The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality-based characteristics of Prunus mume fruit syrup, which is manufactured with various sugared sweeteners for suggestion of suitable alternative sweetener. Sweetener such as sucrose (MHP1), crystalline fructose (MHP2) and liquid fructo-oligosaccharide (MHP3) are used to manufacture Prunus mume fruit syrup. The sugar content of MHP1, MHP2 and MHP3 showed 53, 54 and 36° Brix, respectively. The total organic acid content of MHP1, MHP2 and MHP3 was 2.22, 3.07 and 3.71%. The total free sugar content of MHP1, MHP2 and MHP3 was 54.39, 47.52% and 31.62%, respectively. The appearance of MHP1 and MHP2 remained unchanged for the entire period but MHP3 had molded since the first week. This was as a result of the low total free sugar content in MHP3 sugared with liquid fructo-oligosaccharide compared to MHP1 and MHP2 sugared with solid sucrose and fructose. The sensory characteristics of MHP2 manufactured with crystalline fructose indicated an above average quality, indicating that it is difficult to manufacture Prunus mume fruit syrup using liquid sugar. It is suggested that crystalline fructose characterized solid form and lower glycemic index than sucrose be useful to manufacture Prunus mume fruit syrup as alternative sweetener.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the intake status of energy drinks, knowledge of caffeine and the perception on intake of energy drinks by university students. We surveyed 351 university students from October 25, 2017 to January 25, 2018. The subjects (70.9%) consumed energy drinks more than once. Male students consumed energy drinks more frequently than the female ones. A huge portion (68.3%) of the subjects consumed energy drinks to recover from fatigue and reduce sleepiness. Moreover, they consumed most of the energy drinks at home and the university library. The main anticipated efficacy of energy drinks was the relieving drowsiness. Respondents (86.3%) perceived that energy drinks could be hazardous to the health of human beings. The main risks of consuming energy drinks were sleep disorders, addiction problems and heart beating. The main recognized effects of energy drinks were relieved drowsiness and decreased fatigue. The major side effects were heart beating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn and sleeping disorders. This study suggests that nutritional education is needed to confirm the recommendation of daily intake for caffeine and to raise awareness about the side effects of energy drinks.
This study was to confirm the effect of supplementation of superjami bran extract on lipid and antioxidant metabolism. Twenty-five subjects were recruited, and divided into Superjami group (n=12), and Placebo group (n=13) random assignment. Among the groups, the Superjami group took a Superjami bran extract (2 g/2 capsule/day), and the Placebo group took dextrin (2 g/2 capsule/day), for 12 weeks. As a result of the experiment, concentrations of TG, TC, and HDL-C in the blood, were significantly lower than those in the control group, and HDL-C was significantly higher. AI and HTR also showed positive values. Leptin did not differ significantly, but as a result of adipectin, the Superjami group displayed a higher value, compared to the Placebo group, and LAR also had significantly lower value. Antioxidant results showed that GPx, CAT, and RGLU, were significantly higher before as well as after intakes of the Superjami group, and significantly higher levels of the Superjami group, compared to the Placebo group. AOPP showed significantly lower values for the Superjami group, compared to the Placebo group. So, based on this study, ingestion of Superjami bran extract is effective in improving blood lipid concentrations as well as inflammatory substances, and has positive effects relative to increasing antioxidant activity.
The objective of this study was to investigate the health status and nutritional intake of the old population living in Soonchang, Jeollabuk-do, Korea. 69 subjects aged 65 years and older were recruited in July 2016. The WHR, was significantly higher in elderly male group than elderly female group (p<0.05), but both groups had abdominal obesity (0.85 and over). T-score mean of elderly male and female groups were below －2.5 mg/cm3 that they were osteoporotic. In the elderly male group, the higher concentrations of creatinine, homocysteine and uric acid were found to be significantly unfavorable factors (p<0.001, respectively). The blood vitamin D3 levels of elderly male group was significantly higher than that of elderly female group (p<0.05). The physical activity and self-rated health were significantly higher in elderly male group than in elderly female group (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). The nutrient intakes of male group were found to be significantly favorable factors than in female group. The score of mini nutrition assessment was significantly lower in elderly female group than in the elderly male group. These results could be useful to plan effective strategies to increase the health-life expectancy and the prevention of disease of Korean elderly people living in rural areas.
The objective of this study was to analyze labeling improvements and evaluate willingness to pay for health functional foods with a focus on the caution for intake. For this study, we conducted a survey on health functional food intake behavior, confirmation and improvements of cautions for intake. We assessed the willingness to pay for improvement of the caution for intake. Consumers anticipate improved immune function, and fatigue improvement after consumption of health functional foods. They mainly checked the function components related to efficacy and effectiveness, ingredients and their contents, ingestion amount and method, expiry date and best mode of storage, product name, and cautions associated with ingestion of health functional foods. They has been difficulties in obtaining sufficient caution information for intake from the current labeling method. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the labeling of caution for intake. The analysis indicated that about 5.14% of the respondents were willing to pay more if new labeling was introduces. However, there is still controversy over their safety, which is damaging to the consumers. Therefore, by providing consumers with accurate and detailed information on cautions for intake, it can contribute to securing safety and improving the quality of health functional foods.
In this paper, we investigate to determine quality characteristics, fatty acid composition and cytotoxic effect of extracts and fractions from whole Lycopus lucidus Turcz. roots. Additionally, we evaluated cytotoxic activity against the growth of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080) and human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS), human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Acetone+methylene chloride (A+M) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from L. lucidus Turcz. were obtained through solvent extraction. Then we further fractionated both extracts with n-hexane, 85% aq. MeOH, n-butanol (n-BuOH) and water. In fatty acid composition, L. lucidus Turcz. contained 33.2% of 18:1n-9 and 1.81% of 18:3n-3, respectively. The incorporation of treatment with A+M and MeOH extracts and n-hexane, 85% aq. MeOH, n-butanol (n-BuOH) and water fractions dose-dependently increased cytotoxicity against the growth of HT-1080 and AGS, HT-29 cancer cells (p<0.05). The A+M extract had a higher inhibitory effect on the growth of all cancer cells in comparison to MeOH extract. Among the fractions, the 85% aq. MeOH and n-hexane fractions showed a higher inhibitory effect after proliferating the three cancer cells. These results suggest that the 85% aq. MeOH and n-hexane fractions have a potential to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines.
The objective of this study was to compare nutrients intake, health indices, and prevalence of chronic diseases by occupation in middle-aged men, using results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The subjects were divided into two groups by their occupation (Office worker (OW) and Agri-fishery worker (AFW)) and their percentages were 75.5% and 24.5% respectively. In health-related factors, drinking rate was higher in OW (p<0.001), while smoking rate was higher in AFW (p<0.001). Walking and strength exercise were both higher in OW group. In dietary behavior, the rate of skipping breakfast and eating out was higher in OW (p<0.001). Food supplement usage were consumed by OW more than AFW (p<0.001). Daily energy intake was higher in AFW (p<0.05). There were significant differences in nutrient density per 1,000 kcal of minerals and vitamins between the two groups (p<0.05~p<0.001), except calcium, potassium, vitamin A and thiamin. In body weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressures, OW was higher than AFW (p<0.05~p<0.001). Whereas, HDL and LDL-cholesterol were higher in AFW (p<0.001). The prevalence of diabetes was higher in AFW (p<0.001). The results of this study can be used as data to establish nutrition and health strategies for occupation in middle-aged men.
In this study, the product characteristics and physicochemical properties were investigated through collection of commercial porridge. The addition rate of grain raw materials was about 6.5~11.75%, glutinous rice was added at a rate of about 23~60% to improve the viscosity and various other food additives were used. The moisture content characteristics varied among the products. The rotational viscosity of CP (Commercial Porridge)4 was the highest at 39,054 cP, while the flow viscosity of CP3 was least at 4.80 cm/30 seconds. The starch content differed among the products in the range of total starch 6.96~8.08%, amylose 1.41~2.61%, total sugar 6.55~12.81% and reducing sugar 0.50~0.99%. Particularly, total sugar showed a very high correlation ( 0.920) while rotational viscosity and color value (b) showed significant correlation with most of the properties i.e. moisture, solids content etc. There was a rapid increase in the reactivity of starch degrading enzyme at the early stage of the reaction which gradually decreased with time. The physicochemical characteristics of commercial porridge presented in this study could be expected to increase the industrial use value of the related research because it considers the quality of the currently commercialized porridge for the future selection of suitable porridge raw materials.
The objective of this study was to investigate job understanding, performance, and job satisfaction of 150 school foodservice employees in Chungnam area from April 23, 2018 to May 18, 2018. The score of the relationship with colleagues was in the order of elementary school, middle school, and high school (p<0.05). Job understanding was ranked as follows: middle school, elementary school, and high school (p<0.05). Questionnaires on performance of food ingredients and working process management had 4.8 points for the cook and 4.6 points for the cooking staff (p<0.05). Based on the subjects’ position, the hygienic safety management performance was higher in cooks than in cooking staff (p<0.05). Job satisfaction showed higher points in elementary school and middle school subjects in all items as compared to subjects of high school (p<0.05). Cooks showed more job satisfaction compared to cooking staff (p<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation (r=.253, p<0.01) between job satisfaction and job performance. Job understanding showed a significant positive correlation with job performance. Job satisfaction had a positive correlation with performance for hygienic safety management (r=.275, p<0.01).
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn has been usedas a traditional remedy and food source in South Korea. It promotes gastrointestinal function and controls blood pressures. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn water extracts supplement at 5, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1,000 μg/mL after a 48 h pre-treatment with the mitogen (ConA or LPS) increased the mouse splenocytes proliferation. Water extract supplement also increased the cytokine production (IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ), measured by a cytokine ELISA kit. For the result of in vitro study, the proliferation of splenocytes and cytokine production activated by peritoneal macrophages increased when water extracts were supplemented in the range of 50~500 μL/mL concentration. Specifically, the levels of the splenocytes proliferation, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were the highest at 250 μL/mL concentration. This in vitro study suggestedthat supplementation with Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn water extracts may enhance the immune function by regulating the splenocyte proliferation and enhancing the cytokine production activating macrophage in vitro.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association nutrition education experience in regards to metabolic risk and nutrition intake in Korean adult male using the 2016~2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey as the reference. The study involved a total of 1,978 male subjects aged 40~64 who were classified into the 2 groups based on their nutrition education experience: Educated group (n=88) and non-educated group (n=1,890). The household income and education level of educated group were higher than those of the non-educated group. The two groups showed no significant difference in the level of fasting blood sugar, blood lipid profile including total cholesterol and triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and hypertension. Vitamin C intake of the educated group (127.5 mg) was higher compared to the non-educated group (88.2 mg) (p<0.05). The percentage of the subjects utilizing nutritional labels was higher in the educated group. The nutrition education experience was inversely proportional to lower Odds Ratio in hyperLDL-cholesterolemia (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.84) and HypoHDL-cholesterolemia (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.87). This result indicates that nutritional education can be used as an effective tool to avert chronic diseases and develop healthy eating habits.
The objective of this study was to investigate quality characteristics of sourdough bread with fermented Zante currants juice. The sweetness of fermented Zante currants starter increased while its pH value decreased as time passed. The pH values were negatively correlated to the added amount of starter with the lowest pH being recorded at 70% addition. Similarly, bread’s moisture was inversely correlated to the added amount of starter with the highest moisture content being recorded at 10% addition. For bread’s height, excluding the control, 70% addition turned out to be the highest, and the height decreased as the added amount increased. The oven-spring was similar between the control and 70% addition. For the volume, except the control, 70% addition turned out to be the largest. The larger the specific volume was, the higher the volume of bread got. The brightness, redness, and yellowness were decreased as the added amount was increased. For the texture, the control had the highest elasticity and cohesiveness, and they increased as the added amount of starter increased. The hardness had a negative correlation with the added amount, and 70% addition yielded the same result as the control. The adhesiveness appeared only in 10% addition.
This study was performed to provide fundamental data on the dietary habits and food purchase types according to the stress patterns. The subject was 312 Chinese students in Gyeonggi region through a self-administered questionnaire. According to the results of the reliability analysis, the stress items showed an average of 2.91 and 0.846 for Cronbach alpha coefficient. The results of ANOVA analysis on the difference of dietary habits according to stress are as follows; There were significant differences for the meal frequency per day according to schoolwork, economic, general living, and dietary habits (p<0.05). Also, the general living pattern showed significant differences for the meal outside frequency and Chinese food intake (p<0.05). The results of ANOVA analysis on the difference of food purchase type according to stress are as follows; There was significant differences in degree of use of convenience foods according to interpersonal relationship, cooking method of convenience foods according to economics, the selection criteria of convenience foods according to schoolwork (p<0.05). The correlation coefficient of dietary habits and convenience food intake are 0.223, －0.147 in stress degree and dietary habits. In conclusion, I would like to provide the basic data necessary for the right choice of Chinese students' dietary habits and food purchases.