The Cheonggukjang used in this study was made with four soybean cultivars grown and harvested at the National Agrobiodiversity Center of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences: C1 (KLS87248), C2 (Nongrim 51), C3 (GNU- 2007-14613), and C4 (Daewon). The soybeans were inoculated with Bacillus subtilis AFY-2 and fermented for 0, 12, 21, 36, 45, and 60 h in a culture room at 35°C. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly increased upon fermentation for 12 hours in all samples and maintained or decreased after 21 hour The inhibition of NO production was significantly increased compared to the LPS-treated group, and the C2 sample showed inhibition of NO production at 12 hours of fermentation, and the C3 sample showed inhibition at 21 hours of fermentation. PCA analysis revealed that the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity and NO production inhibitory activity reached peak levels around 12 h fermentation time for all samples. Our results indicate that the optimal fermentation time of the Cheonggukjang sample is 12 hours, confirming the high correlation of all experiments.
This study investigated the potential role of dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. The scoping review method was used to evaluate the studies that utilized the secondary data sets comprising the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Articles published between 2012 and 2022 were identified using RISS, KISS, DBpia, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases. In all, there were 32 published articles on obesity and 119 on MetS. Obesity research included eight articles on nutrients, 12 on food items/food groups, two on dietary patterns, nine on dietary behavior/eating habits, and one on the dietary index. MetS studies comprised 34 articles on nutrients, 43 on food items/food groups, seven on dietary patterns, 25 on dietary behavior/eating habits, and 10 on the dietary index. Carbohydrates, alcohol, and coffee consumption were the most frequently studied dietary factors for obesity and MetS. The primary areas of study were largely focused on nutrients and food items/food groups. Thus, to overcome the paucity of information on the relationship of dietary patterns and dietary indexes with obesity and MetS, there is a need for further research using the KNHANES and KoGES data sets.
In this study, soybean pods of 45 soybean landraces (or varieties) were classified as yellow (19 samples), black (23 samples), or black in green (3 samples) based on soybean seed coat color. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and estrogen-like activities were assessed. Total polyphenol and flavonoid content ranges were 24.13-108.03 mg GAE/g and 3.31-72.02 mg CE/g, respectively, and were highest in the black group followed by the yellow group and were least in the black in green group, while ABTS and DPPH activities followed the order black in green > black > yellow. Estrogen-like and estrogen receptor-α activity ranges were 29.06-35.58 pg/mL and 7.05-10.13 pg/mL and were followed the order yellow > black > black in green and black in green > yellow > black, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory and UCP-1 activities followed the same order as estrogen receptor-α activities. Our findings suggest that soybean pods are excellent sources of antioxidants and high-quality functional materials.
Contents of water soluble vitamin B6 in a total of 62 agricultural products cultivated in local areas in Korea were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD). To verify the method of vitamin B6 analysis, a quality control chart was formulated with in-house control using a mixture of broccoli and shiitake mushrooms. Among cereals, high content of vitamin B6 measured 234.3~260.3 μg/100 g in dried mung bean and soybean. Vitamin B6 content of non-glutinous and glutinous black rice measured 105.0 μg/100 g and 129.7 μg/100 g, respectively. In vegetables, high content of vitamin B6 were measured in passion fruit (104.3 μg/100 g), gat (55.7~84.3 μg/100 g), gomchwi (31.3~88.0 μg/100 g) and garlic (72.7~98.3 μg/100 g). Among fruits, gold kiwi 'Zespri' and green kiwi 'Hayward' revealed high vitamin B6 content of 116.3 μg/100 g and 78.7 μg/100 g, respectively. In persimmons, daebongsi had high vitamin B6 content (36.0~72.7 μg/100 g) than bansi and sweet persimmon. Vitamin B6 content in dried jujube and persimmon increased more than 86.7 μg/100 g compared to fresh materials. Among specialty crops, green tea powder (64.7~251.0 μg/100 g) and sansuyu (172.3 μg/100 g) revealed high content. Of mushrooms, vitamin B6 content of Sparassis crispa (139.3 μg/100 g) was the highest. Vitamin B6 content information of agricultural products in local areas in Korea collected from this experiment will be used as valuable preliminary data for grasp national nutritional status.
The purpose of this study was to investigate ash and mineral contents of agricultural products that are widely and specifically grown in Korea, including 23 fruits, 11 cereals and specialty crops, and 11 leaves and vegetables. Pre-treatment of mineral was performed by microwave method. Mineral contents were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometry Mass (ICP-MS). Ash contents ranged from 0.20 to 0.69 g/100 g in fruits, 1.62 to 3.80 g/100 g in cereals, and 0.28 to 2.93 g/100 g in leaves and vegetables. Among the 45 samples, the highest contents of ash were found in quinoa (average 3.80 g/100 g), the highest contents of calcium (Ca) were found in Hansan ramie leaves (average 894.79 mg/100 g), the highest contents of phosphorus (P) were found in yellow amaranth(average 661.88 mg/100 g), the highest contents of potassium (K) were found in quinoa (average 1,455.38 mg/100 g), the highest contents of magnesium (Mg) were found in red amaranth (average 434.02 mg/100 g), the highest contents of molybdenum (Mo) were found in moringa (average 482.50 μg/100 g), and the highest contents of selenium (Se) were found in apple mango(average 23.67 μg/100 g).
Nutritional composition and physicochemical properties changes in mustard leaf kimchi were investigated during fermentation of up to 3 months. The pH decreased, and the titratable acidity gradually increased according to increase of fermentation periods. Fructose and glucose were the major free sugars in mustard leaf kimchi, and their amounts were significantly decreased with fermentation periods (p<0.05). Lactic acid content showed a significant increase with maximum increase at 3 months. All types of kimchi contained 20 amino acids, but the content of most amino acid fluctuated during fermentation. Except for K and Zn, the content of other ingredients including Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Se were the highest in kimchi fermented for 2 months. The unsaturated fatty acid of mustard leaf kimchi was higher than that of saturated fatty acid, and total fatty acid of kimchi significantly decreased after 2 months (p<0.05). Most vitamin contents showed a tendency to decrease with fermentation, in particular, vitamin B complex except for B2 significantly decreased after 3 months (p<0.05). The results provide fundamental data for determining the appropriate fermentation period to improve the quality of kimchi.
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) is an essential cofactor in the synthesis of active blood-clotting factors II, VII, IX and X. Deficiency of vitamin K leads to inadequate activity of these factors, resulting in bleeding. In this study, we investigated vitamin K1 content of agricultural products that are widely and specifically grown in Korea including 9 leaves and vegetables, 16 fruits, and 11 cereals and specialty crops. Vitamin K1 analysis of the agro-samples was by a validated, modified, reversed phase-HPLC method with fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. The vitamin K1 content ranged from 1.83 to 682.73 μg/100 g in leaves and vegetables, 0.17 to 28.22 μg/100 g in fruits, and ND to 279 μg/100 g in cereals and specialty crops. Among the 36 samples, high content of vitamin K1 were found in Gugija (Lycium chinense Miller) leaves (average 682.73 μg/100 g) and Hansan ramie leaves (average 423.12 μg/100 g); however, mushroom, amaranth and Chinese artichoke showed no detectable levels. The results of ourstudy provide reliable vitamin K1 content of Korean grown agricultural products that expand nutritional information and food composition database.
본 연구에서는 볶음 처리 후 여주의 총 phenolics, 총 flavonoids, 갈변물질(MRPs, maillard reaction products), 항산화 활성 및 α-glucosidase 저해활성을 비교하였다. 또한 alkaloids 유도체와 쓴맛 저감 효과를 평가하였다. 볶음 온도 및 시간이 증가함에 따라 볶음 처리된 여주는 총 phenolics, 총 flavonoids, MRPs, 항산화 활성 및 α-glucosidase 저해활성 역시 증가하였으나, alkaloid계 화합물 및 쓴맛은 감소하였다. 특히 200℃에서 15분 동안 볶은 여주는 총 phenolics, 총 flavonoids, MRPs, 항산화 활성 및 α-glucosidase 저해활성이 가장 높았고 alkaloid계 화합물 및 쓴맛은 가장 낮게 나타났다. 이 결과로부터 볶음 여주는 쓴맛이 저감되고 이들 추출물은 식품에서도 잠재적인 천연 항산화제로 사용할 수 있을 것으로 판단되었다.
Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, are natural water-soluble pigments, which are mainly found in vegetables and fruits. Anthocyanins have attractive pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of anthocyanins-rich fraction (ANF) from Korean purple sweet potato variety, "Shinjami", against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. In our results, pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with ANF (10μg/mL) significantly prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity, following exposure to 0.9 mM hydrogen peroxide. The H2O2-dependent production of intracellular ROS was also significantly decreased by pre-treatment with ANF (6 h, 10μg/mL). In addition, ANF increased the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione level in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicated that ANF protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by inducing protective system.
본 연구에서는 오미자 추출물이 보유하고 있는 것으로 알려진 항산화, 항균, 항염증 활성의 용매별 추출에 따른 변화를 구명하고 관련 기초자료를 제공하고자 하였다. 오미자를 물과 70% 에탄올, 99.9% 메탄올로 추출한 후, 폴리페놀 함량, 라디칼 소거능, SOD 유사활성, 항균활성, NO 생성 저해능을 평가하였다. 그 결과, 오미자 물 추출물의 폴리페놀 함량은 9.2 mg/g이었고 에탄올과 메탄올 추출에 의해서 각각 70.7%, 77.2% 증가하였다. DPPH 라디칼 소거능은 에탄올 추출물에서 IC50이 399.7 μg/mL으로 항산화능이 가장 높았고, 메탄올 추출물(400.8 μg/mL), 물 추출물(992.4 μg/mL)의 순으로 나타났다. 이를 통해, 물 추출물보다 유기용매 추출물의 폴리페놀 함량이 높음에 따라 소거활성이 증가하여, 폴리페놀 함량과 라디칼 소거활성은 연관성이 있음을 확인하였다. 병원균 3종 E.coli, S. typhimurium, St. aureus에 대한 항균 활성은 물 추출물의 경우 38.9~64.5%인 반면 유기용매 추출물에서는 70.0 ~ 85.6%로 증가하였다. 반면에 NO 생성에 대해서는 물 추출물이 대조군에 비해 35.7% 저해시켰으나 에탄올과 메탄올 추출에 의해서 각각 22.1%, 25.7% 감소하였다. 결론적으로 오미자의 유기용매(에탄올, 메탄올) 추출물은 물 추출물에 비하여 라디칼 소거능과 SOD 유사 활성, 항균 활성이 우수하였다. 반면에 항염증능은 유기용매 추출물에 비해 물 추출물이 우수한 활성을 보였다. 본 실험결과는 오미자 추출물을 건강
기능식품 개발 소재나 가공식품으로 활용할 때 주요 대상으로하는 건강기능성을 증진시키는데 기초자료로 활용할 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.
The main aim of this study was to investigate side dishes served to guests of head families (Jong-ga) in Korea. In order to conduct of this research, we analyzed two books published by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) on the foods and the stories from head families: "Sharing beyond succession, stories and foods from the head families" and "Aesthetics of Serving". The total number of head families serving foods to guests was 10: 5 from Gyeongsangbuk-do, 2 from Jeollanam-do, 1 from Gyeonggi-do, 1 from Gyeongsangnam-do, and 1 from Chungcheongbuk-do. We classified the foods into 7 categories, staple dishes, side dishes, rice cakes, desserts, beverages, alcoholic beverages and others, on the basis of previous studies. Most foods served to guests were side dishes (119). These were further classified into 14 categories: Guk Tang, Namul, Hwe, Bokkeum, Mareunchan, Gui, Jorim, Pyeonyuk Jokpyoen Suran, Jiim Seon, Jeon Jeok, Jangajji, Kimchi, Jeotgal Sikhae and Jang. The most common side dish was Jangs (17), served by 8 head families. The next most common side dishes were Marenchan (15), Jeon Jeok (14) and Kimchi (11).
Aroma compounds in sun-dried salt according to saltern material and packaging box were extracted by the headspace and were isolated by using GC-MS. These compounds were identified including ketones, heterocyclic compounds and six other compounds. Major aroma compounds in salts were identified as 4-methyl-2 pentanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, 2-hexanol, benzothiazole, 2, 4-bis(1, 1-dimethylethyl)-phenol, and 1, 3, 5 tri-tert-butyl benzene. However, we found no significant differences according to the saltern materials in three salts. Salts stored in Chamaceyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) had more diverse aroma profiling than those in Pinus densiflora and Paulownia coreana. We consider that it need to research the development of high value added products for new aromatic salt.
This study was conducted to compare the preference and satisfaction for Korean traditional foods (Jeonju Bibimbap, Daetongbap, Jeonbokjuk, Jorangiddockguk, Hobakbumbuk, Darkgalbee, Eonyang Bulgogi, Moyackgwa, Insam Jeonggwa, Maejackgwa) in foreigners and Koreans. In this study, 27 foreign and 31 Korean university students were surveyed. Statistical analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were performed using the SPSS statistical package (17.0). The major findings were as follows: 1) Foreigners had higher experience of eating Darkgalbee (84.6%), Jeonju Bibimbap (80.8%), Daetongbap (53.8%), and Jeonbokjuk (53.8%) among Korean traditional foods, whereas their eating experience of Insam Jeonggwa (3.8%), Maejackgwa (11.5%), Moyackgwa (15.4%) and Jorangiddockguk (23.1%) was lower. 2) Foreigners and Koreans both liked sweet taste, but disliked sour taste, bitter taste, garlic flavor, sesame flavor, and soy sauce flavor among the sensory characteristics of Korean traditional foods. 3) Foreigners scored their overall satisfaction of Korean traditional foods in the order of Jeonju Bibimbap (7.70±0.95), Eonyang Bulgogi (7.62±2.10), Daetongbap (7.59±1.60), Darkgalbee (7.20±1.56), and Jeonbokjuk (6.67±1.64), whereas Koreans rated higher scores for Eonyang Bulgogi (8.28±1.19), Darkgalbee (8.20±1.00), Jeonju Bibimbap (7.73±1.08), Jeonbokjuk (7.69±1.44), and Moyackgwa (7.43±1.52).
This study aimed to identify efficient methods for the globalization of Korean food in Vietnam. For this, we interviewed owners of 11 Korean restaurants in Hanoi and 9 Korean restaurants in Ho Chi Minh. Due to the rapid economic development of Vietnam, the restaurant industry for the middle class has drastically increased. For the globalization of Korean food, new positioning of Korean restaurants is needed. Research has shown that Korean restaurants need to change their style of management. Although the first generation of Korean restaurant owners managed restaurants as a family business, a new professional management system is now required. Above all, it is necessary to develop and support a comprehensive food culture system in which the menu is suited to the taste of the natives and its recipe is distributed with food material quality control, hygienic control, and operation of a localized management system.
We evaluated the sensory characteristics of Gangjung base obtained from various manufacturers, using a sensory descriptive analysis. Significant differences were observed for all sensory attributes of Gangjung samples with the exception of 'toothpacking'. Sample A showed high intensities for 'external color', 'external roughness', 'sweetness', 'toasted soybean powder flavor', 'crispness', 'fracturability', 'oiliness', and 'loose particles,' whereas it had low intensities for 'rice flour flavor', 'hardness', and 'toughness' compared to those of other samples. Sample B had more 'sourness', 'butyric acid flavor', 'fermented rice flavor', and 'degree of melting' but lower 'air cell size', 'fracturability', and 'flake roughness'. Sample C showed high intensities for 'expansion', 'hardness', 'crispness', and 'flake roughness', whereas sample D showed low intensities for 'expansion' and 'sourness'. These results indicate that Gangjung base samples are markedly different depending on the manufacturer.