This study identifies the perceptions and choice attributes toward plant-based foods and identifies the differences between vegetarians and omnivores. We conducted an online survey of 245 vegetarians and 246 omnivores. The results reveal a significant difference between vegetarians and omnivores. Compared to omnivores, vegetarians perceived that plant-based food products would be ‘good taste’, ‘animal-friendly’, and ‘consistent with their personal value’. Omnivore scores were higher in the perception that it would be ‘good for health’ and ‘environment-friendly’. No statistically significant difference was obtained between both diet groups when considering the factor of nutrition. When considering choice as an attribute for plant-based food products, vegetarians responded that ‘ingredients’ were the most important, while omnivores responded that ‘taste’ was the most important. These results can be used as basic data for developing and promoting plantbased food products in South Korea.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate cookies prepared with five different quantities (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) of watermelon powder (WP). This study analyzed quality characteristics, consumer liking, and CATA (check-all-that-apply) of the samples. The density and pH of the cookie dough and the L-value of the cookies tended to decrease as the amount of watermelon powder increased (p<0.05), whereas the spread factor, a-value, and hardness of the cookies tended to increase as the amount of watermelon powder increased (p<0.001). The b-value tended to increase up to WP10, but it tended to decrease from WP15 (p<0.001). The results of the evaluation of consumer liking showed that overall liking was the highest for WP5 and lowest for WP20 (p<0.05). In the analysis of the CATA survey, the main reasons for liking for all the samples were ‘Appearance’, ‘Color’, ‘Sweet taste’, ‘Nutty odor/flavor’, ‘Crispiness’, and ‘Familiarity’. WP5 showed the most diverse reasons for being liked. The common reason for disliking samples with the addition of watermelon powder was ‘Residual feel in the mouth’. In the correspondence analysis, attributes of ‘Stale taste’, ‘Clean taste’, ‘Softness’, ‘Familiarity’, ‘Moistness’, ‘Color’, ‘Blandness’ were detected in the WP0 and WP5. The results indicate that WP5 with a 5% supplementation of watermelon powder is appropriate for improving the quality and consumer acceptability of the cookies.
Unhealthy dietary behavior such as insufficient calcium intake can be one of risk factors of osteoporosis and chronic diseases in older people. This study evaluated the recent trends in dietary calcium intake and the food source in Korean adults aged 50 years or older using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2015-2019) data. This study used 24-hour recall survey data to investigate the calcium intake, the major food groups and main dishes contributing to the calcium intake. The mean calcium intake was 479.55-506.81 mg/day. The major food groups that contribute to calcium intake were vegetables, milks and fishes. Dairy and frozen desserts and kimchi were the major dish groups that contributed to the calcium intake. Calcium intake from milk in dairy and frozen dessert group has been high in last 5 years (50-64 years old: 34.71-47.68 mg, 65-74 years old: 29.72-43.65 mg, over 75 years old: 22.91-42.93 mg). In addition, baechu-kimchi is the most contributed to the calcium intake in kimchi group (50-64 years old: 35.10-41.47 mg, 65-74 years old: 29.62-34.96 mg, over 75 years old: 23.79-29.13 mg). In conclusion, various source of calcium needs to be recommended to increase intake calcium in over 50 years, which may reduce chronic diseases and improve quality of life.
Institutional foodservice is a type of meal provided to workers in industry and affects the health and psychological wellbeing of workers and productivity. Thus, research on customer satisfaction with institutional foodservice is important. In addition to food industry and food culture developments, the requirements of institutional foodservice customers are diversifying due to COVID-19. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect customer satisfaction with institutional foodservice using a user-based approach. In this study, the quality of institutional foodservice was defined using customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and by using in-depth interview and open coding (a qualitative research method), we derived qualities of institutional foodservice from the user’s perspective and compared these with those of previous studies. This study is meaningful as the quality of institutional foodservice was analyzed using a user-based approach, in-depth interview, and open coding and compares results with those of previous studies.
Local non-timber forest products can be easily accessed by tourists. These also provide opportunities for tourists to experience the local culture. Many local governments are paying constant attention to the development of non-timber forest product brands to revitalize the local economy and increase the profits of local farmers. Although there are many forest products and tourism resources in each region of Korea, there is no local specialized strategy to sell non-timber forest products and promote consumers' purchase intentions. In this study, we aimed to explore the consumers’ perceived creating shared value (CSV) and its association with purchasing behavior of non-timber forest products in Jeongeup city, Korea. Data were collected from 1,066 consumers who had purchased non-timber forest products. Purchasing patterns of local specialty products differed depending on consumers’ perceived CSV levels. In addition, consumers with higher levels of perceived CSV showed higher awareness and familiarity with Jeongeup city and experienced Jeongeup city’s non-timber forest products. Our findings suggest that improving consumer perception towards CSV of non-timber forest products can be used as a marketing strategy for local non-timber forest products to revitalize the local economy.
The number of vegans has increased rapidly due to religious and ethical beliefs, environmental concerns, health, etc. Also, as interest in healthy and safe food increases, the demand for organic products or nutrition-enhanced products is increasing. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the selection attributes and purchasing behavior for protein-fortified and vegan snacks. It is anticipated that the results would find use as basic data for developing protein-fortified snacks for vegans that can meet consumer needs and derive marketing strategies. A survey was conducted on 140 consumers. According to the analysis of their purchase behavior, the number of people who had purchased high-protein snacks and vegan snacks was higher than those who did not have prior experience. The reasons for the purchase of protein fortified snacks included ‘meal replacement’ at ‘offline-convenient store/supermarket’. Vegan snacks were purchased for ‘ethical beliefs, health, environment’ at ‘offline-vegan restaurant, bakery’. Both snacks showed above-normal preferences. However, it is necessary to improve taste and flavor when developing these products as these were the factors that negatively impacted the preferences. The attributes were factorized into the ‘showing off factor’, ‘sensory factor’, ‘credence factor’, and ‘functional factor’ and the ‘sensory factor’ was considered the most important.
In this study, consumers’ perception and consumption behavior of blended tea were investigated. Also, consumer perception of Siberian chrysanthemum, consumption behavior, and awareness of efficacy were investigated. As a result of the survey, it was confirmed that it was necessary to develop a blended tea with taste and flavor characteristics that consumers prefer, having the capability of relieving stress, and preventing cold or respiratory disease. In addition, the degree of recognition of Siberian chrysanthemum was very low, and the recognition of the efficacy appeared in the order of 'cold relief' and ‘respiratory disease relief’. Factor analysis results, safety attributes, health attributes, product attributes, marketing attributes, and sensory attributes were factorized into five factors, and after analysis, it was concluded that the sensory attributes of taste and aftertaste were considered the most important. Consumers surveyed appeared to consume blended tea for ‘relieving mood or stress relief’, to enjoy the taste, and to prevent cold or respiratory diseases. Siberian chrysanthemum displays efficacy in cold relief and relief of respiratory diseases. Therefore, developing Siberian chrysanthemum as a blended tea could be a practical application that can expand the range of its use, making it more popular and increase its commercial applications.
This study evaluated the degree of harmony of food pairing with Korean traditional liquors according to the taste and flavor. In-depth interviews were performed with eight experts from May 7 to 17, 2016, to screen Korean traditional liquor and food. For traditional liquor, Sanseong-makgeolli, Hansansogokju, Damsol, Gamhongro, and Andong Soju were chosen. For foods, pan-fried beef, squid with vinegar dressing, clam soup, honey-filled rice cake, prune, grilled mushroom, Swiss cheese, pistachio, honey, and chocolate cake were chosen. Harmonization of the analytical results Sanseong-makgeolli, between honey and Pan-fried Beef achieved the most harmonious results. Hansansogokju with honey and prune were harmonious. Damsol and Gamhongro, which are distilled liquor and containing added ingredients, were perfect matched with chocolate cake and squid with vinegar dressing. In the degree of harmony between Andong Soju and food, it was confirmed that squid vinegar and Swiss cheese were the most harmonious. Through the results of this study, it was found that the degree of harmony with food was different depending on the characteristics of alcoholic beverages. In addition, it is believed that not only taste and flavor, but also the alcohol content of alcoholic beverages will play an important role in the harmony with food.
This study examined the optimal temperature and time conditions to maintain high quality Dongchimi during the fermentation and storage period. Dongchimi was fermented at low (5oC), medium (10 and 15oC), and high (20oC) temperatures until the acidity reached 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4%. respectively. From the consumer’s preference test enrolling five consumers, Dongchimi fermented at 15oC until an acidity of 0.3% (for approximately six days) was evaluated to be the optimal status because of its high score of overall acceptance, taste, and odor of consumers. To determine the optimal storage temperature of fermentation, Dongchimi was stored at three different temperatures (−1, 2, 5oC) for four weeks after fermenting at 15oC for six days. During the storage period, most of the physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, reducing sugar content, and organic acid) and microbiological properties changed significantly in the 2 and 5oC groups, resulting in a significant change in descriptive sensory analysis of Dongchimi. These results indicate that fermentation at 15oC and storage at −1oC for Dongchimi enables it to maintain the best quality for a long time.
This study examined the factors influencing the purchase intention of meat substitutes. A survey was conducted on 589 consumers in Korea (297 people) and China (292 people). The perception of meat substitute foods was lower in Korean consumers than in Chinese consumers, but there was no significant difference. The purchase intention of meat substitute foods was lower in Korean consumers than in Chinese consumers (p<0.01). Korean consumers’ perception of meat substitute foods was higher in males than in females (p<0.01). The purchase intention of meat substitute foods also showed the same trend (p<0.001). Chinese consumers’ perception of meat substitute foods was higher in males than in females. The overall purchase intention of meat substitute foods was significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.05). The perception of meat substitute foods by Korean consumers’ was higher in their 40s and 50s than in their 20s and 30s. The purchase intention of meat substitute foods was also high in their 40s and 50s (p<0.01). On the other hand, the perception of meat substitute foods by Chinese consumers’ was higher in their 20s and 30s than in their 40s and 50s (p<0.01). The purchase intention of meat substitute foods also showed the same trend (p<0.01). Korean consumers’ perception of meat substitute foods had a significant positive effect on the purchase intention of meat substitutes (p<0.001). Chinese consumers’ perception of meat substitute foods also had a significant positive effect on the purchase intention of meat substitute foods (p<0.001). Overall, food technology neophobia has a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of meat substitutes (p<0.05).
Food tourism is recognized as a unique form of tourism product that combines traditions and regional characteristics and has become an international trend. However, research on food tourism in Korea is limited. Thus, this study investigated the selection attributes of food tourism in Italy, France and Japan. A qualitative study was conducted among 34 foreign food tourism experts on food tourism in their respective countries to find possible directions for Korean food tourism. As a result of this study, ‘Food attraction’, ‘Traditionality’, ‘Locality’, ‘Convenience’, ‘Cultural Characteristics’, and ‘Appropriateness of price’ were the attributes identified from the expert’s comments. Marketing strategies such as improving quality of service and food itself, quality of service, developing diverse food tourism product, and building marketing channel will improve the status of food tourism in Korea.
This study examined the eating habits and preferences of foods according to the age of children with autism spectrum disorders and identified the nutritional needs of parents to support their healthy eating habits and provide basic data for the development of educational programs. A survey of 100 parents of children with autism spectrum disorders was conducted on their children’s snack intake, food preferences, and parents’ nutrition education needs. As a result, there were four times more boys than girls, and the body mass index differed according to age (p<0.001). Most children ate snacks more than once a day, and parents found that they wanted to develop nutritious snacks that could replace high-protein, low-calorie meals with the minimal use of additives. For the food preference, there was a significant difference in grains and starches, vegetables/seafood and fruits, milk and dairy products (p<0.05), fats and sugars, and Korean fermented pastes (p<0.01) between the two age groups. Regarding whether nutrition education was required, many parents had a high demand for nutrition education (4.24±0.70), and the intention to participate was 3.62±1.09. The most important content to be dealt with in parent education was ‘Inducing a change in bad eating habits and behaviors’, which was the highest (63%), and mostly face-to-face education was preferred. In conclusion, young children require diet education, and older children need to focus on weight control and obesity.
The aim of this study is to identify the value structure of active seniors for noodles. Noodles are the secondly most preferred and familiar food in Korea, followed by rice. And noodles also have a variety of tastes/flavors and even a variety of ceremonial characteristics. The necessity of offering proper food to seniors has recently increasing because Korea becoming an aged society. This study conducted 1:1 in-depth interviews with 30 active senior participants using the soft laddering technique, which is based on the means-end chain theory. The Implication Matrix and HVM were derived from performing content analysis. The active seniors mainly consider the ‘taste’, expecting to obtain the ‘satisfying taste’, and pursuing the ‘family affair’, ‘pleasure’, and ‘self-satisfaction’. The results of this study indicated that the taste is the most important attribute and the active seniors consider their family as well as the pleasure and satisfaction of their own. Male seniors mainly pursue the ‘pleasure’ and ‘self-satisfaction’ by satisfying their taste through considering ‘taste’ and ‘familiarity’. But female seniors mainly pursue the ‘family affair’ by ‘satisfying taste’ through considering ‘taste’. These results can be used as a basic data for developing noodle products for the elderly. This study will also contribute to the development of special care food and product concepts for the silver generation.
This study aimed to develop processed foods that can be tailored to the tastes of consumers in countries to enter domestic and foreign markets utilizing fresh Korean pears, in which the consumption is decreasing. A survey was also conducted on three types of samples (pear jelly, pear rice cake, and pear muffin). As a result, both Korean and Chinese women aged in their 20s preferred pear muffins the most among the pear products evaluated. Pear jelly and rice cake were preferred by Chinese consumers because of their sweet taste (p<0.05). Pear rice cakes were preferred because of their texture (p<0.05). Pear muffins were not significant in all items except for odor/flavor and sweetness, but Korean consumers had a high preference for them and showed a significant preference for colors (p<0.05). Pear muffins were most familiar to both Korean and Chinese consumers showing a high willingness to purchase. An analysis of the preference inducement factors of consumers in each country of the three processed foods containing pears using Check-All-That-Reply (CATA) showed that the consumers of both countries preferred the ‘pear odor/flavor’ characteristics of pear jelly, and that pear rice cakes were preferred by Chinese consumers compared to Korean consumers. Pear muffins were preferred by Korean consumers. Overall, pear muffins are the product expected to be most suitable for female consumers in Korea and China aged in their 20s.
This study was conducted to understand the dietary life of North Koreans by analyzing dietary life-related articles published in Joseon Nyeoseong, which is the only women’s magazine in North Korea. This study employed content analysis of 769 articles from 1999 to 2017. The major findings of this study were as follows. Out of the 769 articles, 131 (17.0%) were about dietary culture, 541 (70.4%) were about the food and nutrition, and 97 (12.6%) were about food production. The articles emphasized ethnic food and North Koreans ingredients, spices, cooking methods, containers, and etiquette. A variety of foods and ingredients were used to maintain health, as well as to treat common illnesses and health problems. There were 173 recipes mentioned in the magazine, but no foreign food recipes. There were many dishes that could be preserved for a long time such as Kimchi and pickles. For food security, many vegetables and plant-eating animals such as rabbits were cultivated. Overall, the results indicate that North Korea has been maintaining its unique dietary life without being influenced by foreign countries.