This study categorized and made considerations of the fermented soybean pastes into Meju, Chungjang, Si, mixed Jang, and other Jang in accordance with the manufacturing methods described in the fermented soybean paste section of Sangayorok (1450’s), Suunjapbang (1540’s) and Gyemiseo (1554). These are ancient cook books written in Chinese characters during the first half of the Joseon Dynasty. The content on the fermented soybean pastes recorded in these books included 24 items in Sangayorok, 11 items in Suunjapbang, and 14 items in Gyemiseo. In conclusion, the most important fermented soybean pastes during the first half of the Joseon Dynasty were those used to produce soy sauce-like seasoning for the purpose of a-chieving a salty taste with Meju made of soybeans as the main ingredient. The manufacturing techniques for such traditional fermented soybean pastes have been passed down through history to the present era.
This study examined the document Shaemirok, which recorded the daily lives of people from Jangsoo (長水), Junrado to Pyeongang (平康), Gangwondo, from 1591 to 1601. This book represents the mid Josun dynasty Noble Lineage's diary together with Muk-Jae (默齋日記). This study analyzed the Shaemirok of Noble lineage’s seasonal food and traditional Korean food through the lens of the Shaemirok. The Shaemirok recorded that Josun people practiced the Julsa (節祀) and Julshik (節食) during the spring, as follows: Sakil (中和節) five times on February 1, Dapchungil (Samjiknal) six times on March 3, Hanshikil five times on March 8, and Deungsuk (Chopile) three times on April 8. Samjiknal on March 3, which is mentioned six times, is the spring Julsa and Julshik that show up most frequently within the Shaemirok’s records. The Shaemirok recorded that Josun people, practiced the Julsa and Julshik during the summer, as follows: Danyang (Danoh) eight times on May 5 Youdoojul six times on June 15, Chilsuk five times on July 7, and Bakjoong five times on July 15. Dangohjul on May 5, which is mentioned eight times, is the summer Julsa and Julshik that show up most frequently within the Shaemirok’s records. The Shaemirok’s author recorded Julsa and Julshik practiced in the autumn eight times annually. Joongangjul, which is mentioned six times, is the autumn Julsa and Julshik that show up most frequently within the Shaemirok’s records. Shaemirok recorded that Josun people practiced the Julsa and Julshik during the winter, as follows: Dongji during November, Sul on January 1, and Daebohrum on January 15 Dongji and Sul, Daebohrum are mentioned eight and seven times, respectively, in the Shaemirok. The people of the Four Main Families of the mid-period Josun practiced more Julsa and Julshik in the winter than in any other season. The Josun people stored the most food during winter, thus had the highest abundance of food. This seasonal factor explains Dongji and Sul, Daebohrum’s unusual frequency with which they were celebrated.
This study aims to investigate the food preservation methods adopted by the Joseon Dynasty, which existed before the 17th century. A total of 232 food preservation methods were discovered in 25 books, and could be classified by their targeted food types: vegetables (84), sea foods (60), meats (41), fruits (37), and others (10). Depending on the preservation method applied, they are classified as food drying, soaking, mud cellar preservation, and other preservation. Food drying is further classified into 8 sub-types: drying, sun-drying, shadow-drying, wind-drying, dry heat, combined drying, smoking, and others. Soaking could be sub-divided into using salt, ash, dry sand, bran, fermented paste, wet distillers grains, oil, and others. Mud cellar preservation is sub-classified into installing shelf inside the mud cellar, making the mud cellar for food preservation, and making hole or underground tunnel for food preservation. Other food preservation methods include minimizing moisture loss by applying beeswax on a section of the vegetable stem, and cutting the vegetables or fruits with their branches and leaves for food preservation.
This study on the importance and satisfaction of selection attributes for customers using Michelin restaurants. The survey was conducted on 309 respondents who had visited and used restaurants by classifying the Michelin restaurants into starred restaurants and Bib Gourmand restaurants. The data was collected and the frequency analysis, t-test verification, and IPA analysis were performed using the SPSS 25.0 statistical program. The results of the study examined the difference between the importance and satisfaction of the choice of starred restaurants. Overall, the importance was higher than satisfaction. The importance of hygiene and cleanliness was recognized by many customers that the expectation for the overall Starred restaurants was very high. Bib Gourmand, showed that the importance was higher than satisfaction. In terms of importance and satisfaction, the taste of food is the most important and the satisfaction is high. Comparing the IPA analysis of the attributes of 1) hygiene and cleanliness, food quality, convenience, and facade of food, 2) service professionalism and variety of menus, 3) food price, atmosphere and amount, and 4) the attitude and kindness of the employees were shown. This study has great significance in providing practical basic data for the management of domestic Michelin restaurants.
The objective of this study was to review and evaluate the growing subject of food tourism research, and thus identify the trend of food tourism research. Using a Text mining technique, this paper discovered the trends of the literature on food tourism that was published from 2004 to 2018. The study reviewed 201 articles that include the words ‘food’ and ‘tourism’ in their abstracts in the KCI database. The Wordscloud analysis results presented that the research subjects were predominantly ‘Festival’, ‘Region’, ‘Culture’, ‘Tourist’, but there was a slight difference in frequency according to the time period. Based on the main path analysis, we extracted the meaningful paths between the cited references published domestically, resulting in a total of 12 networks from 2004 to 2018. The Text network analysis indicated that the words with high centrality showed similarities and differences in the food tourism literature according to the time period, displaying them in a sociogram, a visualization tool. This study has implications that it offers a new perspective of comprehending the overall flow of relevant research.
This study aims to classify parents by considering important factors in the management of foodservice for children. An offline survey was conducted by enrolling 583 Korean parents whose children attended public or private kindergartens in Seoul. The important factors required for managing foodservice for children are meal service resources, menu management, and food allergy. Considering these factors, parents were grouped into 3 clusters: the allergy important group, environment important group, and high concern group. Evaluation of the demographic characteristics revealed a significant difference between clusters with respect to type of kindergarten. Parents perceived that a private kitchen is more required than a private dining room, and perceptions about the need for a private kitchen and dining room were significantly different among the clusters. Furthermore, the results reveal significant differences between clusters, when considering the need to support meal service. Therefore, the government needs to consider characteristics of the parent cluster if they plan to support the kindergarten foodservice. We believe that this study can be used as supportive data to establish a working policy.
This study analyzed the dietary behaviors and adaptation for Korean foods among Central Asian workers(Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan) living in South Korea to provide basic and fundamental data that allows Central Asian workers to have desirable eating habits while living in South Korea. Questionnaires were completed by 186 Central Asian workers living in South Korea. From this study, we found that 56.8% of respondents ate three meals a day, and 27.2% of respondents ate two meals a day. 29.7% of respondents had no snacks. For adapting Korean food, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan workers had difficulties adapting spicy and salty flavors and unpleasant smell while Kazakhstan workers had difficulties due to sweet flavors and spicy and salty flavors. Men adapted better than women to adapt Korean food. Women respondents ate Korean food more often than men. And the Uzbekistan ratio of eating homeland food daily was the highest. By providing understanding of dietary patterns of Central Asian workers, these results can be used as the basic and fundamental data for their Korean food adaptation.
This study aimed to evaluate dietary behaviors and food allergy status of preschool children in Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju Metropolitan city. The survey included 592 preschool children aged 1-5 years old in 31 childcare facilities. General characteristics, feeding type, complementary feeding, food allergy, dietary behaviors based on the NQ-P questionnaire, and dietary habits of their family were considered. Exclusively breast-fed children was 32.2% of the subjects and the breast feeding duration was 6.5 months. Subjects who had complementary feeding within 6 months was 77.2% and starting time of complementary feeding was 6.1 months. Fifteen percent of the subjects had food allergies and foods that induced allergy were instant foods, eggs, milk and dairy products, nuts, seafood. Food allergy was not related to breast feeding nor complementary feeding. The NQ-P score and its 3 factors including ‘balance’, ‘moderation’, and ‘environment’ were 59.9, 61.1, 56.0, 62.6, respectively. There were positive relations between children’s dietary behaviors and family dietary habits such as breakfast eating frequency and meal regularity. As age of children increased, instant food intake increased and breakfast eating frequency decreased. Proper nutrition education is needed to children, their parents, and their care givers at childcare facilities to improve children’s dietary behavior and health.
There is only limited evidence for the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health in Korea. This study examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health according to physical activity among Korean adult women. Based on data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-2016), a total of 5,332 participants were included in this analysis. With increasing fruits and vegetables consumption, the prevalence of depressive mood was significantly decreased (p for trend=0.0248). The prevalence of stress perception (p for trend=0.0422) and the prevalence of depressive mood (p for trend=0.0300) were decreased with increasing fruit consumption. The prevalence of depressive mood was significantly decreased when fruit and vegetable consumption (p for trend=0.0370) and fruit consumption (p for trend=0.0356) were increased for those Korean women with low intensity of physical activity. For the obesity group (Body mass index 25 kg/m2), the prevalence of depressive mood was decreased with increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (p for trend=0.0111) and increasing fruit consumption (p for trend=0.0165). In conclusion, fruit and vegetable consumption were associated with mental health according to physical activity among Korean adult women. Further prospective studies are warranted to explore the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health among Korean adult women.
The antioxidant, physicochemical, and sensory properties of muffins using fermented Curcuma longa L. were investigated. Sensory properties of the samples were examined, and the correlation between the physicochemical, antioxidant, and sensory properties was studied. The pH of the samples was pH 7.26-7.42, which was the optimal pH range for the air formation of the dough, color, or volume. The antioxidant activities of the sample group were significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). In the sensory intensities, the 1.0 and 1.5%-added sample groups showed a similar savory aroma, sweet aroma, savory taste, sweet taste, and texture to those of the control. Samples containing 1.0 and 1.5% showed similar overall acceptance values to the control. The muffin containing 1.0 or 1.5% fermented Curcuma longa L. powder was developed successfully, and it was concluded that the developed muffin with the fermented turmeric powder could be a highly valued product in the increasingly competitive muffin food industry.