This study researched the food culture and bean economy of the Joseon dynasty during the 16th century and according to the primary lifestyle reference『Shaemirok (瑣尾錄)』. The research analyzed the textual contents of the『Shaemirok (瑣尾錄)』. It is clear that the people of the Joseon dynasty produced more beans than grain, at a ratio of 41 to 50, respectively. The soy bean sauce consumption was split into family consumption and non-family consumption. It was evident that there was more family consumption compared to that of non-family consumption at a ratio of 7 to 3, respectively. People of the Joseon dynasty annually recorded their way of making soy sauce from 1595 to 1600. The Joseon writers edited the record six times for making meju and four times for making soy sauce. The recorded ratio displays the ingredients of soy sauce, which were: 6 Du of Mal Jang and 2 Du of salt. Mal Jang and salt had a three to one ratio, respectively. The most mentioned food was Tofu during the mid-Joseon period with fifty six mentions. The Joseon people regarded making Tofu in a Buddhist temple as a family-bonding experience. Porridge was the second most prominent food next to Tofu, among the bean-related food. Porridge appears thirty five times. There were 3 types of porridge named: bean porridge, bean powder porridge and mung bean porridge.
This study was conducted to understand the dietary life of North Koreans by analyzing dietary life-related articles published in Joseon Nyeoseong, which is the only women’s magazine in North Korea. This study employed content analysis of 769 articles from 1999 to 2017. The major findings of this study were as follows. Out of the 769 articles, 131 (17.0%) were about dietary culture, 541 (70.4%) were about the food and nutrition, and 97 (12.6%) were about food production. The articles emphasized ethnic food and North Koreans ingredients, spices, cooking methods, containers, and etiquette. A variety of foods and ingredients were used to maintain health, as well as to treat common illnesses and health problems. There were 173 recipes mentioned in the magazine, but no foreign food recipes. There were many dishes that could be preserved for a long time such as Kimchi and pickles. For food security, many vegetables and plant-eating animals such as rabbits were cultivated. Overall, the results indicate that North Korea has been maintaining its unique dietary life without being influenced by foreign countries.
This study separated different factors into the Korean Wave and Korean health food according to the interest in Korean culture among the Chinese living in China. We then conducted a two-step cluster analysis with gender, marriage status, academic background, interest in Korean culture, command of the Korean language and the status of having visited Korea as variables. The subjects were split into a Korean wave-preferring group, highly interested in Korean food as health food group and a low interested group according to clusters, and we then investigated for preference differences for 20 Korean food dishes. Between these two groups the statistics indicated a significant influence with a level p<0.001 for Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Kimchi, Galbi-tang, Galbi-gui, Chicken, Samgyepsal, Doenjang-Jjgae, Dak-galbi, Japchae and Gimbap p<0.01 for Samgye-tang and p<0.05 for Naengmyeon, Kimchi-Jjigae, Dak-galbi, Seolleongtang, Haemul-tang, Hanjeongsik and Tteok-bokki. Jeon and Juk did not show any statistically significant difference. Chinese consumers preferred Korean food for Samgyeopsal, Bulgogi and chicken and less preferred gruel, Hanjeongsik and Kimchi-Jjigae. The highly interested in Korean culture group preferred Samgyeopal, Bulgogi and Chicken, and less preferred Juk, Jeon and Hanjeonsik in that order. This study offers information on the Chinese’s preference for different Korean food to any food service enterprises that manage Korean restaurants in China or that sell Korean cuisine and also basic data for differentiated marketing to those entering the Chinese market.
This study explore the market segmentation based on beer consumers’ purchase motivation 1) to analyze beer consumers and markets more closely and 2) to demonstrate the characteristics of each market segment and contribute to marketing strategies with beer consumer segment. Using -administrated questionnaires asked questions recognizable beer purchase within 6 months by over 20-years-olds, this study 201 surveys online 22 days. The results as follows: beer consumers’ purchase motivation consisted of three factors enhancement, social orientation, and value enhancement. Cluster analysis based on beer purchase showed that there were three groups motivation multi-motivation and motivation group based on average value of beer purchase motive factors and relative load per factor. demographic,beer drinking characteristics and group difference according to cluster gender and monthly average income, and beer drinking characteristics also significantly different by preferred beer, preferred beer type, occasion and drinking place.
This study examined the actual condition of middle school students’ dining out based on the data of the 2016 youth food behavior inquiry data of the Korea Rural Economic Institute. The eating out behavior of 278 middle school students’ according to gender, average eating-out cost per person, average monthly eating out cost per person, weekly frequency of breakfast, and dietary information source were calculated into a chi-square value by cross analysis. The main results of this study are as follows. First, in middle school students’ eating-out status, most students answered ‘eating out’, and the highest frequency of eating out was 1~3 times a week. The reason for eating out was ‘to enjoy delicious food’, and ‘costly price’ was the most common reason for not eating out. Food taste was the most common standard for selecting eating out, and a restaurant was the most common place to eat out. The main restaurant was the ‘snack bar (kimbap specialized store)’. Second, there was no significant difference in all items of eating-out status according to the gender. A significant difference in eating out frequency was observed according to average eating-out cost per once (p< .001), standard for selecting eating out (p< .001), main eating out places (p< .001), and main restaurants (p< .01). There was a significant difference in the frequency of eating out (p< .001) in the eating-out status according to average eating out cost per month. Third, the eatingout status according to the breakfast frequency of middle school students had a significant difference in the reason for eating out (p< .001). The eating-out status according to the dietary information source of middle school students had a significant difference in eating out or not (p< .05) and the frequency of eating out (p< .05). These results highlight the importance of school diet education so that middle school students can achieve healthy eating habits and plan to increase their interest and utilization of school dietary education.
This study aimed to develop processed foods that can be tailored to the tastes of consumers in countries to enter domestic and foreign markets utilizing fresh Korean pears, in which the consumption is decreasing. A survey was also conducted on three types of samples (pear jelly, pear rice cake, and pear muffin). As a result, both Korean and Chinese women aged in their 20s preferred pear muffins the most among the pear products evaluated. Pear jelly and rice cake were preferred by Chinese consumers because of their sweet taste (p<0.05). Pear rice cakes were preferred because of their texture (p<0.05). Pear muffins were not significant in all items except for odor/flavor and sweetness, but Korean consumers had a high preference for them and showed a significant preference for colors (p<0.05). Pear muffins were most familiar to both Korean and Chinese consumers showing a high willingness to purchase. An analysis of the preference inducement factors of consumers in each country of the three processed foods containing pears using Check-All-That-Reply (CATA) showed that the consumers of both countries preferred the ‘pear odor/flavor’ characteristics of pear jelly, and that pear rice cakes were preferred by Chinese consumers compared to Korean consumers. Pear muffins were preferred by Korean consumers. Overall, pear muffins are the product expected to be most suitable for female consumers in Korea and China aged in their 20s.
This study examined the service quality attributes of the CVS (Convenient Store) packed meal products by applying the Kano model. The main survey was conducted by a research company using an online survey in the form of a selfadministered questionnaire. The 499 samples were limited to customers who had experienced CVS packed meal products within the last months. A total of 14 service quality attributes of the CVS premium packed meal products were categorized as four attractive qualities, one must-be quality, three one-dimensional qualities and six indifferent qualities. According to the Better and Worse quotient designed by Timko, ‘coupon and sales promotion event’, ‘healthy menu configuration’, and ‘balanced nutrition’ had higher levels of the Better coefficient. On the other hand, ‘hygiene and cleanliness’, ‘the delicious food’, and ‘fresh ingredients’ showed a higher Worse coefficient. The results also suggest that each service quality attribute is not a single dimension but a complex attribute. As a result, this research suggests that marketing practitioners should immediately identify consumer’s changing perception of quality to attract new customers and prevent existing customers from leaving in the CVS premium packed meal products segment.
The purpose of this study was to investigate dietary behavior and nutritional knowledge related to sodium intake in high school students. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 400 high school students (200 boys) in Incheon, Korea. Survey data were analyzed according to gender and degree of obesity. The distribution of the degree of obesity was the highest in 231 normal weight individuals (57.8%), followed by 89 underweight (22.3%), 41 overweight (10.3%), and 39 obese (9.8%). The sodium-related undesirable dietary behavior score was 2.9 points out of 5 points. The detailed dietary behavior scores of ‘I eat kimchi when I eat instant noodles or noodles’ and ‘I like dried fish with salt’ were significantly higher in boys than in girls (p<0.05). It was found that boys consumed more frequently high sodium foods, such as pizza, hamburger, and hotdog than girls. According to the degree of obesity, the underweight group consumed more kimchi fried rice and potato chips frequently than the other groups (p<0.05). Preference for salty taste was not significantly different among the groups by gender and degree of obesity. Sodium-related nutritional knowledge score was 5.3 points out of 10 and which was significantly higher in girls or normal weight group than in boys or obesity group. These results suggest that nutritional education on sodium intake is needed because the nutritional knowledge of adolescents is relatively low. Moreover, intensive nutritional guidance is required, especially in boys or adolescents with undesirable degree of obesity.
This study was a qualitative investigation of the process of adaptation of nutrition education programs by marriage immigrant women who completed education programs for training of food citizen leaders. Focus group interviews of seven marriage immigrant women from Vietnam, China, Mongolia and Russia were conducted and analyzed based on the Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Participants were aware of the purpose of the education program (coherence) and their confidence in organizing and reconstructing the knowledge of nutrition was increased after education (reflexive monitoring). However, they had difficulties attending long-term education programs (cognitive participation) and overcoming language barriers (collective action). Although the program was beneficial for the participants in that they could apply acquired nutrition knowledge to their everyday life as food citizen leaders, the continuous monitoring and feed-back system (management), customized application, and consideration of personal and social factors need to be developed and facilitated. In addition, various programs targeting marriage immigrant women may increase economic independence of these women. The NPT proved beneficial in conceptualizing the barriers and facilitators to implementing nutrition education. The successful implementation of nutrition intervention needs special support to overcome barriers to cognitive participation and collective action.
In this study, the effects of different varieties and particle sizes of dry milled rice flour on Jeolpyeon quality were investigated. Classify particle size of dry milled rice flour according to rice variety into 50, 100, and 150 μm. A particle size of 50 μm in the varieties Boramchan and Hanareum resulted in the highest damaged starch contents (p<0.05). Additionally, the Boramchan and Hanareum varieties had the highest water absorption index (WAI) values (p<0.05). Analysis of the gelatinization characteristics of dry milled rice flour according to varieties revealed the peak viscosity of Dasan and Hanareum was high (p<0.05), regardless of particle size, while the breakdown was highest for Hanareum at all particle sizes (p<0.05). The moisture content of Jeolpyeon made with Boramchan varied between 48.83 and 53.64% among particle sizes, with no significant differences relative to the control. The hardness of the control was 3.15 kg, while the hardness of Jeolpyeon made with Boramchan decreased significantly 2.60-2.63 kg (p<0.05).
The aim of this study was to optimize the best recipe to make acorn bread containing milk as a functional food. The color value, textural, and sensory properties of the acorn bread added with 10~40% ratio of milk were measured to develop the best recipe. As a result, the L-value of color increased with the amount of milk added, but the a- and b-values decreased. As the textural measurement, the hardness increased with increasing milk added. Cohesiveness and springiness decreased, but the gumminess and brittleness increased with the addition of 20% milk, and decreased with further addition. The sensory evaluation revealed color, taste, and overall acceptances to have high scores at 20% addition of milk. Softness and chewiness were good at 10% addition. During the storage periods at room temperature, the L- and b-values increased with the addition of milk, whereas a-value decreased. In freezer storage, the L-value increased with milk content added, but the a- and b-values decreased during the storage periods. The textural properties increased during the storage at room temperature. The addition of milk decreased the cohesiveness and springiness, but the gumminess and brittleness increased significantly after one day storage. In freezer storage, all textural properties increased significantly during the storage periods, but the hardness decreased after two days storage. With the increasing amount of milk added increased the cohesiveness, springiness, and the gumminess except for four days, but decreased hardness and brittleness after two days storage. Therefore the addition of milk in acorn bread improved the textural properties significantly.
To optimize the fermentation period of lightly salted Oiji, 3% salt was added to cucumbers that were fermented at 27±1°C for 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 days, after which their physical properties (moisture content, salinity, pH, acidity, hardness) and sensory characteristics (acceptance test, difference test) were evaluated. The moisture content was highest at day 6. Hardness slowly increased as fermentation time increased, but not significantly. The pH was highest after 3 days of fermentation, and tended to decrease as fermentation time increased, with the largest drop occurring between 4 and 5 days, and the lowest pH occurring between 6 and 7 days. Acidity was lowest after day 3 of fermentation and highest after day 7. Acidity tended to increase as fermentation period lengthened. The L-value tended to decrease as salt concentration increased. The a-value declined from day 3 to day 5, then increased significantly by day 7. The b-value was highest after 7 days, with a tendency to increase as the fermentation progressed. Acceptance test results were highest for taste and overall acceptance after 5 days of fermentation. The difference test showed that the optimal lightly salted Oiji fermentation period was approximately 5 days. These results indicate that lightly salted Oiji fermented for 5 days produced the highest acceptance.
The purpose of this study was to establish the best optimized extraction condition for the optimal development of fresh maca beverage using low temperature extraction and enzyme treatment. Low temperatures were applied to prevent heatrelated nutritional loss during the extraction process. Best extraction conditions were investigated based on the ratio of maca to water, the ratio of enzymes, extraction temperature and time, and agitation. The optimal enzyme conditions were also examined after the treatment of cellulase:pectinase mixture to maintain the original color and flavor, as well as to increase the extraction yield. When cellulase:pectinase was 1:1, the extraction rate ranged from 77.84 to 79.29%. In addition, the best extraction rate was found when maca was mixed with twice volume of water and incubated at 45°C (84.05±0.32%) with 90 rpm (87.13±0.46%) agitation for 3 hours (84.73±0.29%). Furthermore, sensory evaluation showed a high score in flavor, sweetness, and overall acceptability after adding 3% jujube concentrate into a fresh maca beverage.