The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in the quality of dietary and life across age groups of Korean adults. According to life cycle, four age groups (20~29, 30~49, 50~64, ≥65) were created. Anthropometric indices showed significant differences according to age group (p<0.001). Energy intake significantly decreased according to age group as a result of decreased protein and fat intake (p<0.001). The intake levels of minerals, vitamins, and dietary fiber per 1,000 kcal were the lowest in the 20~29 age group (p<0.001). Whereas saturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA intake levels were the highest for those in the 20~29 age group (p<0.001). The quality of dietary (DQI-I) increased with age group, but the quality of life (EQ-5D index) decreased (p<0.001). The quality of dietary showed 5.8% explanation power on the quality of life (p<0.001). Additionally, diet moderation was shown as having a negative effect, but the diversity and balance of diets had a positive effect on the quality of life. By age group, the relationship between quality of dietary and quality of life was the highest in ≥65 age group. These results suggest that practical dietary education is needed from the 20’s to ensure the quality of healthy life for the elderly.
The objective of this study was to compare nutrients intake, health indices, and prevalence of chronic diseases by occupation in middle-aged men, using results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The subjects were divided into two groups by their occupation (Office worker (OW) and Agri-fishery worker (AFW)) and their percentages were 75.5% and 24.5% respectively. In health-related factors, drinking rate was higher in OW (p<0.001), while smoking rate was higher in AFW (p<0.001). Walking and strength exercise were both higher in OW group. In dietary behavior, the rate of skipping breakfast and eating out was higher in OW (p<0.001). Food supplement usage were consumed by OW more than AFW (p<0.001). Daily energy intake was higher in AFW (p<0.05). There were significant differences in nutrient density per 1,000 kcal of minerals and vitamins between the two groups (p<0.05~p<0.001), except calcium, potassium, vitamin A and thiamin. In body weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressures, OW was higher than AFW (p<0.05~p<0.001). Whereas, HDL and LDL-cholesterol were higher in AFW (p<0.001). The prevalence of diabetes was higher in AFW (p<0.001). The results of this study can be used as data to establish nutrition and health strategies for occupation in middle-aged men.
본 연구는 제6기(2013년~2015년) 국민건강영양조사 결과 중에서 중년남성 882명을 대상으로 밀가루음식 주당 섭취빈도에 따른 건강관련요인, 영양소 섭취, 식행동, 건강지표의 차이를 비교하고자 하였다. 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다.
1. 밀가루음식 저섭취군(54.0%)의 비율은 고섭취군(46.0%) 보다 높았다. 그리고 전체의 밀가루음식 주당 섭취빈도는 4.80회이었으며, 저섭취군(1.78회)과 고섭취군(7.83회)의 섭취빈도 간에 큰 차이를 보였다(p<0.001). 밀가루음식 종류별 섭취빈도를 보면 면류, 과자류, 빵류 순이었다.
2. 건강관련 요인에서 살펴본 월 1회 이상 음주 여부와 현재 흡연 여부, 스트레스 인지율, 1일 평균 수면시간, 1주일간 근력운동과 걷기 일수에서 밀가루 섭취빈도에 따른 유의적인 관련성과 차이는 없었다.
3. 1일 에너지 평균섭취량은 1,970.45 kcal이었고, 저섭취군 보다 고섭취군에서 약 630 kcal 정도 더 높았다(p<0.001). 그리고 고섭취군에서 상대적으로 당질 섭취비는 낮은 반면, 지방과 단백질 섭취비는 더 높았다(p<0.001). 무기질과 비타민의 1,000 kcal당 영양소 밀도에서 칼슘, 인, 나이아신을 제외하고, 모두 유의적인 차이가 있었다. 칼륨, 철분, 비타민 A, 비타민 B1, 비타민 C에서는 저섭취군의 섭취가 더 많았던 반면, 나트륨, 비타민 B2에서는 고섭취군의 섭취가 더 많았다 (p<0.01, p< 0.001).
4. 식행동에서 1일 식사횟수는 밀가루음식 저섭취군에서 고섭취군에 비해 3회 비율이 더 높아 관련성을 보였다(p<0.05). 외식빈도는 저섭취군(46.9%)보다 고섭취군(43.2%)에서 더 낮은 경향을 보였으나, 유의성은 없었다. 구입 시 영양표시 이용 여부는 고섭취군(20.5%)이 저섭취군(15.7%)에 비해 더 이용하고 있었으나, 유의적인 관련성은 아니었다.
5. 건강지표에서 신장과 체중, 허리둘레 값이 고섭취군에서 더 높은 경향이 있었으나, 신장(p<0.01)에서만 유의적인 차이가 있었다. 그리고 총콜레스테롤과 LDL-콜레스테롤에서 고섭취군이 저섭취군보다 더 높은 값을 나타내었다(p<0.01). 혈청 중성지방에서는 저섭취군이 고섭취군보다 10.5 mg/dL 정도 더 높은 값을 보였으나, 유의적인 차이는 아니었다.
본 연구결과는 국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용한 횡단면적 연구이어서 인과관계를 밝히기 어렵고, 밀가루음식 섭취량이 아닌 섭취빈도만을 가지고 연구를 행했다는 제한점이 있다. 그러나 대상자 선정에서 교란인자를 제외하였고, 통계분석에서도 보정함으로써 밀가루음식 섭취빈도와 영양소 섭취, 건강지표와의 차이를 독립적으로 측정하고자 하였다. 현재 우리나라에서는 밀가루음식의 섭취가 계속 증가되고 있어 이에 대한 우려가 있다. 실제로 본 연구에서 밀가루음식을 자주 먹는 경우 에너지 영양소의 섭취는 더 많았던 반면 나트륨과 비타민 B2를 제외한 대부분의 무기질과 비타민의 섭취는 더 적은 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 건강지표에서 총 콜레스테롤과 LDL-콜레스테롤 농도가 더 높게 나타나 우려가 현실화 되고 있음을 알 수 있었는데, 본 연구결과가 밀가루음식의 과잉 섭취 시 문제점을 알리는데 활용되었으면 한다.
The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient intake, health-related factors, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome and to investigate the prevalence odds ratio according to fruit and vegetable intake among middle-aged Korean men. Subjects included 1,677 men aged 40–64 years. The average intake of fruits and vegetables was 578.48±5.90 g/day. Forty-nine percent of the subjects were categorized into the deficient group based on the intake of fruits and vegetables, and the other subjects were categorized into the adequate group. There was a significant difference in the nutrient density per 1,000 kcal of energy, minerals, vitamins, and dietary fiber between the fruit and vegetable intake groups (p<0.001). In terms of health-related factors, only the current smoking rate in the deficient group (57.9%) was higher than that in the adequate group (45.4%) (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the risk factors for metabolic syndrome between the fruit and vegetable intake groups. Proportion of serum triglycerides (42.6%) was the highest at a rate that exceeded the criteria for risk factors for metabolic syndrome, but systolic blood pressure (21.7%) showed a very low rate. The fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the deficient group than in the adequate group (p<0.05). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 31.2%. OR for prevalence of metabolic syndrome related to fruit and vegetable intake was 1.270 times higher in the deficient group than in the adequate group (p<0.05). Also, when the daily fruit intake was increased by 100 g, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was reduced by 0.948 times but it was not related to the vegetable intake. The results of this study can be used as the basic data to establish the guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake for prevention of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men.
This study developed a vegetable preference increase program that can be applied at the Center for Children's Foodservice Management (CCFM) for children in child-care facilities and kindergarten and the training performance was evaluated by 192 5-year old children. Teachers considered ‘disliked food’ (3.23±0.85/out of 5) as the most serious nutritional problem and typical disliked food was ‘vegetables’ (54.2%). Based on this finding, to increase the preference for vegetables, a fivephase education program was developed. In this program, each phase was composed of activities to increase children's interest in vegetables by using each sense out of the five senses. Center dieticians had visited and conducted the program in 12 facilities. By using an illustration assessment tool, the training performance was evaluated by comparing the children's knowledge level and their preference changes in vegetables. Consequently, as examined by 10 questions on the knowledge of vegetables, trained children's (in total 192) knowledge of vegetables had considerably increased (p<0.01, p<0.001), and their preference for 15 out of the 16 vegetables, except for carrots, also showed a considerable preference increase after the training (p<0.01, p<0.001). Therefore, this program is considered to have contributed to reducing disliked vegetable eating behaviors.
This study aimed to compare energy nutrient intake, health related factors, physical characteristics, blood biochemical indices, prevalence of metabolic syndrome and odds ratio (OR) of metabolic syndrome based on dietary fat energy ratio. Subjects were 1,205 men aged 40~64 years. The average fat intake was 52.8 g. Subjects were divided into three groups (deficient, normal, excess) based on dietary fat energy ratio. The dietary fat energy rations of the three groups were 36.9%, 42.9% and 20.2%, respectively. Energy and protein intake were increased significantly with dietary fat energy ratio (p<0.001), whereas carbohydrate intake decreased (p<0.001). In health related factors, amount of smoking alone showed increase based on dietary fat energy ratio (p<0.001). In comparing physical characteristics, blood pressure and blood biochemical indices, excepting diastolic blood pressure, increased significantly based on dietary fat energy ratio (p<0.01~p<0.001). The rate that exceeded criteria in risk factors for metabolic syndrome was higher in the serum triglyceride (41.2%) and was lower in the waist circumference (22.2%). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.9%, and showed significant correlation to dietary fat energy ratio (p<0.05). The OR of metabolic syndrome was higher in deficient and excess group than in normal group, but it had no relationship between fat energy ratio and metabolic syndrome. The results of this study provide basic data to establish fat intake guidelines for prevention of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of interpersonal relationships with snack preference and the intake frequency of snacks with a primary focus on obesity index and snack preparations in upper grade (5~6th) elementary school students. A total of 719 students in Gyeongsangnam-do province were recruited and a questionnaire-based survey was conducted. Data were analyzed using the SPSS V18.0. The results were as follows : A total score of interpersonal relationships was 94.5 (full marks 125), and the scores of 7 factors consisting interpersonal relationships were over 3.50(full marks 5.00). Overweight group had the lowest score in interpersonal relationships (p<0.01) and purchase group by oneself had a low score than the other groups in snacks preparation (p<0.001). Most favorite snacks were ice cream. Additionally, the snack purchase group showed higher scores than the cook group by family in 8 types of snack and a total score of preference (p<0.05~p<0.001). Milk and dairy products had the highest score in frequency of snack intake. And purchase group by oneself or family was a higher than cook group by family (p<0.01). Interpersonal relationships showed a positive effect on preference and intake frequency of milk and dairy products but their explanation powers (R2) were very low. The findings of this study provide fundamental information impact factor in snack preference and frequency of snack intake.
This study analyzed purchasing characteristics of local agricultural products and processed products as well as evaluatedoperation programs for Changnyeon festival participants. The purchasing rates of local agricultural products and processedproducts at this festival were 63.6% and 49.1%, respectively, and the main purchased crops were onion (42.6%) and garlic(20.7%). Drinks (43.6%) were highly purchased processed products. The recognition (95.3%) and preferences (98.4%) forChangyeong local agricultural products were high at this festival. Subjects (72.5%) responded that public relations wereeffective for sale at this festival, and evaluation of the operation program for the festival was 3.51±0.74 (total score 5 points).Satisfaction with the experience event (37.7%) and exhibition event (33.6%) were high at this festival program, whereasparticipants gave low rates for art exhibition and sale events of local agricultural products (16.2%), cooking education(14.7%), direct education program (12.9%), and games (12.1%). This festival was an effective means of public relations,although purchase effects were not significant. This result suggests that the festival is necessary for planning a program toincrease purchasing.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among recognition, preference, and purchasing characteristics for Changnyeong onions and garlic as well as festival satisfaction among participants at agricultural product festivals in the Changnyeong region. Results showed that festival satisfaction of ‘place of festival’ was highest while ‘convenience facility & event contents’ earned the lowest scores. Most subjects (90.5%) had purchased Changnyeong agricultural and processed products. A major purchasing type was fresh agricultural products (66.7%). The pathways to recognize Changnyeong agricultural products were mostly ‘promotion by related institutions’ (22.0%), ‘family · relatives’ (20.8%), ‘mass media’ (16.6%), and ‘festivals and events’ (16.1%). The most considered factors for purchasing regional products were ‘geographical origin’ and ‘ingredients’. Changnyeong onion showed higher scores for recognition and preference and rate of purchase experience and intention than for garlic. The correlation coefficients of recognition and preference for onion and galic were 0.603 (p<0.001) and 0.598 (p<0.001), respectively. The explanation power (R2) of related variables for purchase of Changnyeong onions was 0.258. The regression coefficients (β) for ‘recognition’, ‘preference’ and ‘convenient facility & event contents’ were positive, whereas the regression coefficient for ‘price’ was negative. Recognition, preference, and convenient facility & event contents with garlic purchase showed a positive relationship (R2=0.253). The most effective promotion method to increase sales of Changnyeong agricultural products was ‘local festivals and events’ (27.8%).
This study investigated the interrelations among acculturative stress, recognition, preference and eating frequency of Korean traditional food by Chinese students in Korea. The acculturative stress score was 3.06±0.32, ‘homesickness’ score was the highest (3.92±0.62) and ‘guiltscore’ score was the lowest (2.28±1.04). The rate of preferred for Korean food was low (20.5%). The places for eating Korean food were ‘restaurant’ (49.6%) and ‘school cafeteria’ (41.1%). The cooking experience regarding Korean food was 45.0% and they had cooked ‘Bulgogi’ (26.7%) and ‘Bibimbap’ (21.9%). The recognition score for Korean traditional food was 0.70±0.27. The preference score for Korean traditional food was 3.14±0.54, and the favorite foods were ‘Galbi’ and ‘Galbitang’ while ‘Ggakdugi’ was the lowest. The eating frequency for Korean traditional food was 2.15±0.82, and ‘Baechukimchi’ and ‘Bibimbap’ were comparatively high. The acculturative stress showed no correlation with the recognition, preference and eating frequency of Korean traditional food. The recognition of Korean traditional food correlated positively with the eating frequency (r=0.175, p<0.05). The preference of Korean traditional food had a significant effect on eating frequency (r=0.274, p<0.001), and the highest positive correlation was shown in ‘Ddeokbokki’ (r=0.470). The explanation power (R2) of recognition and preference on eating frequency was 0.098. This study showed the interrelations among recognition, preference, and eating frequency of Korean traditional food except for acculturative stress.
The purpose of this study is to provide useful information which will aid in the promotion of nutritional policy in the Korean rural area which are derived from a survey of intake and source of protein in some Korean rural adults and the correlations between their protein nutrition and various nutrients, the uses of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, etc. The survey was conducted from July, 24 through July, 28, 1989. The healthy subjects were 45 males (average age 42.3, average BMI 22.1㎏/㎡ ) and 55 females (44 years, 21.2㎏/㎡) residing in Sungjoo Kyun, Chulanam-Do, Korea. The subjects were examined for the anthropometric, food intake and food habits. Their daily diets were measured by 24-hr recall method. The results can be summarized as follows The daily mean protein intakes of male and female subjects were 95% of RDA(66.5g)( 16.7% of total food intake per day) and 102.3% of RDA(61g) (14.8% of total intake per day) respectively. The order of sources of animal protein in all subjects was fish(47.9%), meat(29.8%), milk (12%), and egg(10.3%). Among protein sources the intake frequencies of fork and chicken were higher than those of others. The protein nutrition of the subjects showed positive correlations with energy and fat, carbohydrate, fiber at the level of significance of 1%. The protein nutrition of the male subjects showed no correlation with age, BMI, uses of alcohol, coffee, medicine, but the plant protein nutrition showed a positive correlation with smoking and exercies(at 5%). And the protein nutrition of the male subjects showed no correlations with uses of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, medicine and their opinion of their present state of their health, but the age of the male subjects showed negative correlations with milk(at 1%) and egg(at 5%). In conclusion, the daily protein intake was good and the main sources of animal protein were fishes in rural adults. The protein nutrition of the subjects showed a correlation with energy, fat, carbohydrate and in the case of female, milk and egg intakes showed the negative correlation with age.