This qualitative study analyzed various environmental factors and difficulties faced by school foodservices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Focus group interviews were conducted by enrolling 12 nutrition teachers and nutritionists. Data collected were subsequently analyzed for changes implemented during the pandemic, in hygiene management, diet management, and distribution management of the school meal. The content and method of delivery of information related to diet guidance and school foodservice by related organizations were also examined. Results of the survey show that personal hygiene (such as maintaining student-to-student distance, checking students for a fever, and hand disinfection) was duly applied, installation of table coverings and distancing between school cafeteria seats were conducted, and mandatory mask-wearing to prevent droplet transmission was enforced. Depending on the COVID-19 situation, the number of students having school meals was limited per grade, and time-spaced meals were provided. To prevent infection, menus that required frequent hand contact were excluded from the meal plan. Overall, it was difficult to manage the meal plan due to frequent changes in tasks, such as the number of orders and meal expenses. These changes were communicated by nutrition teachers and nutritionists wherein the numbers of school meals were adjusted, depending on situations arising from each COVID- 19 crisis stage. Furthermore, in some schools, either face-to-face nutrition counseling was stopped entirely, or nutrition education was conducted online. Parent participation was disallowed in the monitoring of school meals, and the prohibition on conversations inside the school cafeteria resulted in the absence of communication among students, nutrition teachers, and nutritionists. Additionally, confusion in meal management was caused by frequent changes in the school meal management guidelines provided by the Office of Education and the School Health Promotion Center in response to COVID-19. In anticipation of the emergence of a new virus or infectious diseases caused by mutations in the years to come, it is suggested that a holistic, well-thought-out response manual for safe meal operation needs to be established, in close collaboration with schools and school foodservice-related institutions.
This is a comparative study of Byung-Kwa-Ryu (Korean rice cake and cookie) of the Chungcheon Province Area in the late Joseon Dynasty, based on「Jusiksiui」 in the late 1800s,「Eumsikbangmunnira」 in 1891, and 「Banchandeungsok」 in 1913. This study was also compared with the recipes of「Suunjapbang」 of 1540,「Eumsikdimibang」 of around 1670, 「Siuijeonseo」, and Gyuhabchongseo of the late 1800s. As for the Byung-Kwa-Ryu(Korean rice cake and cookie) introduced in the recipe book,「Eumsikbangmunnira」 recorded the most with 18 types of rice cakes and two types of Korean sweets, followed by「Jusiksiui. There were 14 types of rice cakes, and two types of Korean sweets. 「Banchandeungsok」 had eight types ofrice cakes and six types of Korean sweets. Yogi-tteok in「Jusiksiui」 and「Banchandeungsok」 were foods that could not be found in other recipes. Yakgwa and Jeungpyeon were in all three books as well as 「Eumsikdimibang」. These were also included in「Siuijeonseo」 and were introduced to most cookbooks. The materials used and the method of making it differed for each recipe. Many studies on cookbooks have focused on the Yeongnam region so far. This study served as an opportunity to confirm the dietary life data of the Chungcheong-do region through a review of the recipe books containing food from the Chungcheong-do region. In addition, it was possible to examine the ingredients and cooking methods used in each cookbook at the time through comparative analysis with the cookbooks in the Yeongnam region.
This study used the big data method to analyze the chronological frequency of seafood appearance and variety mentioned by the veritable records of the Joseon dynasty. The findings will be used as a basis for Joseon Period’s food cultural research. The web-crawling method was used to digitally scrap from the veritable records of the Joseon dynasty of Joseon’s first to the twenty-seventh king. A total of 9,536 cases indicated the appearance of seafood out of the 384,582 articles. Seafood were termed ‘‘seafood” as a collective noun 107 times (1.12%), 27 types of fish 8,372 times (87.79%), 3 types of mollusca (1.28%), 18 types of shellfish 213 times (2.23%), 6 types of crustacean 188 times (1.97%), 9 types of seaweed 534 times (5.60%). Fish appeared most frequently out of all the recorded seafood. Sea fish appeared more frequently than the freshwater fish. Kings that showed the most Strong Interest Inventory (SII) were: Sungjong from the 15thcentury, Sehjo from the 15th, Youngjo from the 18th, Sehjong from the 15th, and Jungjo from the 18th respectively. Kings of Chosen were most interested in seafood in the 15th and 18th centuries.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the five senses activities involving food ingredients on the eating behavior of infants. The study was carried out four times over 6 months. We surveyed 65 nursery school infants and teachers who were registered at the 2020 Guro-gu Center for Children’s Food Service Management in Seoul. They participated in the five senses education specialization project. The results of the study showed that the scores relating to unbalanced diet, hygiene management, dietary attitude, and dietary manners were visibly higher than those before participating in the five senses educational activities. In addition, there was a significant difference in the perception of the food ingredients used in the five senses education activities. Finally, as a result of investigating the types of education used before, during, and after the five senses education activities, and the need for education by type, cooking activities were observed to rank higher than other activities in all questions. Based on this, if dietary guidance is provided through a variety of five senses education activities over a long period rather than as a one-time event, it will be beneficial to the children's healthy eating habits.
This study examines the effects of different cooking methods (stir-frying, steaming, superheated-steaming) on the contents and the true retention of moisture, water-soluble vitamins, and bioactive compounds of ten selected vegetables: broccoli, brussels sprout, cabbage, eggplant, green bean, onion, red cabbage, red onion, squash, and tomato. The total color difference (ΔE) values were decreased after stir-frying the samples, except for eggplant, green bean, and tomato. The true retention of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, and C) was increased in most vegetables after superheated-steaming, as compared to steaming and stir-frying. Moreover, compared to the uncooked vegetables, a higher true retention of total polyphenol and flavonoid was obtained for most vegetables subsequent to superheated-steaming. Total anthocyanin content was detected only in eggplant, red cabbage, and red onion, and a smaller loss of anthocyanin was determined after subjecting red cabbage to superheated-steaming. Also, the free radical scavenging activities were higher in superheatedsteaming vegetables, except in eggplant and squash. These results indicate that superheated-steaming induces a positive effect for retaining water-soluble vitamins and functional components of vegetables.
This study investigated the minimum salt concentration required for achieving the optimal quality characteristics of sauerkrauts made by adding 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% (w/w) of sea salt to cabbage according to the fermentation period. For evaluating the quality characteristics, we measured the microorganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and coliform group), pH, total acidity, salinity, chromaticity, and hardness every 24 hours. The lactic acid bacteria were identified and analyzed, and acceptance test was carried out on the 4th day of fermentation. The results showed that the salinity of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% sauerkrauts on the 4th day of fermentation was lower than the average salinity of Baechu-Kimchi. The 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% sauerkrauts had significantly higher lactic acid bacteria than the 2.5% sample, and the coliform group was not detected after the 5th day of fermentation. Among the microbes identified, Weissella cibaria JCM 12495 was found only in domestic sauerkraut, in addition to Lactococcus lactis NCDO 604, Leuconostoc citreum JCM 9698, and Lactobacillus sakei DSM 20017. The results of the acceptance test show that 1.0 and 1.5% sea salt sauerkraut had significantly higher overall acceptance compared to the other samples. In conclusion, sauerkraut with a salt concentration of 1.0 and 1.5% (w/w) had abundant lactic acid bacteria and excellent sensory properties, suggesting that the production of low-salted sauerkraut can be adopted to reduce consumer salt intake in the future.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate cookies prepared with five different quantities (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) of watermelon powder (WP). This study analyzed quality characteristics, consumer liking, and CATA (check-all-that-apply) of the samples. The density and pH of the cookie dough and the L-value of the cookies tended to decrease as the amount of watermelon powder increased (p<0.05), whereas the spread factor, a-value, and hardness of the cookies tended to increase as the amount of watermelon powder increased (p<0.001). The b-value tended to increase up to WP10, but it tended to decrease from WP15 (p<0.001). The results of the evaluation of consumer liking showed that overall liking was the highest for WP5 and lowest for WP20 (p<0.05). In the analysis of the CATA survey, the main reasons for liking for all the samples were ‘Appearance’, ‘Color’, ‘Sweet taste’, ‘Nutty odor/flavor’, ‘Crispiness’, and ‘Familiarity’. WP5 showed the most diverse reasons for being liked. The common reason for disliking samples with the addition of watermelon powder was ‘Residual feel in the mouth’. In the correspondence analysis, attributes of ‘Stale taste’, ‘Clean taste’, ‘Softness’, ‘Familiarity’, ‘Moistness’, ‘Color’, ‘Blandness’ were detected in the WP0 and WP5. The results indicate that WP5 with a 5% supplementation of watermelon powder is appropriate for improving the quality and consumer acceptability of the cookies.
This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the content of functional components and antioxidant activity of rice and barley according to the milling process used. A considerable amount of γ-oryzanol was observed in unmilled rice and barley. However, γ-oryzanol was not detected in the rice and barley after the milling process. The highest content of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was observed in the unmilled Keunalbori-1-ho barley. The contents of biotin in all samples also decreased in the milled grains compared to the unmilled grains. The highest content of total polyphenols and flavonoids was observed in the Heuksujeongchal barley, and the highest radical scavenging activity was also found in this grain. The milling process led to a decrease in the content of functional components, including γ-oryzanol, GABA, biotin, polyphenols, and flavonoids in both rice and barley. These results may be useful in the development of processed foods using cereal grains.
This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sponge cakes made using different amounts (2 and 4%) of barley sprout powder (BSP) and green tea powder (GTP), respectively. The results showed that the baking loss rate of GS2 (2% green tea) and GS4 (4% green tea) was 12.39% and 11.96%, respectively in the green tea addition group, which was higher than that of the barley sprout group, but significantly lower than that of the control group at 13.34% (p<0.05). The specific volumes of the sponge cake containing barley sprout and green tea 2% and 4% were between 2.84- 2.95 mL/g, which was significantly higher compared to the control group at 2.69 mL/g (p<0.05). The sugar content was significantly higher in the control group and the barley sprout addition group at 2.30oBrix (p<0.05). As for the volume index, the control group with the lowest value at 13.43 showed a significant difference compared to the addition groups. The volume index significantly decreased as the addition amount increased, measuring 14.07 in BS4 (4% BSP) compared to 14.87 of BS2 (2% BSP) in the barley sprout group (p<0.05). In cross-sectional photography, the color became darker than that of the control group as the quantum of additives increased. In terms of the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, the total phenol content, and total flavonoid content, the groups with the addition of barley sprout and green tea showed higher antioxidant activity than the control group (p<0.05).