The main purpose of this study was to perform a literature review regarding bibimnaengmyeon (cold buckwheat noodles mixed with sauce)-related recipes. To conduct this research, we analyzed recipe data published in Korea from the 1800's to the 1980's. The research was conducted by content analysis and literature review. The documents used in the research were 30 books (dictionaries and recipe books). A total of 37 bibimnaengmyeon-related recipes were identified. The results of the analysis of documented data published within the last 200 years showed two different types of main ingredients for bibimnaengmyeon-related recipes; noodles based on buckwheat flour, and noodles based on wheat flour. Additionally, the bibimnaengmyeon-related recipes were divided according to the sauce; 1) noodles mixed with red pepper sauce and 2) noodles mixed with soy sauce.
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationships among the benefit sought, satisfaction, and loyalty of green tea consumers, including the moderating effect of age. Data were collected from 658 residents of Seoul and Gyeonggi-do Province who were 20-years-old and older and who had purchased green tea. The SPSS 15.0 and LISREL 8.80 statistical package were used for the analysis, and frequency, reliability, an exploratory factor analysis, a confirmatory factor analysis, and a path analysis were conducted. The results showed that the health benefit and enjoyment among benefit sought had a positive effect on satisfaction. Satisfaction of green tea consumers had a positive effect on loyalty. The analysis indicated that age moderated the relationship among benefit sought, satisfaction, and loyalty. The results could enable green tea marketers to develop marketing techniques that could expand green tea consumption.
This survey was conducted to investigate the attitude towards food hygiene, and the correlation between sanitary knowledge and the performance of college students in Daejeon. The respondents were composed of 218 food majors and 296 nonmajors. The answer that food hygiene was very important was given more often by food majors (82.9%) and those educated (80.5%) than non-majors (65.1%) and the uneducated (68.7%) (p<0.05). Information on food hygiene was mainly obtained from TV, radio, or the internet. The average food hygiene knowledge score was 4.08 and that in practice was 3.37 (p < 0.001). The average score was lower in practice than knowledge for personal hygiene, food separation use and storage, washing-sterilization of food, and utensils. The average knowledge score was higher for food majors and educated than that in non-majors and uneducated (p<0.001). The degree of HACCP perception was much higher in food majors (34.9%) and educated (37.4%) than in non-majors (5.4%) and uneducated (8.2%). The knowledge and practice scores were correlated (p<0.01). It is necessary that college students be educated to obtain useful knowledge about food hygiene and conduct proper personal food sanitation in their daily life.
A survey of consumer awareness and attitudes was conducted about genetically modified (GM) foods and the labeling regulations. The questionnaires were distributed to 4,620 consumers who lived in a variety of areas in Korea, and 4,076 people responded. The consumers were asked about knowledge, labeling information, and the source of obtaining information about GM foods. More than 11.5% of the consumers had never heard about GM foods and 86.9% of consumers had less than a normal level of knowledge about GM foods. No statistically significant relationship was found between genders, but the teachers group had moderate knowledge (p<0.001). In total, 28.4% of consumers did not know the GMO labeling regulations. They answered that the reason to buy GM food was do not know>nothing wrong>create benefit>think as safe>inexpensive. The answers to the question of what was the first benefit were: solve food shortage>functional and nutritious food>cultivate in bad condition>nothing>various cultivars. They answered that the worst factor was the next generation effect>environmental disruption. Regarding the development of GM food in Korea, males answered do not know>stronglyrecommend>defer>strongly suppress. Female answered: don't know>defer>strongly recommend>strongly suppress. More than half of the respondents did not have much information about GM foods; 88.3% of respondents answered they did not have educational experience about GM food.
The objective of this study was to classify dining-out customers' behaviors at ski resorts based on their restaurant selection factors. Data were collected one-on-one via interview questionnaires of 178 customers at the ski resorts. The mean scores of important attributes (4.12) and satisfactory attributes (3.08) for the sport&leisure purpose group were analyzed. For the date&family trip purpose group, the important attributes (4.13) and satisfactory attributes (3.06) were evaluated, resulting in a significant difference between the two visiting-purpose groups by independent t-test (p<0.05). The recognized important attributes for the sport&leisure purpose group were food taste (4.54), hygiene (4.53), menu variety (4.22), menu price (4.15), and convenience (4.12), and the most recognizable satisfactory attributes were related to convenience (3.52), waiting time (3.95), and employee service (3.90). For the date&family trip purpose group, recognized important attributes were hygiene (4.83), food taste (4.67), menu price (4.40), convenient (4.33), menu variety (4.25), waiting time (4.21), and employee service (4.10), and marked satisfactory attributes were convenience (3.65), hygiene (3.31), atmosphere (3.25), employee service (3.23), waiting time (3.17), and food taste (3.00). These results suggest that restaurant selection attributes would be useful tools to restaurant managers in controlling the quality of foodservice and satisfying service requirements for dinning-out customers at ski resorts.
This study aimed to find the differences in weight control status and eating behavior of satisfied and dissatisfied female high school students regarding their own body shape. The participants consisted of 238 students at two female high schools in Nonsan-si, Chungnam-do in May of 2008. Self-assessment evaluated present body shape and ideal body shape they would like to have by providing silhouette drawings. The subjects were divided into two groups, 'satisfied' and 'dissatisfied', according to the differences between present body shape and ideal body shape. In the distribution of subjects according to body mass index, 100% of overweight, 97.0% of normal weight and 48.7% of underweight belonged to the dissatisfied group. There were significant differences in weight control and eating behavior between dissatisfied and satisfied groups in terms of frequency and reasons of conducting weight control behavior, body weight return after weight reduction, skipping breakfast and consuming fast food. The satisfied group was two times more likely to not conduct weight control behaviors compared to the dissatisfied group. The main reason for trying to control weight differed according to the group; the reason was feeling fat in the dissatisfied group and desiring to be healthy in the satisfied group. The percentage of subjects that returned to their original weights after weight reduction was 5 times higher in the dissatisfied group. The percentages of subjects that regularly skip breakfast and consume fast food were both higher in the dissatisfied group than in the satisfied group. The dissatisfied group responded 'eating alone' more frequently among nine binge eating behaviors compared to the satisfied group. Both groups, however, did not show any difference in overeating of meals, eating speed, intake frequency of regular meals, food preference, preferred cooking method, carbonated beverage intake and snack eating behavior. In summary, the dissatisfied group tried more unnecessary body weight reduction and had poor eating behavior. Accordingly, to correct the biased perception of body shape by the majority of female high school students, the values of our society should change toward the pursuit of beauty of health.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the body composition, biochemical parameters, and consumption of convenience foods according to β-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism in university students. A survey was conducted on a total of 486 students - 189 males and 297 females. Based on a self-reporting method, questionnaires were administered for over 20 minutes, and β-3 adrenergic receptor and blood samples were also analyzed. The genotype frequencies of β-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism were Trp/Trp homozygote (73.0%) and Trp/Arg heterozygote (27.0%) in male students. For the female students, the distribution of genotypes was Trp/Trp (71.0%) and Trp/Arg (29.0%). There were no differences according to biochemical parameters (ALT, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and hemoglobin) or body composition. Males with TT genotype frequently ate Ramyon (2.40±0.52), Cup Ramyon (2.37±0.39), Kimchi (2.23±0.61), and frozen meat (2.00±0.44), whereas males with TA genotype ate Fries (frozen food) (1.90±0.79), Smoked meat (1.67±0.81), and Canned fruit (1.64±0.81). Females with TT genotype frequently ate Frozen fries (2.21±0.35), Kimbab (2.12±0.44), and Ramyon (1.85±0.40), whereas females with TA genotype frequently ate Kimchi (1.73±0.98), Fries (frozen food) (1.46±0.26), and Cup Ramyon (1.30±0.34). When questioned about satisfaction about body shape, 22.8 and 60.8% of those with TT genotype answered that they were 'satisfied' or needed to 'lose weight', respectively, whereas 18.0 and 63.9% of those with TA genotype answered that they were 'satisfied' or needed to 'lose weight', respectively. In conclusion, this study found no significant effects in terms of β-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism, which suggests that health-promoting education needs to be developed so that university students appropriately recognize their bodies and control their weight in desirable ways. Therefore, it is necessary to educate individuals with TT genotype how to buy reasonable foods by understanding the interrelationship between convenience foods and health care and by checking the nutrition index labels on convenience foods. Thus, it is recommended that a health-promoting program be developed for the promotion of healthy lifestyles.
The origin of Korean traditional food's spicy taste dates back to the first telling of the Dangun myth-a story of a tiger and bear who tried to reincarnate themselves in human form by eating garlic and wormwood. For a long time, Koreans have eaten spicy vegetables such as green onion, garlic, ginger, mustard, leeks, corni, cinnamon bark, and Chinese peppers (Zanthoxylum schinfolium) and Zanthoxylum bungeanum. In prehistoric times, spicy vegetables were probably used to eliminate the smell of meat. In the agricultural age, they were used to supplement meals with fresh taste. They were also used as a substitute for salt (salt was very precious and expensive) as well as side dishes for the poor. Spicy vegetables have also been used as a substitute for main dish like medicinal gruel and used to increase the spiciness of soup, and they are usually used as a side dish and with condiments in namul (cooked vegetable dishes), sangchae (salad), ssam (wrapped in greens and garnished with red-pepper paste or other condiments) and Kimchi. In addition, chili pepper was introduced to the Korean Peninsula in the middle of the Joseon Dynasty (mid-15th, 16th century). The soil and climate of the Korean Peninsula are suitable to growing chili pepper, and chili pepper has excellent adaptability and productivity. Accordingly, it is processed to red pepper powder and has become a major part of traditional Korean food along with Chinese pepper. Since the Joseon Dynasty, many kinds of Kimchi made with red pepper powder have been developed, and most Koreans enjoy them these days. The main characteristics of Korean food are spiciness and honest-to-goodness taste.
This study aimed to identify efficient methods for the globalization of Korean food in Vietnam. For this, we interviewed owners of 11 Korean restaurants in Hanoi and 9 Korean restaurants in Ho Chi Minh. Due to the rapid economic development of Vietnam, the restaurant industry for the middle class has drastically increased. For the globalization of Korean food, new positioning of Korean restaurants is needed. Research has shown that Korean restaurants need to change their style of management. Although the first generation of Korean restaurant owners managed restaurants as a family business, a new professional management system is now required. Above all, it is necessary to develop and support a comprehensive food culture system in which the menu is suited to the taste of the natives and its recipe is distributed with food material quality control, hygienic control, and operation of a localized management system.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Nelumbo nucifera G. (NN) powder on cookie quality characteristics. The cookies were made with various NN powder levels (1, 3, and 5%). Crude fiber, crude ash, and the Mg contents of cookies with added NN powder were higher in concentration than those of the control group. Salinity of NN-powder added groups was not significantly different when it was compared with the control group's salinity. No significant difference among the groups were observed for specific volume, but the width determined by water content in the dough decreased as the amount of added NN powder increased. The L-value of the cookies was significantly larger than that of the control group. The a- and b-values were the highest for the 5% substituted NN flour. According to the sensory evaluation of the cookies, scores for color, flavor, and texture increased with increasing amounts of added NN powder. The overall acceptance of the 3% NN added cookies was greater than that of the 1 and 5% cookies.
This study was performed to analyze the retarded degree of Garaetteok retrogradation added with different ratios 0-15% (w/w) of apple pomace dietary fiber powder (DFP). SEM (×500) showed that air cell size on the Garaetteok surface increased as DFP content increased, whereas control had a compact structure without air cells. The degrees of Garaetteok retrogradation after 3 days at 4 and 25℃ by α-amylase iodine method were 57.44 and 41.55% for control, respectively. On the other hand, those of 15% DFP Garaetteok were 28.38 and 15.05%, respectively. Enthalpy changes (δE) by DSC of control, 10 and 20% DFP Garaetteok after 3 days of storage at 4℃ were 4.41, 4.17, and 3.80 J/g, respectively, whereas those at 25℃ were 2.14, 1.04, and 0.72 J/g. Hardness of 15% DFP Garaetteok was around 48% compared to that of control after 3 days of storage at 25℃. Increasing DFP content from 0 to 15% decreased L color value from 86.2 to 55.1, whereas a and b values increased from -1.9 to 8.9 and from 5.3 to 20.8, respectively. In a sensory intensity test, hardnesses of 15% DEP Garaetteok were significantly different at 1 and 0.1% compared to those of control after production and followed by storage for 3 days at 4℃, respectively.
The objective of this study was to develop a stock that can be used to make a variety of dishes. For this, stock was prepared with beef, chicken, and pork meat as animal meats as well as anchovy, mushroom, and sea tangle as other ingredients. The qualities of six[only four though] kinds of stocks made with beef only (B), beef and chicken (BC), beef and pork (BP), and beef added with chicken and pork (BCP), and seven kinds of stocks made with anchovy (A), mushroom (M), sea tangle (S), anchovy and mushroom (AM), anchovy and sea tangle (AS), mushroom and sea tangle (MS), and anchovy added with mushroom and sea tangle (AMS) were investigated by sensory evaluation. The most preferred stock made with animal meat was mixed with the most preferred stock made with other ingredients at a 5% level to test the synergistic effects of palatability. As a result, BCP stock and AMS stock obtained the highest scores for overall preference. BCP stock within the range of 30%-65% along with the mixed stock containing AMS (35%-70%) showed synergistic effects for palatability.