This study aimed to develop a new commercialization model for theindustrialization of head family food as a gentry families' complex food culture product. We tried to develop a head family food and propose a city sightseeing style's head family product by interviews with 'Hakindang' as the center, the head house of the Suwon Baek clan, and Injaegong group in Jeonjoo. Hakindang (in Jeonju) was confirmed as an improved model Korean-style house in the enlightenment period and the twentieth style modern head family as emerging capitalist. Hakindangsupported independence war funds in the Japanese colonial era and was widely known as gate of filial piety in Jeonju. Representative seasonal foods of Hakindang include pan-fried sweet rice cake with flower petals in the spring, hot spicy meat stew and polypus variabilis in summer, hanchae in autumn, and napa cabbage kimchi with salted flatfish seafood in the winter. When parents-in-law had a birthday, there were party noodles, sliced abalone stuffed with pine nuts, brass chafing dish, fish eggs, slices of blilde meat, and matnaji. Daily, there were mainly salted seafood, slices of raw fish, grilled short rib patties, braised fish, baked fish, syruped chestnut, grilled deodeok root, bean sprouts, radish preserved with salt, dongchimi, soy sauce-marinated horseshoe crab, butterbur, perilla seed stew, salted clams, raw bamboo shoot, agar, fried kelp, etc. The most basic virtue of the head family is filial duty, and they developed mosim dining as a representative food of Hakingdang's head family. The mosim menu is composed of 65% carbohydrates, 20% protein, and 15% fat because it is table for parents-in-law like more than 75 years old. The sensory evaluation showed a chewy texture that is easily swallowed.
The research aimed to provide accurate and basic data comparing different perceptions of head family’s food and food for religious ceremonies depending on age with the goal of sustaining traditional Korean food in the future. The gender distribution of the participants was 274 Males (42.5%) and 370 Females (57.5%). Age distribution was 211 participants (32.7%) in their 20s, 215 participants (33.3%) in their 30 to 40s, and 220 participants (34%) in their 50 to 60s. The older generation appeared to beaware of the definition of head family or 'The eldest’s house of head family’ as well as the concept of one’s family five generations ago with more reductive and emphasis than imaginary concept of head family of the younger generation. The image of the head family was perceived as ‘head family’s food’ in younger generations and as ‘eldest son’ in older generations. Family role and meaning most often manifested as ‘succession of tradition’ and ‘cultural symbols’ in younger generations, respectively, whereas older generations responded ‘hallmark of the head family’. Family ancestral rites and head family’s food had positive effects on awareness of head family’s food. Moreover, those with experience in practicing family ancestral rites responded that head family’s food should be more popular. People who viewed family’s food more positively were more open with the idea thathead family’s food could go mainstream. In conclusion, positive perception of head family’s food and traditional pride are crucial environmental factors in public support of popularizing head family's food to the public.
This study examined the food culture of the Koryo Dynasty during the early 13th century based on the records of wooden tablets and marine relics from the 1st and 2nd ships of Mado wrecked at sea off Taean while sailing for Gaegyeong containing various types of grain paid as taxes and tributes. The recipients of the cargo on the 1st ship of Mado were bureaucrats living in Gaegyeong during the period of the military regime of the Koryo Dynasty, and the place of embarkation was the inlet around Haenam (Juksan Prefecture) and Naju (Hoijin Prefecture) in Jolla-do. On wooden tablets were recorded 37 items of rice, cereal, and fermented foods. The measures used in the records were seok [石-20 du (斗)] for cereal, seok [15 du, 20 du] for fermented soybean paste, and pot (缸) and volume (斗) for salted fish. The places of embarkation on the 2nd ship of Mado were Jeongeup (Gobu Prefecture), Gochang (Jangsa Prefecture, Musong Prefecture), etc. On wooden tablets were recorded 29 items of rice, cereal, fermented foods, seasame oil, and honey. The volume measure for yeast guk (麴), the fermentative organism for rice wine, was nang [囊-geun (斤)], and the measure for sesame oil and honey, which were materials of oil-and-honey pastries and confections, was joon (樽-seong, 盛). Honey and sesame oil were luxury foods for the upper-class people of the Koryo Dynasty, and they were carried in high-quality inlaid celadon vases in Meibyung style. Food names and measures written on wooden tablets and actual artifacts found in the 1st and 2nd ships of Mado are valuable materials for research into agriculture, cereal, and fermented foods of the Koryo Dynasty in the early 13th century. Besides, relics such as grains and bones of fish and animals from the Koryo Dynasty are expected to provide crucial information usable in studies on food history of the Korean Peninsula.
This study was conducted to investigate the degree of practice of dietary behavior and dining out in accordance with intake of sodium among male and female adults aged 20 years or older residing in the Seoul Metropolitan area or Chungcheong Province. A total of 530 copies of the questionnaire were distributed from May to July, 2014. The SH group who responded that they eat a lot of sodium constituted 30.6% (158 people), followed by the SM group who responded that their sodium intake is about average at 55.7% (288 people) and the SL group who answered that they do not eat much sodium at 13.7% (71 people). Those in the SL group showed positive results for dietary behavior patterns. The SL group showed the lowest rate in terms of how often they eat harmful foods, including processed foods, sweet foods, salty foods, or food with high animal fat content such as pork belly. Positive results among the SL group were prominent in terms of avoiding over-drinking, regular exercise, and nutritional knowledge, indicating greater health management. The distribution of each group in terms of self-perceived sodium intake showed significant differences across age, gender, and household income in terms of frequency of fast food intake, regularity of meals, purchase of foods with consideration of sodium amount, frequency of missed meals, balance of food intake, and health management habits.
This study was conducted to analyze the differences in consumer behavior of coffee product according to monthly income in franchised coffee shop's consumer in Korea. A total of 293 questionnaires were used out of the 330 that had been distributed for analysis; those that lacked reliability were excluded. Frequency, ANOVA, and Duncan's multiple range test was conducted to analyze the hypotheses of the study. The findings are summarized as follows. There were significant differences in consumer behavior with regard to seeking health, eco-friendly products, product brand, and product taste as well as preferred coffee menu and coffee consumption expenditures. High income consumers rather than low income groups showed much higher score for concerning health, concerning diet, concerning calorie, concerning instant, concerning caffeine and concerning nature, organic in coffee consumer behavior. In amount spent on purchasing coffee products according to income, low income consumers rather than high income groups had much higher financial expense burden.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among recognition, preference, and purchasing characteristics for Changnyeong onions and garlic as well as festival satisfaction among participants at agricultural product festivals in the Changnyeong region. Results showed that festival satisfaction of ‘place of festival’ was highest while ‘convenience facility & event contents’ earned the lowest scores. Most subjects (90.5%) had purchased Changnyeong agricultural and processed products. A major purchasing type was fresh agricultural products (66.7%). The pathways to recognize Changnyeong agricultural products were mostly ‘promotion by related institutions’ (22.0%), ‘family · relatives’ (20.8%), ‘mass media’ (16.6%), and ‘festivals and events’ (16.1%). The most considered factors for purchasing regional products were ‘geographical origin’ and ‘ingredients’. Changnyeong onion showed higher scores for recognition and preference and rate of purchase experience and intention than for garlic. The correlation coefficients of recognition and preference for onion and galic were 0.603 (p<0.001) and 0.598 (p<0.001), respectively. The explanation power (R2) of related variables for purchase of Changnyeong onions was 0.258. The regression coefficients (β) for ‘recognition’, ‘preference’ and ‘convenient facility & event contents’ were positive, whereas the regression coefficient for ‘price’ was negative. Recognition, preference, and convenient facility & event contents with garlic purchase showed a positive relationship (R2=0.253). The most effective promotion method to increase sales of Changnyeong agricultural products was ‘local festivals and events’ (27.8%).
The objective of this study was to determine the perception of monosodium glutamate (MSG) contents in eating out menu and MSG symptom complex. Respondents in the Seoul area were surveyed from Feb. 10 to 20, 2014. The results are summarized as follows. The 51.3% of respondents were male and 48.7% of them were female. As for age, 73.5% of respondents were 20~24 years old. Favorite menu of respondents’ eating out were Korean food (57.8%), Western food (17.6%), Fast food (9.5%), Japanese food (6.2%), Chinese food (5.2%). Male respondents favored Korean food (62.4%), Fast food (10.2%) and Western food (9.6%), but female respondents favored Korean food (53.0%), Western food (26.2%) and Fast food (8.7%). The 48.7% of respondents considered Chinese food containing high amount of MSG. A few respondents (18.6%) recognized to usage amount of MSG as consideration factor to select eating out menu. However, most respondents (55.2%) perceived harmful to take excessive amount of MSG contained food. The 37.9% of respondents had experience of MSG symptom complex after eating out. Respondents’ self recognized MSG symptom complex were thirstiness (84.5%), drowsiness (55.7%), weakness (34.5%), nausea (30.2%), tightness (20.7%) and headache (14.7%). The 19.9% of respondents like MSG contained food. The reason for disliking MSG contained food were ‘bad for health’ (66.3%) and ‘MSG symptom’ (33.2%). The reason for liking MSG contained food were ‘good taste (83.6%) and ‘habitual eating’ (14.8%). The result of this study showed that some sensitive people have unpleasant reaction after eating out. Therefore, it is suggested that natural flavor enhancer may develop to replace the use of MSG.
This study aimed to determine consumer satisfaction according to selection attributes of specialized coffee shops and also understand the effects of consumer satisfaction on recommendation intention and revisit intention. Through positive analysis, the study produced the following results. In the factor analysis of selection attributes of specialized coffee shops, there were six factors: ‘quality’, ‘brand image’, ‘economic feasibility’, ‘menu diversity’, ‘the atmosphere and convenience of the shop’, and ‘service’. Among these factors, ‘brand image’, ‘economic feasibility’, and ‘menu diversity’ were found to exert a significant influence on consumer satisfaction. Second, consumer satisfaction had a significant influence on recommendation intention and revisit intention. Third, consumer intention to revisit specialized coffee shops showed a significant influence on recommendation intention.
The purpose of the study is to determine how consumers perceive certification marks for agricultural products. The study examined three agricultural product certifications, such as the certification of environment-friendly agricultural products, Good Agricultural Procuts (GAP) certification mark, and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) certification mark. A survey was utilized for data collection from adults over the age of 19 in November, 2013. A total of 390 questionnaires were distributed, and 300 of those were obtained for an analysis of the study. The results were as follows. First, consumers' awareness of, image of, and credibility on the agricultural products with the certification marks were not significantly different among the three certification marks except consumers’ awareness. Second, consumers’ purchase intentions for and willingness to pay for the agricultural products with the certification marks were not significantly different among the three certification marks. Third, these variables were not significantly different between buying group and non-buying group except consumers’ awareness. Lastly, buying group and non-buying group were significantly different only in gender and marital status. The findings offer implications to the food and food service industry regarding consumers’ purchase of certified agricultural products. Further, the study enforces the roles of food industry for environment.
Bulgogi (Korean-traditional barbequed beef) is one of the most globally well-known Korean foods. Though various attempts have been made to promote bulgogi, studies are limited understanding mostly to US consumers or foreigners who reside in Korea. China, the world’s most populous country, has the biggest market potential in the world. The purpose of this study was to understand reasons of liking or disliking bulgogi products in Chinese consumers who reside in China in comparison to Korean consumers. The bulgogi used in this study differed in its main marinating ingredients. Check-all-thatapply (CATA) questionnaire was used to collect the reasons why one liked or disliked the given bulgogi product. CATA result showed that even for the same product, Korean and Chinese consumers liked or disliked it for different reasons. In particular, unlike Koreans, Chinese consumers reported sweet taste and garlic flavor as reasons for disliking the samples with high amounts of sugar and garlic, respectively. This seemed to be the result of differences in familiarity of consumers to certain tastes and flavors. The results imply the influence of culture in consumer preferences.
The purpose of this study was to compare understanding of school foodservice management and environmentally friendly agricultural products between urban and rural elementary school children’s mothers. Subjects were 400 elementary school parentsliving in Jeonnam. The results are summarized as follows. School foodservice program helped to solve unbalanced diets, develop minds and bodies, and improve eating habits. Mothers showed a higher degree of satisfaction for school foodservice containing environmentally friendly agricultural products. The primary reason for favoring environmentally friendly agricultural products was improvement of health and securing safe foods. The most important parameter of school foodservice management was sanitary control of food materials>sanitary control of foods>sanitary conditions of place for meals>sanitary conditions of cooker>sanitary conditions of tableware. In conclusion, school foodservice should be financially responsible to make policies effective.
The purpose of this article was to research the effects of physical environment on risk perception in customers at raw-fish restaurants in the Northeastern area of Kangwon province, South Korea. In this research, reliability analysis, factor analysis and path analysis were carried out. Physical environments were divided into four factors and risk perception into three factors. ‘Exterior facility’ had a negative influence on performance (p<0.001) and financial risk (p<0.001). ‘Interior facility’ negatively affected performance risk (p<0.001), financial risk (p<0.001) and time risk (p<0.001). ‘The others’ negatively influenced performance risk (p<0.05). Lastly, ‘press copy’ negatively influenced performance risk (p<0.001). Based on these results, various physical environments affected the risk perception in customers at raw-fish restaurants, and satisfaction level of customers was based on risk perceptions. As a result, food-service companies need to manage the physical environment as a marketing strategy, as well as reduce risk perception to increase customers loyalty.
Brands play a critical role as a core asset and the primary driver for corporate growth because of their power of identity and influence on customers’ perceptions in restaurant industry. However, in spite of diverse and dynamically changing recent brand portfolio strategies of restaurants, a study on the effect of brand diversification on financial performance has been rarely conducted in the restaurant industry context. Considering competing viewpoints regarding diversification’s influence on financial performance, the purpose of this study is, therefore, to examine the effect of brand diversification on firm performance of restaurants. The results indicated that brand diversification is positive effect to profitability. Brand diversification seems to be attractive and might be a reasonable growth strategy to expand market power by satisfying diverse consumer needs. Therefore, restaurant managers should be consider in implementing brand diversification strategy especially in dynamically changing trend of brand diversification in the current restaurant industry.
This research was conducted to investigate changes in isoflavone contents and sprouting characteristics of germinated soybeans [Glycine max.] under light condition. The relative wet weight of soybeans increased as germination progressed, and it reached 291.1±14.3% at 60 h after beginning of sprouting. On the other hand, relative dry weight slowly decreased as germination progressed. The length of sprouting rapidly increased as germination progressed. The sprouting rate sharply increased from 12 h to 48 h and reached 96.4±2.5% at 60 h after sprouting. In terms of color, L value did not change until 24 h after the beginning of germination, but it rapidly increased from 24 h to 36 h and did not change thereafter. The a value rapidly increased at 24 h after the beginning of germination and decreased thereafter. The b value rapidly increased at early and last stages and reached 9.0±0.7 at 60 h after the beginning of sprouting. Total isoflavone reached a maximum level at 12 h after the beginning of germination and consistently decreased thereafter. Among isoflavone compounds, m-genistin had the highest content followed by daidzin and m-daidzin.
The objective of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Baeksulgi (BS) and Sulgidduk added with Makgeolli (MS, BS+ Makgeolli) during storage at 20±2 for 3 days. Moisture contents of MS were significantly higher than those of BS during storage. Reducing sugar contents (%) were higher in MS. The pH values were 6.23 and 5.93, for BS and MS, respectively. The pH of MS was lower and thus indicated higher in acidity. The Hunter color L (lightness) and a (redness) values were higher for BS, whereas b (yellowness) value of MS was lower. In the texture analysis, hardness and chewiness of MS were found to be lower, whereas springiness, gumminess, and resilience were higher than those of MS. According to DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) analysis, enthalpy of MS appeared to be lower than that of BS during storage, which suggests retrogradation of MS was delayed. The total phenol content was higher in MS. The IC50 value of DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was lower in MS, which means antioxidant activity increased in MS. Results of the preference test showed that appearance, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability of MS scored higher than those of BS. From these results, high quality of MS was derived from Makgeolli addition.
This study investigated the antioxidative properties of Yangha Buds (Zingiber Mioga R) and quality characteristics of Korean steamed-rice cake, Sulgidduk, prepared with Yangha Buds juice. Antioxidative activities were measured based on DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activities, total phenol content, and total flavonoid content in Yangha Buds (water extract and juice). Sulgidduk was prepared by adding Yangha buds at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% of juice. To analyze quality characteristics, proximate composition, color, texture profiles, and sensory evaluations were measured. As content of Yangha buds juice increased, L-value significantly decreased while a-value and b-value increased (p<0.05). For texture profiles, control group scored higher score for hardness as compared to groups added with Yangha buds juice. Springiness, chewiness, and adhesiveness were not significantly different among the groups. In the sensory evaluation, samples containing 3% Yangha buds juice showed better results for attitude. Based on these results, we suggest that Yangha buds are a good ingredient for increasing consumer acceptability and functionality of Sulgidduk.
This study was performed to determine the optimal composition of muffins added with dropwort powder, egg and sugar. The experiment was designed based on BBD (Box-behnken design), and evaluation was carried out by means of RSM (response surface methodology), consisting of 13 experimental points with three replicates each for three independent variables dropwort powder, eggs and sugar. Using F-test, height, moisture, 1,1-diphenyl-2picriylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, L-value, a-value, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, brittleness, color, and appearance acceptability were expressed as a linear model, whereas pH, b-value, flavor, taste, and texture were expressed as a quadratic model. After swallow and overall acceptability were expressed as a 2FI model. As dropwort powder content increased, 1,1-diphenyl-2picriylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity increased. Increasing amounts of dropwort powder led to reduction of sensory scores for color, appearance, flavor, taste, and texture quality. The optimum formulation determined by the numerical and graphical methods were similar: dropwort powder 6 g, egg 77 g, and sugar 60 g.
This study was conducted to examine the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability of commercial Gangjeong. The samples used in this study were nine different Gang-jeong as commercial products. To accomplish this research, the physicochemical properties of nine samples, including moisture, crude lipid, sugar contents, acid value, color values, and texture, were measured. In addition, consumer panels evaluated the overall acceptability, appearance, flavor, sweetness, and texture of samples using a 9-point Likert type scale as well as the perceived intensities of sweetness and rancid odor by a 9-point Just-About-Right (JAR) scale. All data were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA, Principle Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, and Pearson's Correlation Analysis. All physicochemical properties were significantly different among the samples (p<0.001). Analyses of consumer acceptability and JAR ratings of the nine samples showed significant differences (p<0.001).
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between eating habits and health among adolescents in Shanghai and Heze, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on 2,089 adolescents; 1,089 students were from Shanghai and 999 students from Heze region. Eating habits, weight, height, and nutritional knowledge were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Eating habits score was classified into two categories: healthy eating habits and unhealthy eating habits, based on「Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey」, for statistical data analysis. Associations between eating habits, BMI, and nutritional knowledge were examined using a general linear model with adjustment of potential confounding factors such as region, gender, age, parents’ education level, and pocket money. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS (version 9.3) program. Proportions of healthy eating habits group were 90.0% for breakfast (3-7 times/wk), 29.1% for fruit (≥once/d), 12.5% for vegetable (≥3 times/d), 7.3% for milk (≥2 times/d), 90.0% for fast food (<3 times/wk) consumption, respectively. The average BMI score was 20.1 (Shanghai 20.5 Heze 19.6), which is in the range of normal weight. Rates of obesity and overweight were 16.5% and 8.3% in Shanghai and Heze, respectively. There were significant negative correlations between intake frequencies of breakfast, fast food, biscuits, sugar, chocolate, and BMI score. Eating habits and nutritional knowledge score showed a significant positive correlation. These results showed better eating habits regarding eating regularity and consumption of fruits and soft drinks in Chinese adolescents compared with Korean adolescents, although cultural differences were not fully considered. This study demonstrated significant associations of BMI and nutritional knowledge with dietary behavior in Chinese adolescents in two regions of China. Further studies on Chinese adolescents from other regions in China should be considered.
Fruits are good sources of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytochemicals, which are known to reduce serum lipids, oxidative damage, and blood pressure as well as improve blood glucose control. The purpose of this study was to estimate nutrient quality indices of fruits by carrying out a critical analysis of pre-existing methods according to their nutritional compositions. Four methods were used to assess the nutrient indices of 26 fruits, which are frequently consumed by Koreans based on the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009). Naturally nutrient rich score (NNR), nutrient rich food (NRF), nutrient adequacy score (NAS), and nutrient density score (NDS) were used to calculate nutrient quality indices. The Korean Nutrition Society Food Composition database of fruits based on 100 g edible portions was used. The algorithm of each method included the mean percentage of daily values (Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans, 2010) for particular nutrients based on consumption of 1,900 kcal/day. The relative score indicated that strawberries, kumquat, and lemon had high nutrient quality indices. In addition, mango, lemon, persimmon, strawberry, apricot, and tangerine fruits are rich in antioxidant nutrients such as β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium. However, scores of nutrient quality indices did not imply that higher scores of particular fruits are superior. We suggest moderate seasonable consumption a variety of fruits. Our results can be used as a reference for consumers when they choose fruits.