg/mL, respectively. Measurement of the α-amylase inhibitory activity of 70% ethanol extract from noni showed 45% inhibitory activity at 10 mg/mL.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect on oxidative stress induced PC12 cells, and volatile flavor composition of essential oils derived from medicinal plant seeds- Gossypium hirsutum L. (G. hirsutum), Coix lachryma-jobi (C. lachryma-jobi) and Oenothera biennis (O. biennis). The essential oils were obtained by the solvent (hexane) extraction method from the seeds. The essential oils of the seeds were analyzed by the solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The major compounds of G. hirsutum, C. lachryma-jobi and O. biennis were cyclonexanol (16.65%), β-asarone (14.29%) and ylangene (50.01%). The DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50) was the highest value of 8.52 mg/mL in the O. biennis. Additionally, IC50 values of G. hirsutum and C. lachryma-jobi were 26.76 mg/mL and 36.81 mg/mL. For the oxidative stress on PC12 cells, we treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The pretreatment of oxidative stress induced PC12 cells with all the essential oils preserved or increased their cell viability and G. hirsutum and O. biennis attenuated the ROS generation (by 68.75% and 56.25% vs. H2O2 control). The results of this study suggest that the essential oils derived from medicinal plant seeds could be used as valuable back data as a natural essential oil material to prevent neurodegenerative diseases by protecting neuro-cells.