This research is the first known to introduce and analyze food-related content among the records left by George Clayton Foulk (1856-1893), a naval attaché dispatched as part of a U.S. delegation to Korea during the Joseon dynasty in the 19th century. Sketches and memos by Foulk provide important clues in understanding the food culture during the late Joseon dynasty. By analyzing the types of foods, table composition, and intervals between serving the nine rounds of food from the rural government office, which Foulk ate during his local trip, he was able to confirm that there was a starter (‘preliminary table’ or ‘hors d’oeuvre’) before the main table and that it was served before the main dish.
This study was conducted to compare differences in dietary habits and snack consumption behaviors according to level of job stress among 20- to 30-year-old office workers. Subjects were 205 office workers working in companies located in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Self-administered questionnaires written by the subjects were statistically analyzed by the SPSS 20.0 program. Subjects were classified into a high-risk job stress group (n=102, High-RSG) or low-risk job stress group (n=103, Low-RSG) by level of job stress. For dietary habits, the duration of meal time before suffering from job stress in High-RSG was significantly faster compared to Low-RSG. Appetite after suffering from job stress in High-RSG was significantly higher compared to Low-RSG. For snack consumption behaviors, the reason for snack intake was ‘job stress’ for 42.2% in High-RSG and ‘hunger’ for 31.1% in Low-RSG (p<0.05). Energy intake in the form of chocolates, castellacakesmuffins, and flavored milk during working hours was significantly higher in High-RSG compared to Low-RSG (p<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that dietary guidelines to ameliorate job stress should be developed in order to manage and improve dietary habits caused by suffering from job stress among young office workers at companies.
In this study, 594 questionnaires administered to men and women residing in the capital metropolitan area who work night shifts were analyzed in order to study the effect of health information cognition on healing needs in accordance with the type of food selection criteria of the night worker. The results of confirmatory factor analysis in deriving food selection type identified four categories, a safety seeking type, a food exploratory type, a habitual seeking type, and a rational type, and the cognition types on health information were classified into physical cognition and psychological cognition. The need for healing, which was the investigated factor, was found to have a high correlation between questionnaire items with high reliable consistency. The results of this study were as follows. First, the food selection types of safety seeking type and habitual food seeking type had significant positive effects on the cognitive level of physical health information, and food exploratory type and habitual seeking type had significant positive effects on the cognitive level of psychological health information. In addition, it was shown that food exploratory type and rational type had significant positive effects on healing needs. As a result of this study, it was found that the cognition level of physical and psychological information was different according to food selection type, and the higher the cognitive level, the higher the healing needs. In particular, the result that the level of psychological health information significantly affected healing needs signifies that there is a demand to develop programs and menus that satisfy various needs related to healing and recovery from fatigue. In addition, further interest and study on the health and healing of night workers are required.
This study was conducted to identify the choice attributes in the purchase of chocolate and to identify differences between the choices, by considering the purpose of purchase being self-gift or interpersonal gift. The preferred optional attributes considered and assessed were capacity, package, product composition, brand reputation, and sensuality. The survey included customers who purchased chocolates from June 1, 2017 to August 31, 2017. T-test was applied to verify the difference in optional attributes depending on the purpose of purchase. Our results indicate that people consider packages, product composition, and reputation for interpersonal gifts, and that Valentine's Day purchases are frequently for themselves and others' gifts. Our results will help to identify chocolate consumption behavior, and will facilitate in establishing chocolate product composition and development as well as brand positioning strategies, through factors affecting preferences based on the purpose of purchase.
This study evaluated methods of improving sustained learning participation by examining the structural relationship of school support consisting of professor support, friend-senior support and educational environment support, career decisionmaking self-efficacy, school satisfaction, and learning persistence depending on the characteristics of college students majoring in culinary art and food service. The study findings were as follows. First, the general characteristics of college students majoring in culinary art and food service were perceived significantly more by female students than by male students. Second, school support directly influenced the career decision-making self-efficacy and school satisfaction, but did not directly influence the learning persistence. Instead, school support influenced school satisfaction and learning persistence indirectly by the medium of career decision-making self-efficacy. Third, career decision-making self-efficacy directly influenced school satisfaction and learning persistence and indirectly influenced learning persistence by the medium of school satisfaction. Lastly, school satisfaction directly influenced the learning persistence, implying that school satisfaction is an important factor for the learning persistence of college students majoring in culinary art and food service. These results show that, because school members and environmental support cannot exclusively make learning persistence, diverse systems and programs must be developed and applied to improve the career decision-making self-efficacy and school satisfaction of college students majoring in culinary art and food service.
This study aimed to identify whether or not four service situations varying according to positive and negative combinations of physical evidence and functional service influence store image and purchase behavioral intentions of customers at bulgogi restaurants. The video-scenario technique was used for the study. Data were analyzed with the SPSS (Window 19.0) package using frequency analysis, one-way ANOVA, 2 by 2 factorial ANOVA, exploratory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis to confirm the hypotheses. The combined effect of functional service and physical evidence influenced store image and purchase intention. In terms of seperate effect of physical evidence and functional service, the effect of employee service on store image was more powerful than that of physical evidence, even though the effect differed depending on the situation. Purchase intention was only influenced by functional service quality from employees under the four different scenarios. Thus, when opening a Korean restaurant, proper management of tangible evidence suitable to service, and the prices expected from local customers should be determined. Additionally, extremely high or low levels of physical evidence management should be avoided.
This study was conducted to understand the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance for the commercially available clear broth for noodles. Totally, eight different clear broth samples were evaluated in this study. Seven trained panelists developed and evaluated sensory characteristics in the descriptive analysis. Significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained for all 28 attributes evaluated. Descriptive data was obtained by performing multivariate analysis of variance to identify differences between samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the mean values of descriptive attributes obtained in the descriptive analysis, and summarizes the sensory characteristics of clear broth for noodles. PCA of the clear broths revealed that the first two principal components are responsible for 80.66% variations. For sensory testing, 160 consumers were recruited, and their acceptance for each sample was assessed. Consumer data was obtained by applying partial least square-regression (PLSR) to establish the relationship between the descriptive data and the consumer acceptance data.
This study was a qualitative investigation into hemodialysis patients' dietary practices. The purpose of this study was to explore the obstacles and requirements to maintain a recommended diet therapy in hemodialysis patients. Five patients undergoing hemodialysis in the renal chamber of the general hospital were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on an interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis. As a result of this study, five elemental factors and 12 subelemental factors were derived. Derived elements were “difficulty in dietary guidelines”, “recognizing necessity of diet therapy”, “awareness of importance of diet”, “difficulty practicing diet therapy”, and “looking for ways to practice diet therapy”. Patients not only felt difficulties in practicing dietary guidelines but also recognized the need and importance of diet therapy. Patients seemed to have difficulty practicing meal therapy and eating with their families or others. They were also stressed by the limited selection of dietary components and rapid dietary changes before and after dialysis. However, patients showed a willingness to implement dietary management to improve their quality of life and to practice dietary therapy. In order to improve the practice of dietary management in hemodialysis patients, nutritional education should be focused on long-term dietary habits through continuous education and monitoring, not just one-off education. Moreover, patients should be educated that adherence to dietary control may be less burdensome on their families.
Ganjang and doenjang are known as major fermented soy-based foods in Koreans. Current investigations have proved that fermented soybean foods impart anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer activities of commercialized soy food, Ganjang, as a function of aging period. The test groups were classified into four time periods-short (under 5 years, S group), mid (under 10 years, M group), long (under 15 years, L group), and eternal (over 15 years, E group). The anti-cancer effects of Ganjang were determined by cell cytotoxicity assay of three types of cancer cell lines and splenocyte proliferation assay. Besides these assays, we also analyzed NK cell activity for cancer immunotherapy. The results show that the anti-cancer effect increased in the S and M period aging groups for all three cancer cell lines. Interestingly, similar to the anti-cancer result, splenocyte proliferation and NK activity showed the highest effect in the S and M groups. In contrast, Japanese ganjang-treated (JG1, JG2) groups and E group showed significantly reduced splenocyte proliferation. Collectively, these results suggest that the short and middle periods of traditional fermented Ganjang might have potential anti-cancer activities.
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide and is characterized by degeneration of the optic nerve. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the major contributing factor to optic nerve damage. However, some patients develop glaucoma even with normal IOP. Other factors, including age, race, myopia, and nutrition, can affect glaucoma risk. Dietary fat intake and serum fatty acid composition are closely related with the fatty acid profile of the retina and thus can modulate glaucoma risk. In this study, we collected serum samples from 34 glaucoma patients (26 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 8 normal tension glaucoma (NTG)) and 45 healthy controls and analyzed their serum phospholipid fatty acid concentrations. The results show that the ratio of oleic acid to stearic acid (OA/SA), which is an indicator of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity, was higher in POAG patients when compared to normal controls. The ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA), which is an indirect marker of eicosanoid biosynthesis, was also higher in glaucoma patients (p=0.048). These results imply that dietary fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid profile can influence glaucoma risk. Additional study is necessary to identify the relationship between fatty acids and glaucoma.