참치스프레드에 양파즙을 5%, 15%, 30% 및 45%씩을 첨가하여 냉장 저장 시 참치스프레드의 품질 특성 및 지질 산패도를 측정함으로써 양파의 천연항산화제로서의 효용성을 검토하였다. pH는 전반적으로 저장 초기에는 pH가 6.06~6.20정도이나 시간이 경과함에 따라 서서히 감소하다가 21일 이후 다시 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 대조구는 21일 이후 급격한 증가를 보이다가 저장 49일까지 증가되었고 양파즙 첨가구는 서서히 증가하다가 저장 42일 이후 감소하는 경향을 보였는데 양파즙 15%와 양파즙 30% 첨가구의 경우 증가폭이 다소 완만하였다. 산가는 초기에 0.68~0.78이었으며 저장기간이 경과함에 따라 모든 실험구에서 유의적으로 증가하였으나 양파즙 15%와 30% 첨가구에서 가장 낮게 나타나 지질의 산화 억제에 매우 효과적이었다. 과산화물가는 초기에 2.2~2.6 meq/kg이었으나 저장기간이 경과함에 따라 유의적으로 증가하여 냉장 14일까지는 약간 증가하다가 그 후 급격히 증가하였고, 대조구는 지속적으로 증가하여 저장 42일에는 50.57 meq/kg로 가장 높은 과산화물가를 나타내다가 그 후에는 감소하였다. 양파즙 첨가구는 대조구에 비해 상당히 안정한 효과를 나타냈으나 42일 이후부터는 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 양파즙을 첨가한 참치스프레드의 TBA가가 전반적으로 대조구에 비해 낮아 양파가 지방의 산화를 지연시켰음을 알 수 있었고, 양파즙 첨가량에서는 15%와 30% 첨가군이 5%나 45% 첨가군보다 낮은 TBA가를 나타내어 산가와 유사한 결과를 보였다. 색도에서 L값은 큰 변화를 나타내지 않았으나 대조구에 비해 양파즙 첨가구가 다소 높은 값을 보였고, 저장 전 보다 저장기간이 경과됨에 따라 L값은 증가하였다. 한편 a값은 저장기간이 경과함에 따라 감소하였고, 양파즙 5% 첨가구만 저장 35일 후 증가하는 경향을 나타내었으며, b값은 대조구와 첨가구 모두 저장 기간이 경과함에 따라 증가하였고, 양파즙 첨가구가 다소 높게 나타났다. 관능검사에서 맛은 저장 초기에 증가하다가, 저장 기간이 길어짐에 따라 감소하는 경향을 보였으며, 대체로 양파즙 15% 및 30% 첨가구가 높은 점수를 나타내 우수하게 평가되었다. 부패취도 양파즙 첨가량 및 저장기간에 따라 유의성이 인정되었고(p〈0.05), 양파즙 첨가구가 대조구보다 부패취가 적게 나타났으며, 양파즙 15% 첨가구에서 가장 좋게 평가되었다. 외관에 있어서 저장 28일까지 양파즙 15% 및 30% 첨가구가 가장 좋은 것으로 나타났으며, 대조구와 5% 첨가구는 비슷한 수준을 보였다. 경도는 저장기간 동안 감소되었지만 대체로 양파즙 15% 첨가구가 좋은 것으로 평가되었고, 전반적인 바람직성은 양파즙 15% 첨가한 참치스프레드에 대한 기호도가 가장 높았다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary purple sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas) powder on serum lipid levels and antioxidative enzymes in normal and pretective effect on hepatotoxicity rats induced by carbon tetrachlolide. Four groups of rats (3-week-old inbred Sprague-Dawley male rats) were normal rats fed control diet(C), induced hepatotoxicity rats fed control diet(EC), normal rats fed purple sweet potato diet(P), and induced hepatotoxicity rats fed purple potato sweet diet(EP). Rats were induced by single injection of 50% carbon tetrachlolide(0.1 mL/100 g B.W., i.p.). The rats were fed ad libitum each of the experimental diet for 5 weeks. After 5 weeks the rats were sacrificed and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products were determined in their liver homogenates. But serum concentrations of lipid was not significant in all groups. Serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT/GPT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST/GOT) of the EC and EP groups were heigher than the C and P groups. The hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase(G6Pase) activity of the group fed purple potato diet(P) was lower than the other groups(p<0.05). However, The glutathione peroxidase(GPx) activities was not statistically different between the groups. Renal glutathione S-transferase(GST) activity of the EC and EP groups were lower than the C and P groups(p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that purple sweet potato is believed to be possible protective effect on hepatotoxicity rats induced by carbon tetrachlolide.
This present study suggests a wider view of our ancestors' food culture by examining the generality and peculiarity of the food culture of the Chosun Period by associating the culture with genre paintings made in the 18th~19th century in Korea. People in the Chosun Period outwardly advocated the Confucian idea reflecting the life philosophy of Chinese. However, the vitality of common people's frank and simple lifestyles saturate genre paintings and display Korean food culture and sentiments of the age. Initially this paper examines the history of food sociology through Namjong literary artists' paintings. The meaning and philosophy of drinks are considered in relation to the trend of declining tea culture among scholars in the mid-Chosun Period with the policy of promoting Confucianism and oppressing Buddhism. Secondly, this paper investigates the background of genre paintings in the late Chosun Period, and examines the unique food culture of Koreans appearing in paintings, particularly with regard to the abundance and variety of seasoned vegetables appearing in genre paintings, our ancestors' sentiment appearing in milk-gathering painting, humanity in guest reception, food culture and view of nature in farm villages, fishing life history, food distribution culture, soybean-curd culture, etc.
The effects of dried green tea leaf powders on serum lipid concentrations were evaluated in rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100±10g were divided into six groups and fed high fat diets for six weeks. Experimental groups were administered with following diets; Normal fat diet and normal and high fat diets with 1% dried green tealeaf powders. Tissue weights of liver, lung, stomach, heart, kidney and spleen of high fat diet exposed rats were reduced by dried green tea leaf powders groups. The concentrations of serum triglyceride in rats fed the dried green tea leaf powders were lower than those in other groups. The concentrations of total cholesterol in green tea leaf powders the were lower than those in high fat diet groups. The concentrations of HDL-cholesterol in serum of the dried leaf powders green tea were significantly higher than those of other groups. The levels of LDL-cholesterol in serum of the dried green tea leaf powders groups were tended to be lower than those of other groups. GPT and GOT were decreased in dried green tea leaf powders groups and than in the high fat group. LDHase was lower in the dried green tea leaf powders groups than in the high fat group. These results suggest that dried leaf powders green tea groups may reduce elevated levels of serum lipid concentrations in rats fed high fat diets.
This study was to investigate the consumer recognition of commercial Sunsik & Saengsik. The data was collected from the 395 married women residing in Seoul and Kyungki area by the self-administered questionnaire. A related purpose was to analyze the nutrient composition and the hygienic safety of commercial Sunsik and Saengsik. The results from this study were as follows. The purchasing and using behaviors were significantly different between two user groups. Sunsik users have generally purchased the products at a discount store(41.0%) as a between-meal snack(36.4%). The products were usually the ones made on the spot(55.0%). However, Saengsik users have purchased the manufactured products-serving size package-(84.0%) at a health foods store(50.7%) as a health food(38.7%). Many of Sunsik users have had Sunsik in water or milk with sugar(40.7%) and 1-2 times a week(40.0%). But Saengsik users have usually had Saengsik in water or milk with honey(38.6%) and everyday(34.7%). According to the analysis on nutrition composition, crude proteins were significantly more rich in Sunsik samples, and crude ashes were more rich in Saengsik samples(p〈0.01). Sunsik E and all the Saengsik samples showed the high total viable plate counts of 4.8~7.0 log cfu/g. Coliform groups were detected in all the Saengsik and two Sunsik(A, E) samples.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing body mass index of 618 university students located in the Gwangju area, from Nov. 20th to 30th, 2002. The subjects included 301 males(48.7%) and 317 females(51.3%). This survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The percentage of students who were underweight, normal and overweight based on their body mass index(BMI) was 3.7, 88.0 and 8.3 for the males, and 29, 71 and 0 for the females, respectively. Most students (73.8%) skipped breakfast. This was because of lack of time(65.1%) of the cases. Self-reported eating habit problems were eating irregular meal(52.4%), overeating(21%), prejudiced meal(12.4%) and skipping meal(7.4%). The type of favorite snack was biscuit(31.9%) and cup Ramyon(31.9%). The type of favorite beverage was juice(23.3%). The coffee intake was higher in males compared to females. The rates of alcohol drinking in male and female students were 88.0% and 85.8% respectively, and the rates of smoking were 35.9% and 2.8% respectively. Percentages of weight control experience were 30.2 and 51.4 in the male and female, respectively. The BMI of students living in home and eating breakfast was higher than that of the other students. The BMI of students eating cup Ramyon and water increased. The BMI of students taking regular exercise and weight control tended to be higher than that of subjects not doing so. When the amount of pocket money available and the rates of coffee intake, alchol drinking and smoking increased, the BMI was increased. Therefore, nutritional education for university students is needed so as to improve their health and to modify life habits and nutritional education program should be developed to meet the various needs of these students.
This was preliminary study that was to find out the developing point in military meal service to focus on seafood dishes that recently increased plate waste. This study was conducted to analyze menu patterns in military meal service. The result of this study was using to develop new seafood dishes in military meal service. On the basis of some findings, several developing points how to plan meals include many kinds of seafood dishes and to modify taste and cooking method that was more highly prefered by young military persons were suggested. This preliminary study findings were as follows: 1. Each meal was served cooked rice and 4 kinds of dishes(soup or stew, main dish, side dish and kimchi) 2. The seafood dishes was served as 28.6% in soup or stew, 35.0% in main dish and 36.4% in side dish of total serving of seafood dishes. 3. All of raw materials of seafood were supplied by frozen, several items were supplied dried material. Supplying seafood items were limited. Numbers of using seafood items were using 2.7 times per day. Laver and squid was most frequently used. 4. Seafood dishes were frequently serving in breakfast, especially seasoned & toasted laver was served 28.8% of seafood menu in breakfast because of convenience. 5. The nutrients contents of each dishes were as follows, the soup was 86.5±3.2kcal and 10.9±8.9g of animal protein, stew was 165.3±70.2kcal and 13.3±7.9g of animal protein. Nutrients content of other main dish and side dishes was different from 108.1kcal (in steaming dish) to 412.4kcal (in deep-fat frying dish) according to different cooking method. The highest animal protein dish that contented 18.9±5.1g of protein was pan-frying dish or grilling dish. Lowest one was 8.4±4.9g in braising dish. 6. Major cooking method of seafood was stew and the next was deep fat frying, stirfrying and braising. Pan-frying or grilling was seldomly used in military menu because of limitation of kitchen facilities and cooking utensils. On the basis of these findings, newely developing military seafood menus were focused on combination dish(such as seafood cooked rice or seafood fried rice) and many kinds of sauce that was applied to deep-fat frying dishes.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the customers' perception on nutrition information provided on a family restaurant menu, to examine customers' intention to use the nutrition information when eating out if nutrition information would be provided, and to identify what kinds of nutrient information the customers want. A total of 265 respondents were answered. Female was sixty-six percents, and eighty-four percent of the respondents was less than thirty-five years old. The patrons' perception about nutrition information on the menu showed the level of 2.5 points out of 5 points, which pointed out that family restaurant patrons were not satisfied with receiving nutritional information related to the menu. The customers perceived that restaurants had responsibilities for providing nutritional information about menu items. Sixty-six percent of respondents showed a positive intention to the question item about how much the customer would use nutritional information provided on the menu. The customers, who were female (p<0.05), who had a good health status, who showed higher interest on weight control (p<0.01), and who were health-oriented (p<0.01), showed the higher intention to use nutritional information. Nutrient information in which the customers were interested strongly was a fat content, followed by cholesterol content and calorie information. According to the trends of eating out, preferring family restaurants, and increasing interests in a healthful menu, nutrition information demand in restaurant operations would be increased rapidly in the near future. Providing nutrition information at the point of menu choice might result in the improvement of customers' nutritional and health status by encouraging proper dietary habits of patrons as well as providing nutritional education. Therefore, it is recommended that government and restaurant firms should recognize the importance of nutrition information and make strategic plans for the future.
Korea, China and Japan are countries located in Northeast Asia territory sharing similar natural environment. Countries are also using rice as a main diet material accompanied with vegetables, marine products and bean or fermented bean food. Yet, at the same time each country's food culture appeared as to be unique in food space due to their diverse food materials from different natural, cultural and religious background. This research is probing a way to recover subjective food culture and accomplish food environment which appropriates to modern globalized era by developing simple and economical repast tools meeting public's needs and distributing unique repast tools becomes Korean food culture and can be used in the life pattern of modernized nuclear families.
The purpose of this study was to know the perception on acne for the college students to provide basic data for the suitable care of acne. Self-administrated questionnaires were completed by 641 college students. Dietary attitude, food habit, general perceptions on acne, knowledge level on acne, and relationship perception between special food and acne were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. Self reported health status, smoking, obesity index were significantly different by experience of acne. 2. Dietary attitude and food habits were not significantly different by experience of acne. 3. Acne experienced subjects had acne on their face mostly and responded positively to specialized treatment. Proportions of getting the knowledge on acne were 40.6% from friends, 35.4% from magazine and 21.7% from TV or radio. 4. Proportions of correctly answered for the questions about pregnancy, hair cosmetics, oily food, male hormone, family history, constipation related with acne were less than 50% for acne experienced subjects. 92.5% of acne experienced subjects were answered eating chocolate, nut, and fat were related with breaking out and aggravating of acne. Perceptions on breaking out factors and aggravating factors of acne were not significantly different by gender. 5. More than 70% acne experienced subjects stated that instant foods, oily foods, meats, cookies, nuts were related with developing and aggravating acne. Soybean, Seaweed, fermented fish were recognized as less related with developing and aggravating acne.