The purpose of this research was to examine the preferences of five traditional Korean drinks and analyze the factors affecting the preferences of children aged 7-12 in Korea, Vietnam, and China. The samples used in a sensory test were omija-cha, yuza-cha, sujeonggwa, sikhye and misutgaru. The test was performed to examine the overall, appearance (color), odor, taste and mouth-feeling and a sweetness intensity using 5 point hedonic scale (1=dislike extremely, 5=like extremely) and, check-all-that-apply (CATA) method was performed to determine preference and non-preferences factors. The preference of all samples except sujeonggwa showed significant differences in all items of the preferences (p<0.001). Almost items of the preference was rated more than 4 points in Chinese and Korea children. The sweetness intensity showed also significant differences in all items of the preferences except sujeonggwa (p<0.001), and evaluated as not sweetappropriate with the score between 2 and 3 points. Sweetness, color, mouth-feeling, familiar flavor and healthy feeling was selected for the factors affecting the preferences. In conclusion, the result of this study determine the preferences and the affecting factors for the traditional Korean drinks in children of Korea, Vietnam, and China.
This study examined the nutrient content of HMR products and recipes by television chefs. Twelve menu items from the soup, stew, and broth category were chosen from HMR products and TV chef’s recipes. The data on the nutrition labeling from the HMR products and TV chef’s recipes were calculated using Can-Pro 5.0. The results of the analysis were the differences between the HMR products and TV recipes per serving size. The energy content of TV recipes 236.1 kcal was significantly higher than the HMR products. On the other hand, HMR products contained significantly higher sodium (926.9 mg) levels than the TV recipes (565.8 mg). In general, HMR products contained more sodium and less energy and protein than TV recipes. The highest sodium content containing products among the 12 menu items was the Spicy soft tofu stew (1,421.4 mg) from HMR products. The results revealed the significant differences in the macronutrient and sodium content between HMR products and the TV chef’s recipe. This study provides supportive data for the need to reduce the sodium content in HMR products. TV cooking programs should focus on the importance of balanced nutrition, how to reduce sodium intake, and how to achieve this without disrupting well-balanced nutrition.
This study was conducted to understand the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance for the commercially available clear broth for noodles. Totally, eight different clear broth samples were evaluated in this study. Seven trained panelists developed and evaluated sensory characteristics in the descriptive analysis. Significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained for all 28 attributes evaluated. Descriptive data was obtained by performing multivariate analysis of variance to identify differences between samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the mean values of descriptive attributes obtained in the descriptive analysis, and summarizes the sensory characteristics of clear broth for noodles. PCA of the clear broths revealed that the first two principal components are responsible for 80.66% variations. For sensory testing, 160 consumers were recruited, and their acceptance for each sample was assessed. Consumer data was obtained by applying partial least square-regression (PLSR) to establish the relationship between the descriptive data and the consumer acceptance data.
The aim of this study was to introduce the foods recorded in「Bongjeopyoram」, a cookbook, of which the date of production and author are unknown. This was described in an old document belonging to the Hansan Lee family clan from Chungcheongnam-do and revealed its content and significance in the food culture history of Korea to academia for the first time, A close examination of「Bongjeopyoram」 showed that, as with other cookbooks from the Joseon Dynasty, it started with methods of making alcoholic beverages. This was followed by recipes for different types of food in the following order: rice cakes and confectioneries, jeol-sik (seasonal foods), daily meals, foods made for jesa (ancestral rites) or a feast, food for weddings, and food for sijeol-jesa (seasonal ancestral rites). The book contained a total of 18 types of alcoholic beverages, 11 types of rice cakes and confectioneries, 20 types of daily meals, 28 types of jeol-sik and food for sijeol-jesa, 12 types of food for jesa and feasts, and 37 types of food for weddings, for a total of 126 types of food and beverages.「Bongjeopyoram」 was an ancient cookbook with detailed records on how to carry out jesa, which was an important event hosted by jonggas, or the head family of a family clan, and how to receive and serve guests in the Joseon period. This book is expected to play a valuable role as a guidance with significance as a cookbook of a jongga from the Joseon Dynasty, a time when bongjesajeopbingaek (hosting jesa for one’s ancestors and serving one’s guest) was considered important.
This study examined the quality characteristics of Jeung-pyeon made with wet non-glutinous rice flour and rice wine. The samples of Jeung-pyeon were prepared with different ratios of cooked purple sweet potato (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12%) to analyze the water content, sugar content, pH, chromaticity, texture characteristics, and sensory evaluation. No significant difference in water content, sugar content, and springiness was observed among the 5 samples. The pH and volume showed the highest level at 0%. The L-value and b-value decreased while the a-value increased. The hardness, chewiness, and gumminess were highest at 9% and lowest at 12%. The extent of violet chromaticity and pore size were optimal in 9%. In addition, 9%-added purple sweet potato showed the highest score of odor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the optimal addition for the highest acceptability of cooked purple sweet potato was 9%.
This study analyzed the comparative importance of the selection of a restaurant for solo diners, and suggests a solution for the ideal type of the restaurant that are appealing to solo diners using conjoint analysis techniques. A total of 280 questionnaires were distributed to consumers who had experience dining alone from June 7th, 2017 to June14th, 2017, and 261 were completed (93.21%). As a result, the importance of the attributes of the restaurant was found to be the menu for solo diners (36.92%), price (30.29%), seating for solo diners (20.87%), and serving time of food (11.91%). The ideal combination of selection attributes was found to be having a menu for a solo diner, having a seat for a solo diner, meal service time of less than 10 minutes, and a low price of 2,500won. These results will form a database that contributes to the development of differentiated products and is building marketing strategies that can satisfy the needs of solo diners.
This study was conducted to identify sensory characteristics of soy-meat samples by trained panels and to observe the relationship between these sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of the samples. Descriptive analysis was performed on eight samples; four types of patty style soy-meat samples (Soy-meat Patty; SP) made with a Ddukgalbi recipe (YSP, VSP, LSP, and SSP) and four types of Bulgogi style soy-meat samples (Soy-meat Bulgogi; SB) made with a Bulgogi recipe (YSB, VSB, LSB, and SSB). Seven panelists were trained, and they evaluated the appearance, odor/aroma, flavor/ taste, texture/mouth feel, and after taste attributes of these samples. Forty attributes were generated by panelists, and 37 attributes were significantly different across products (p<0.05). The SB group was characterized by beef, leek, and garlic flavor as well a sweetness, denseness, slipperiness, chewiness, and pepper after taste. The SP group was characterized by roughness, particle size, rancid oil flavor, raw bean flavor, astringent, sourness, and adhesiveness. Consumer test (n=125) showed that the VSB sample had the highest scores for acceptability of appearance, flavor, texture, and overall liking. The PLSR results show that the attributes that were more positively associated with acceptance of soy-meat samples were beef taste, wetness, and chewiness, whereas the raw bean smell and rancid oil flavor attributes were negative.
This study identified the sensory properties of samples of pizza dough at three pizza companies and three masonry oven pizzerias from Seoul, Korea and compared consumer acceptability among panels of university students. Six pizza dough samples were prepared (pan pizzas from Pizza Hut, Mr.pizza, and Dominos pizza, masonry oven baked pizzas from Appleteen, Mr.Lee’s, and Pizza factory). Consumer tests were employed involving 97 Korean consumers. Consumers evaluated overall liking (OL), liking of appearance (APPL), odor (ODL), flavor (FLL), and texture (TXTL), willing to try (WT), and willing to recommend (WR) for the samples using a nine-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that HutP, MrP, and DomP samples had significantly (p<0.05) high scores for roughness, porosity, crust color, grain size, brownness, dairy food aroma, savory taste, and yeast aroma, which had the highest OL, ODL, and FLL scores. LeeP, ATeenP, and PFacP samples had high elasticity, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness. Consumers favored the appearance characteristics and color, dairy product flavor, and savory flavor of the pan pizza and preferred cohesiveness, toughness, and stickiness of masonry oven baked pizza.
This study was conducted to determine the reasonable soaking period of glutinous rice for laver Bugak (Korean traditional fried dishes) processing and to identify the sensory characteristics of three kinds of laver Bugak made with different starch pastes: GRice_1d using glutinous rice soaked for 1 day; GRice_7d using glutinous rice fermented for 7 days; and Wheat using flour. Descriptive analysis was performed by 10 trained panelists, and the 92 consumers evaluated the overall acceptance (OL), acceptance of appearance (APPL), odor (ODL), flavor (FLL), and texture (TXTL) of the samples using a 9-point hedonic scale. From the measurement result by scanning electron microscope (SEM), there were differences in the surface characteristics among soaking period for 1 day and 7 days. Ten panelists were trained, and they evaluated the appearance, odor/aroma, flavor/taste, texture/mouth feel, and after taste attributes of these samples. 36 attributes were generated by panelists and 12 attribute were significantly different across products (p<0.05). It was found that the Grice_7d sample was characterized by mouthfeel of crispiness and uniformity of bubbles, and the Wheat sample was characterized by surface of roughness, mouthfeel of crispiness and adhesiveness, relatively. And the Grice_1d sample was characterized by surface of roughness, mouthfeel of roughness, hardness, cohesiveness, toughness, and adhesiveness.
The objective of this study was to determine sensory profiles of rice confections. The samples used in this study obtained from Korea (traditional Korea rice snack and local specialty rice snack) and three countries (USA, Japan, and China) were evaluated and compared. The sensory characteristics of five kinds of rice confections were evaluated using a sensory test and were analyzed via quantitative description analysis (QDA), principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). In the descriptive analysis, 10 trained panelists evaluated sensory characteristics consisting of 19 attributes, and there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the 16 characteristics. For the descriptive data, multivariate analysis of variance was carried out and identified differences among the samples. The PCA of rice confections for the first two principal components could explain 85.66% of the variations. The Korean, Japanese, and Chinese rice confections were savory, gritty, and particle-sized, the other Korean local specialty rice confections were fruity, sweet, honey-flavored, compact, and crispy, and those from the USA were glossy, grainy, bright, adhesive, cohesive, crispy, and sweet.
The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting acceptance of four kinds of dak-jjim samples in third year schoolaged children (n=100). Soy sauce, red pepper paste, Vietnam fish sauce, and star anise were applied to samples for their familiar and exotic characteristics. Significant differences among samples were observed in odor, taste, and acceptance (p<0.001). Soy (Soy sauce sample), RPPaste (Red pepper paste sample), and Soy_FishS (Soy sauce and Vietnam fish sauce sample) samples scored higher than Soy_StarA (Soy sauce and star anise sample) sample. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in intensities of saltiness, sweetness, and hot spicy flavor (p>0.05). Liked attributes in samples were saltiness, sweetness, chicken flavor, potato flavor, moistness of chicken, hot spicy flavor, and color. Disliked attributes in samples were hot spicy flavor, saltiness, and ginger flavor. Significant differences among samples were observed in familiar intensity and willing to try again (p<0.001). Soy, RPPaste, and Soy_FishS samples scored higher than Soy_StarA sample. Panels considered taste (46%) and nutrition (45%). Higher familiar intensity of sample was associated with higher acceptance in samples. In other words, familiarity of food affects acceptance of food. Therefore, familiar ingredients such as soy sauce and chicken can be used for development of Korean menu items considering taste and nutrition with enhanced Korean food acceptance in school-aged children
This study was carried out in order to investigate Korean food acculturation by married immigrant women and how it affects their children’s eating habits. Using an in-depth interview method, 26 domestically residing married immigrant Chinese, Vietnamese, and Indonesian women in Korea were surveyed to investigate adaption to Korean food at the time of their immigration, their current dietary life, their preferred Korean food, major factors in managing their children’s eating habits, etc. The results reveal that depending on the married immigrant women’s country of birth, which plays an important role in a family’s dietary life and health, acculturation phenomena occurred in which the specific eating habits of each country were grafted into Korean food. Furthermore, due to their school-age children’s display of acceptance of both their homeland’s and Korea’s food culture, we believe that this can become a pivot point for non-governmental diplomacy where Korean food can be understood along with the mothers’ countries.
This study was conducted to compare the preference and satisfaction for Korean traditional foods (Jeonju Bibimbap, Daetongbap, Jeonbokjuk, Jorangiddockguk, Hobakbumbuk, Darkgalbee, Eonyang Bulgogi, Moyackgwa, Insam Jeonggwa, Maejackgwa) in foreigners and Koreans. In this study, 27 foreign and 31 Korean university students were surveyed. Statistical analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were performed using the SPSS statistical package (17.0). The major findings were as follows: 1) Foreigners had higher experience of eating Darkgalbee (84.6%), Jeonju Bibimbap (80.8%), Daetongbap (53.8%), and Jeonbokjuk (53.8%) among Korean traditional foods, whereas their eating experience of Insam Jeonggwa (3.8%), Maejackgwa (11.5%), Moyackgwa (15.4%) and Jorangiddockguk (23.1%) was lower. 2) Foreigners and Koreans both liked sweet taste, but disliked sour taste, bitter taste, garlic flavor, sesame flavor, and soy sauce flavor among the sensory characteristics of Korean traditional foods. 3) Foreigners scored their overall satisfaction of Korean traditional foods in the order of Jeonju Bibimbap (7.70±0.95), Eonyang Bulgogi (7.62±2.10), Daetongbap (7.59±1.60), Darkgalbee (7.20±1.56), and Jeonbokjuk (6.67±1.64), whereas Koreans rated higher scores for Eonyang Bulgogi (8.28±1.19), Darkgalbee (8.20±1.00), Jeonju Bibimbap (7.73±1.08), Jeonbokjuk (7.69±1.44), and Moyackgwa (7.43±1.52).
The consumer acceptance of food is not only affected by the sensory characteristics of food but also by the non-food factors, including food experience, consumption frequency, and food attitudes. Therefore, food attitude scales such as the food neophobic scale, VARSEEK scale, Dutch restrained eating scale, health taste attitude scale, etc. have been developed and effectively used to predict consumer liking and behaviors. Since the globalization of Korean food is currently one of the hottest topics in the Korean food industry, the aim of this study was to identify the tastes and flavors that may represent Korean cuisine. Additionally, an attitudinal scale for Korean taste and flavors was developed, which can then be utilized to predict a consumer’s liking of Korean food. In the first stage of the experiment, the representative taste and flavors of Korean cuisine was surveyed by a Korean culinary expert group (n=23) and general consumers (n=62). As a result of these surveys, 4 types of flavors, hot pepper flavor, ‘goso’ flavor, garlic flavor, and fermented flavor were shown to be the most representative flavors of Korean cuisine. Based on these results, the second stage of the experiment was carried out to develop an attitudinal scale for Korean style flavors. Eleven to 17 questionnaires were developed for each of the 4 types of flavors. The survey consisted of a total of 53 questionnaires and 154 female consumers and 158 male consumers participated in the survey. The data was analyzed by factor analysis. For each type of flavor, the final attitudinal questionnaires were selected based on the following criteria: 1. high absolute factor loading value, 2. carrying clear meaning of the corresponding flavor attitude, and 3. delivering the meaning sufficiently when translated into other language. The final Korean style flavor attitude scale consisted of 7 hot pepper flavor, 6 ‘goso’ flavor, 6 garlic flavor, and 7 fermented flavor questionnaires. In the next step of this study, experiments will be carried out to validate the Korean style flavor attitude scale.
Muck (Korean traditional starch jelly) is very unique and the one of the oldest starch processing traditional food. The typical ingredients for making muck such as acorns, mungbean and buckwheat have been eaten since the new stone age or even before that era. This study was for investigation on the history of muck and its processing methods in the ancient and the modern culinary literatures from the 1400’s to 1900’s. The summary of the reviews was as follows. In the ages from the 1400’s to 1700’s, using starch powder, Se-myon and Chang-myon were made and their shape were like noodles instead of cubical shape. It was after the 1700’s that muck making methods were revealed in the literature, like 「Gyeong-do-jabji」 (1730) and「Go-sa-sib-e-jib」 (1737). The naming of muck might be from the time after 1800’s, in「Myoung-mul-kiryak 」 (around 1870) the basis of the names of Choeng-po (white mungbean jelly) and Whang-po (yellow mungbean jelly) could be found. One of the most well-known muck dish, Tang-pyeong-chae, was recorded many old literatures, so it was found that Tang-pyeong-chae was very popular and governmental policy of Tang-pyeong-chak influenced the food of the common people. In 「Shi-eui-jeon-seo」 (late 1800’s) there were records of several types of muck and starch powder making methods in detail which were handed down to the modern ages.
The purposes of this study were to analyze importance and performance for coffee quality attributes based on customers according to their consumption types; and provided ideas and marketing strategies to increase sales through IPAs (Importance-Performance Analysis). University students in Incheon were conducted a survey from March 13, 2007 to March 31, 2007. As for a quality attribute with the highest importance, the survey showed 'price' was important for 「vending machine coffee」, and 'taste' was important for 「commercial coffee」, and 「coffee house coffee」. And 'thirst relief' was found to have the lowest importance for three types of coffee. As for a quality attributes with the highest performance, the survey showed 'taste' was important for 「coffee house coffee」 'price' was important for 「vending machine coffee」; and 'period of circulation' was important for 「commercial coffee」. IPA results for coffee quality attributes also showed quality attributes that should be improved quickly for each type of coffee: 'hygiene', 'safety', 'period of circulation', and 'package' were for 「vending machine coffee」; 'price' and 'freshness' were for 「commercial coffee」; and 'price' and 'period of circulation' were for 「coffee house coffee」.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of the health related factors on the preference and frequency of intake of coffee and traditional beverages among 280 university students (128 males and 152 females) who were residing in Incheon areas. The results were as follows; 1. Male students of over weight and obese were more than female students and female students of under weight were more than male students. Female students were interested in weight control and had an experience in weight control more than male students. 2. The group who was much interested in weight control preferred green tea, yuja tea and dunggulre tea. The group who was much interested in health when drink beverages preferred green tea, ginseng tea, dunggulre tea, vinegar drinks and water but didn’t prefer coffee. 3. The frequency of intake of green tea is high in the group who had an experience in weight control. And the frequency of intake of honey tea was high in the group who drank alcohol almost every day. Coffee intake was the highest among beverages in smokers and water intake was the highest among beverages in nonsmokers. In conclusion this study showed that as an interest in health is higher, the preference and frequency of intake of coffee was low whereas those who intake of traditional beverages was high in general.