The objective of this study was to explore the role of familiarity in cross-cultural product perception and perception changes according to food systems (hot sauce and spicy-chicken) in Korean and US consumers. Free choice profiling was conducted by Korean and US consumers on four spicy-chicken samples made using four hot sauce samples. Half of the hot sauce samples were selected to be more familiar to US consumers and vice versa to Korean consumers. A previous study that investigated cross-cultural perceptions of the same four hot sauce samples in US and Korean consumers was incorporated in this study. For distinct sample differences, US and Korean consumers perceived products similarly. However, for less obvious differences, flavor familiarity seemed to affect consumers’ product perceptions. In addition, product perceptions changed more dramatically according to food systems for familiar samples in each country. The findings of this study show that consumers’ product perception can be affected by flavor familiarities.
This study aimed to examine the effects of transformational leadership on employees’ trust, perceived support from superiors, organizational citizenship behavior, and moderating effects of locus of control. Using the Amos program, this study tested reliability and fitness of the research model and verified five hypotheses based on empirical data from 233 employee samples in coffee shops. The result of this study shows that positive consideration and charisma of transformational leadership positively influenced employees’ level of trust toward superiors and perceived support from superiors. Trust had positive effects on promotion of organizational citizenship behavior of employees. Lastly, analysis of the moderating effect of locus of control showed that a lower level of extrinsic control and higher level of intrinsic control were both positively correlated with greater receptiveness to transformational leadership. The findings in this study identified several significant factors of employee effectiveness influenced by transformational leadership in the coffee shop industry. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between conspicuous consumption tendency, brand attitudes, and purchase intentions of college students regarding eating out by limiting conspicuous consumption tendency among several psychological variables to acquire a more precise and concrete influence factor on consumption behavior to eat out. First, as for sensing other people, pursuing individuality and brand orientation among conspicuous consumption tendency of restaurant costumers had significant effects on brand attitudes, whereas the influence of status symbols and pursuing trend factor on brand attitudes was not verified. Second, as for sensing other people, pursing individuality, pursuing trends, and brand orientation factor among conspicuous consumption tendency had significant effects on purchasing intention. Otherwise, the significant effect relationship between status symbols factor and purchasing intentions was not confirmed. Third, as purchase intentions increased, brand attitudes of consumers increased according to existing research. Thus, this study suggests a more departmentalized marketing strategy method to create profits and enhance competitiveness of food service enterprises, and academic implications suggest fundamental data of relevant studies on conspicuous consumption tendency and purchasing behavior of consumers to eat out
This study aimed to analyze the beverage usage behavior according to the food-related lifestyle in Seoul, Gyeonggi province area. Group 1, named ‘health & safety seeking’ group, consists of high percentage of women in their 40s, as well as a high percentage of high income and highly educated. Group 2, was group of ‘high interest in dietary life’, consists of a high percentage of women in their 30s, highly educated, earned 3~5 million won. Group 3, named ‘convenience seeking’ group, had a high percentage of men and of those in their 20s who earned less than 2 million won. In verifying the difference between food-related lifestyle groups in terms of their behaviors and attitudes towards the usage of beverage specialty shop, group 1 showed significantly high score in the number of visit beverage specialty shops, the intention to spend higher average expenditure per visit per person, importance of selection attributes of beverage specialty sho
The purpose of this study was to analyze the current status relating to food packaging and design for status of small and medium food enterprises. A company survey was conducted from June to October, 2015 and targeted 1300 small and medium domestic food enterprises. Finally, a total of 1300 (recovery rate 100%) useable data were selected. Statistical analyses were performed on the data utilizing the SPSS PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows, such as descriptive statistics and frequency analysis. According to the results, awareness and importance of food labeling were high, but performance of English inscription of product name was relatively low. The most important reason for food labeling was ‘providing correct information on food’ 910 (72.8%). Accordingly, a system which can provide the latest information by continuously monitoring mandatory disclosure requirements for types of foods in individual countries is needed.
The feasibility of reduction of sodium intake using sun-dried salt and monosodium glutamate (MSG) was studied. Preference test was performed to evaluate the sensory properties of bean-sprout soup and vegetable rice porridge soup. Sun-dried salt and MSG might be a partial substitute for refined salt. There was a significant difference in salt taste strength between sun-dried salt and refined salt. Sun-dried salts 0.45% with MSG 0.07% resulted in the highest taste preference compared to that of sun-dried salts 0.60% without MSG in bean-sprout soup, which resulted in 23.9% reduction of sodium intake. Sun-dried salts 0.38% with MSG 0.04% resulted in the highest taste preference compared to sun-dried salts 0.53% without MSG in vegetable rice porridge soup, which resulted in 25.4% reduction of sodium intake. There seemed to be a synergistic effect on reduced usage of sodium salt when MSG was used in vegetable rice porridge and bean-sprout soup with sun-dried salt.
This study was conducted to optimize the conditions of a sweet rice paste as a replacement of red bean paste recipe using the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Ten experimental recipes with two reference points (rice flour and sugar), were selected, and the physical and sensory characteristics of a sweet rice paste were measured. In the Rapid Visco Analyzer test, breakdown value was the highest in rice flour (105.73 RVU). Sweetness significantly increased with addition of sugar contents (p<0.0002) and viscosity increased with addition of rice flour contents (p<0.0185). Moisture contents decreased with increasing contents of rice flour and sugar, whereas yellowness and redness tend to increase. In the sensory evaluation test, quadratic models for color (p<0.01865), sweetness (p<0.0399), thickness (p<0.0073), and overall acceptability (p<0.0249) were approved as independent for the rice flour and sugar contents. In conclusion, the optimal mixing ratio of sweet rice paste was determined to be 45.38 g of rice flour and 77.95 g of sugar.
This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between frequency of high-caffeine energy drink intake in adolescents and their mental health status using data from the Korean adolescent health behaviors online survey (2014-15). Mental health was classified by the five categories: Perception of stress (PS), Insufficient relief of fatigue after sleep (IRFS), Experience of sadness despair (SD), Suicidal ideation (SI), and Subjective unhappiness (SU). Regarding general characteristics, higher age, height, and body weight of subjects were associated with higher frequency of high-caffeine energy drink (HCED) intake (p< .0001). In the OR analysis, when the lowest group (≤2/wk) and highest group (1≥day) were compared, the highest group showed significantly higher OR in all five categories of mental health. According to gender, males did not show better PS, SD, and SI than females who had a high frequency of HCED (p for trend<.0001). According to school level, middle school students showed a higher risk rate than high school students in PS, IRFS, and SD (p for trend< .0001). Based on the above results, higher frequency of HCED intake among adolescents was associated with more adverse effects on mental health.