This study examined the relationship between the eating out behavior of families and a low-salt management by housewives in Jeonju area. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 420 housewives. Descriptive statistical analyses was completed using SPSS v. 19.0 and Stata 13.0. The frequency of eating out and delivered food of housewives in their 20s was significantly higher than that of the older housewives (p<0.001). The high order frequency delivered foods were chicken menu and Chinese food. The determinants of the eating out menu were children’s preference and meal time. The average scores of ‘interest on low-salt diet’, ‘attitude toward a low-salt purchasing’, and ‘praxis a low-salt diet’ were 2.70±0.95, 3.06±1.13, and 3.26±0.91, respectively. The level of a low-salt management housewives in their 20s was higher than that of the older housewives (p<0.001). Regression analysis showed that various factors (e.g. age, number of children, education level, and frequency of the eating out) correlated with the low-salt diet of subjects. For the adequate eating out behavior of families and low-salt management of housewives, information and consumer education to take family-related situations into consideration are necessary.
This study aims to compare and analyze a willow tree (Salix Koreensis andersson) extract’s antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity by investigating its: total polyphenol, flavonoid content, SOD-like activity, DPPH vitality. the willow tree was induced with LPS to determine its active anti-inflammatory effects. as a result, the willow methanol extract showed a higher total polyphenol and flavonoid content than those of willow distilled water extract, but the willow distilled water extract showed a higher SOD than that of willow methanol extract. in its DPPH scavenging ability, the willow methanol extract’s antioxidant activity was higher than that of the willow distilled water extract. the willow extract’s measurements such as the production of NO, inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 measurement) were significantly reduced as its concentration level went down. according to the research outcomes, when induced, he will extract’s macrophage produces mediator-like substances such as NO and inflammatory cytokine that can be used to alleviate the inflammatory response. therefore, the willow tree proved to be a useful raw plant material for the products designed to combat inflammatory activities due to its natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response substances such as NO and cytokine.
Despite the rapid increase in the number of foreign students, there has been a lack of research to help them adapt to Korean food culture and develop healthy eating habits. This study examined the dietary habits and problems of foreign students studying in universities of Korea. Although 97.0% of the 604 people surveyed live in dormitories, the visiting rate of the school cafeteria was low. In addition, only 30.2% of them ate three meals a day, and the frequency of eating midnight snack and convenience store foods was high. International students were positive about experiencing new Korean food, but food satisfaction in Korea was not high because of the difficulties in food selection due to religious problems and maladjustment to Korean sauces and seasonings. Information on Korean eating habits was obtained mainly from other foreign students from the same country (49.5%) and the Internet (33.8%), and there was very little interaction with Korean students at meals. The ratio of subjects who ate halal foods was 33.3%, and they were shown to have difficulty obtaining halal foods in Korea. Therefore, based on the results of this study, a support program should be developed in order to improve the dietary habits of international students.
This study was carried out to determine the optimal storage conditions by examining the effects of the storage conditions on the quality of red pepper powder during storage in households. Red pepper powder was stored at room temperature (20oC), refrigeration (2 and -1oC) and frozen (-5 and -20oC) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The ASTA color value, capsanthin content and redness (a*) of the red pepper powders stored at -5 and -20oC were not decreased significantly depending on the storage temperatures until 9 months. The pH of red pepper powder stored at 20oC decreased significantly until 9 months and increased at 12 months. The microbiological quality of the red pepper powder stored at -5 and -20oC was more stable during long-term storage. In the sensory evaluation of red pepper powder stored under all conditions, the overall freshness, redness, hot flavor, moisture release, and edibility decreased with increasing storage period from the control to 12 months. Moisture release increased from 3 months to 12 months. Overall, red pepper should be stored at low temperatures (2 , -1oC) for up to 6 months, and frozen (≥ -5oC) for 6 to 9 months. The optimal temperature for long-term storage (≥9 months) was -20oC.
This study investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of Makgeolli (a traditional Korean rice wine) made with Etteum bell flower root (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% with steamed rice) during fermentation. The pH values of Makgeolli with Etteum bell flower root powder decreased after 3 days of fermentation and then increased after 5 days of fermentation. Sugar content decreased after 3 days of fermentation. Color evaluation showed the L values of these drinks decreased during fermentation, whereas a and b values both increased. The alcohol content of Makgeolli increased after fermentation, reaching a maximum concentration of 7.90-8.07% by the end of fermentation. Total phenolic compound contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities increased as the ratio of Etteum bell flower root increased. Sensory scores of Makgeolli fermented with 1.5% Etteum bell flower root ware greater than those of Makgeolli prepared by other treatments. Therefore, Makgeolli added with 1.5% Etteum bell flower root added considered to be the most suitable for manufacturing.
In this study, Seolgi Tteok was made in order to increase consumption of Geuk, which possesses numerous nutritional advantages, and its optimum content as a new food coloring for rice cake was determined. Quality characteristics and quantitative description analysis (QDA) of Seolgi Tteok, in which Geuk was added at 0, 4, 8, and 12%, was conducted. Consumer acceptability test was also conducted. As the amount of added Geuk increased, moisture content of Seolgi Tteok increased as well. Brightness (L-value) was the highest in the control group, and more Geuk resulted in higher values of red index (a-value) and yellow index (b-value), which corresponded to the results of the sensory evaluation. As result of the mechanical texture measurement, only adhesiveness and resilience show a significant difference. As a result of the QDA, 17 sensory characteristic terms were assessed. Among them, only 13 showed a significant difference. Among the different sensory characteristics, almost all of them except for taste characteristics were significantly influenced by the amount of Geuk. The aroma and taste of Geuk were not largely influenced. It can be suggested that Geuk is not a factor that strongly influences flavor. In conclusion, Geuk does not have a strong influence on the taste or aroma of Seolgi Tteok but does on color characteristics. It can be suggested that Geuk is qualified as a coloring material for food, and the reasonable addition amount is 8%. As a result of this research, Geuk can be considered as a coloring material for other types of rice cake, traditional Korean sweets, and even confectioneries as well as for Seolgi Tteok. This implies that Geuk can be utilized to develop various new products as a coloring material with abundant nutritional content, which will contribute to the promotion of Geuk consumption.
Malaysia is regarded as one of the leaders in the global halal marketplace, which has undergone huge growth in the past few years. The aims of this study were to identify imported food consumers in Malaysia based on Food Related Lifestyle (FRL) attributes and to investigate the demographic characteristics and purchasing behaviors of each segmented groups. Using an online survey, a total of 600 responses were collected in Malaysia. Excluding invalid responses, cluster analysis segmented imported food consumers into four FRL groups: impulsive, high interest, low interest, and traditional consumers. The results of this study were as follows. First, depending on lifestyle, the groups exhibited significant differences in demographic characteristics (age, race, religion, and education level). Second, differences in purchasing behaviors (purchasing frequency, place, and information sources of imported food products) were verified. Especially, purchasing frequency of imported food was higher in the high interest consumer group compared to the other groups. Based on these results, marketing implications of the study findings are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between retort food characteristics and consumers’ perceptions and to survey 295 consumers from December 10 to December 20 as the center of consumers who purchase retort food. As a result, most of the consumers who purchase retort food were women and the age were under 25 and 26 to 30 years old. There were many housewives and students in the occupation group and 2 to 3 in the family members. In addition, many graduated from college and many places of purchase were convenience stores and large discount stores. Consumer retort food purchase rate were high by 30-40% in meat products. Fish meat products were high by 30-40% and sauces were high by 20-30%. Instant foods were high by 20-30%, Tang (탕) / Guk (국) / Jigae (찌개) were high by 30-40% and canned food were high by lower than 10%. As a result of the influence of retort food characteristics on positive perceptions only convenience were influential. The effects of the characteristics of retort food on negative perceptions were influenced only by hygiene and standardization.
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng prepared with different concentrations of mealworm powder: 0, 1, 2, and 3%. Regarding the proximate composition, moisture, crude lipid and ash contents showed no significant differences among groups, while crude protein contents increased as the mealworm powder increased. The value of lightness (L) and yellowness (b) were higher in 3% added groups than those of control groups. Consumer acceptance test showed that no significant differences between the controls and added groups were observed in color, smell, taste and overall acceptability. The total polyphenol content ranged from 19.87 to 51.37 mg GAE/100 g, exhibiting the increase with increasing mealworm powder level. DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power increased as the amount of mealworm powder increased. In conclusion, it is suggested that mealworm powder can be incorporated into Yanggaeng up to 3% without affecting the sensory quality of Yanggaeng.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary education on undergraduate student’s health, environment, and consideration. A total of 54 participants were recruited from an undergraduate student in Seoul. We conductive quantitative analysis of a structured questionnaire and qualitative analysis of interviews recorded by photovoice. There are significant differences among knowledge, dietary attitude, and food behavior in the field of health (p<0.001). In the field of health, photovoice data were categorized as ‘health care practice’, ‘Korean dietary lifestyles’, or ‘awareness of importance of health’ (p<0.001). In the field of environment, photovoice data were categorized as ‘environment-friendly dietary lifestyle’ and ‘environmental contamination minimization’(p<0.001). In the field of consideration, photovoice data were categorized as ‘gratitude for others’, ‘joy of cooking’or ‘eating meals together’(p<0.01). In conclusion, we found that dietary education about health, environment, and consideration may affect healthy dietary lifestyle among undergraduate students. Our findings may warrant further studies to develop significantly effective dietary education for undergraduate students.
The Sasang constitution typology was analyzed through SCAT2 and a specialist to examine the correlation between the Sasang constitution and dietary pattern, and the difference in BMI and food preference according to Sasang constitution was determined. The Sasang constitution typology of the subjects was classified by SCAT2 and a specialist. Seventy-four subjects were screened by SCAT2 (SC), and 18 of them were judged by the specialist (SP). The results of SCAT2 and the specialist were consistent in 13 subjects (SS). BMI and food preference among these groups were compared. The concordance rate of SCAT2 and the specialist classification was 72.2%. The BMI in SC was significantly lower in the order of Taeeumin, Soyangin, and Soeumin, but no significant difference was observed between Taeeumin and Soyangin in SP and SS. To analyze the preference of food and the constitutional suitability, the ‘Yin-Yang food preference index’ was developed and compared with the data classified by constitutional food according to existing ideological medical theory. As a result, there were 33 food items that matched in the SP-SS, which was more than that in the SC-SP (4 items), SC-SS (6 items), and SCSP- SS (4 items). Twenty-four of the 33 matched food items were consistent with the existing constitutional food data. In conclusion, SCAT2 is a very useful tool for Sasang constitutional research, but for more objective research, it is recommended that subjects who show consistent results by different methods be targeted.
This study has utilized the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique in order to plan the tangible (menu) and intangible (service) product of dumpling restaurant. The engineering characteristics of tangible products were classified into product planning, purchase management, production management, and information management based on the production system of foodservice. The engineering characteristics of intangible products were also classified into physical evidence, human interaction, and pre-communication based on the service operation and delivery system. As a result of analyzing the QFD, it was found that the customer hope the hygiene factor and response factor to be improved. It is analyzed that product planning, information management, and production management should be improved first in terms of engineering characteristics considering consumer needs. In the future, by utilizing the systematic product development process that the requirements of tangible and intangible product consumers are converted to the engineering characteristics, the development of competitive product within the market will be possible, and furthermore it is expected to be useful for reducing the unnecessary time and design costs due to failure of product development.