In this study, we aimed to explore whether eating alone is associated with mental health conditions in Korean adolescents. The data of 2,012 Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015–2019. Participants were classified into three groups based on the frequency of eating alone: none (all meals with others); 1 meal/day alone; and 2 meals/day alone. Mental health conditions were assessed based on stress recognition, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of poor mental health conditions according to the frequency of eating alone. Adolescents who ate 2 meals/day alone had higher odds of stress recognition (AOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.94- 3.63), depressive symptoms (AOR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47-4.42), and suicidal ideation (AOR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.05-6.08) than those who ate all their meals with others. In addition, having breakfast or dinner alone increased the odds of stress recognition. Considering the continuous increase in the social phenomenon of eating alone, nutritional educations are needed to develop adolescents' ability to choose more nutritionally balanced and healthy meals when eating alone.
This study investigated the potential role of dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. The scoping review method was used to evaluate the studies that utilized the secondary data sets comprising the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Articles published between 2012 and 2022 were identified using RISS, KISS, DBpia, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases. In all, there were 32 published articles on obesity and 119 on MetS. Obesity research included eight articles on nutrients, 12 on food items/food groups, two on dietary patterns, nine on dietary behavior/eating habits, and one on the dietary index. MetS studies comprised 34 articles on nutrients, 43 on food items/food groups, seven on dietary patterns, 25 on dietary behavior/eating habits, and 10 on the dietary index. Carbohydrates, alcohol, and coffee consumption were the most frequently studied dietary factors for obesity and MetS. The primary areas of study were largely focused on nutrients and food items/food groups. Thus, to overcome the paucity of information on the relationship of dietary patterns and dietary indexes with obesity and MetS, there is a need for further research using the KNHANES and KoGES data sets.
Incheon is an area where complaints about odors occur frequently and there are many sources of odor emission. In this study, we used a real-time monitoring device to measure the odorous concentration near the areas where there are complaints about odors. The measurements were carried out for the three areas (G, C, S) that are located around emissions sources. G is situated in an industrial complex that has a reputation for being one of the most foul smelling regions of Incheon. A petroleum refining plant and storage facility are located around C. S is a residential area nearby an industrial site. The concentration of major designated odor substances in the G and S areas satisfied the site boundary emission standards. With regard to the characteristics of odor substances by region, although the C area region had the highest odor intensity among the three regions due to the odor intensity near the oil storage facility areas G and S were similar in terms of odor intensity. In the region of the G area, the odor intensity was slightly higher at the northern side of t he industrial complex. In terms of the odor intensity of the designated odor substances, trimethyl amine was the strongest, followed by hydrogen sulfide. The real time monitoring system was necessary to analyze the changing trends of odor substances and for the determination of major odor sources. This study was conducted to identify the material causes of odors in areas of Incheon where there are frequent complaints about major odors.
The annual number of odor complaints increased about 10 times over 14 years from 4,302 in 2005 to 40,854 in 2019, in Korea. Especially, livestock facilities account for more than 50% of the odor complaints and the swine farms account for the most odor complaints among livestock. It is therefore necessary to manage swine farms as the major odor emission source. In this study, a real-time odor monitoring system equipped with PTR-TOF-MS (proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometric) was used to measure the odorous substances in two swine farms. Odorous substances emitted from outlets were sampled and measured at the two types of swine farms. In addition, the boundary spots were designated as measurement points. As a result, the rankings of the odorous substances in order, from highest to lowest, were ammonia, acetaldehyde, methyl mercaptan, fatty acids, etc. and the level of odor intensity was 0.8-4.4 at the outlet of the swine farms. The concentration at the boundary decreased between 1/100 ~ 1/10000 compared to the concentration emitted from outlets. Base on the results of evaluating odor activity values, Skatole and p-Cresol were estimated as major odor substances in swine farms.
This study investigated the trend of research on ‘Food science and Nutrition’ in previously published papers in the Journal of Korean Society of Food Culture (JKSFC) from 2000 to 2021. Total number of published papers in this category in the JKSFC was 693 which we classified into 7 main categories and 40 subcategories. Of these, 256 articles were on ‘experimental cooking’ which was the most studied field among 7 main categories. There was a total of 19 published papers under the category of ‘microbiology and fermentation’. A total of 133 articles were published on ‘functional foods’ and provided essential data for discovering new materials under the theme of various physiological active functions of food materials. Furthermore, 107 articles were included in ‘food processing and storage’, which provided integrated knowledge of economy, stability and practicality based on various technologies. A total of 144 articles was included in the category of ‘nutrition’. Under the category of ‘nutrition’, the most actively studied topic was ‘eating behaviors and dietary habits,’ and the trending topic was ‘use of healthcare big data.’ In conclusion, this review would provide trends of various categories of food science and nutrition area for recent 21 years and suggest directions for future research.
Local non-timber forest products can be easily accessed by tourists. These also provide opportunities for tourists to experience the local culture. Many local governments are paying constant attention to the development of non-timber forest product brands to revitalize the local economy and increase the profits of local farmers. Although there are many forest products and tourism resources in each region of Korea, there is no local specialized strategy to sell non-timber forest products and promote consumers' purchase intentions. In this study, we aimed to explore the consumers’ perceived creating shared value (CSV) and its association with purchasing behavior of non-timber forest products in Jeongeup city, Korea. Data were collected from 1,066 consumers who had purchased non-timber forest products. Purchasing patterns of local specialty products differed depending on consumers’ perceived CSV levels. In addition, consumers with higher levels of perceived CSV showed higher awareness and familiarity with Jeongeup city and experienced Jeongeup city’s non-timber forest products. Our findings suggest that improving consumer perception towards CSV of non-timber forest products can be used as a marketing strategy for local non-timber forest products to revitalize the local economy.
본 연구는 교정시설에 수감 중인 마약 사용자의 회복을 돕기 위한 내면아이 치유프 로그램 개발과 효과를 검증하는 혼합연구이다. 연구자는 내면아이 치유프로그램을 교 정시설에 맞게 수정･보완하여 실험집단에 실시하였다. 프로그램의 효과검증을 위해 혼합분석을 하였다. 양적분석은 통제집단과 실험집단의 사전검사와 사후검사의 변화 차이가 통계적으로 유의미한지 살펴보았고, 질적 분석은 프로그램이 종료 후 실험집 단 참여자들의 포커스 인터뷰를 통해 내면아이 치유프로그램 참여 후 자신의 변화에 대한 심층자료를 수집하여 구체적 내용, 계기, 맥락 등을 분석하였다. 연구결과를 살 펴보면 내면아이치유 프로그램를 통해 중독에서 회복이 목표이다. 양적분석에서 이러 한 회복을 위한 삶의 의미 찾기, 긍정적 정서 강화와 부정적 정서저하, 우울극복, 단약 의지의 변화준비에서 모두 통계적으로 유의미한 변화가 나타났다. 질적 분석에서도 삶의 의미에서는 현존의 삶 수용, 현실세계의 수용, 상처받은 존재로서의 미래기획이 라는 3가지 범주로 변화가 나타났다. 긍정적 정서의 강화와 부정적 정서의 저하인 정서차원에서는 자기의지에 대한 신뢰, 스스로의 동기부여를 통한 자존감 강화, 자기애 의 발현이라는 3가지 범주로 변화가 나타났다. 우울감극복차원에서는 자살관념의 극 복, 삶의 화병 다스리기, 심리적 면역주사, 사회와의 소통통로 개척이라는 4가지 범주 로 변화가 나타났다. 단약의지에 대한 변화 준비는 가족과의 화해, 건실한 직업탐색, 마약동료들과의 관계단절이라는 3개의 범주로 변화가 나타났다. 연구자는 이와 같이 연구결과에 근거하여 4가지 차원에서의 논의를 하였고, 연구결과와 논의에 근거하여 교정시설에서 마약사범들의 회복을 도울 수 있는 프로그램의 방향과 구조에 대한 제 언을 하였다.
본 연구는 교정시설에 수감되어 있는 남성 마약사용자들의 교정시설 체험에 대한 현상학적 연구이다. 마약사용으로 수감 중인 연구 참여자의 교정시설 체험에 대한 의미와 본질의 구조 등을 밝히고 이에 근거한 마약사용자들의 재활정책과 실천방안을 제시하고자하는 연구 목적을 지니고 있다. 본 연구에는 교정시설에 수감 중인 9명의 마약사용자들을 대상으로 심층면접을 수행하여 자료를 구성하였다. 원 자료는 Colaizzi가 제시한 체험적 현상학적 연구방법으로 분석하였다. 자료 분석 결과 53개의 주제가 구성되었고 이를 12개의 주제로 결집하였다. 12개 주제는 새로운 마약세계의 학습, 도구적 우정으로 서로 묶임, 분리처우에 대한 반발, 낙인의 지속적 강화, 인위적인 마약단절의 장, 자기 속죄의 기회, 사회적 관계기술의 학습, 종교와의 조우, 자립의지의 지속적 강화, 마약에 대한 인식오류의 극복, 가족으로 귀환하는 화해의 다리확보, 서로가 지지하는 비공식적 치료공동체로 타났다. 연구자들은 이를 순기능과 역기능 그리고 결과에 재배치하였고 이에 대한 공통의 경험을 기술하였다. 그리고 12개 주제를 Corbin과 Strauss(2014)가 제시한 패러다임 모델에 배열하여 참여자들의 교정시설 체험에 구조와 관계를 분석하여 기술하였다. 연구 자들은 자기낙인, 가족의 지지, 교정시설의 치료공동체화에 대한 논의를 하였고 이에 대한 교정정책 차원에서의 제언을 했다.
2019년 3월 27일 경기도 고양시 일산동구 장항동에 위치하는 일산호수공원에서 일광욕 중이던 외래거북 한 개체가 발견되었다. 발견된 개체의 배갑 색, 배갑 중앙의 무늬, 머리 옆면의 무늬, 등껍질의 형태를 근거로 서부비단거북 (Chrysemys picta bellii)임이 확인되었다. 근처에는 서부비단거북이 아닌 외래거북들이 일광욕하고 있었다. 본 논문에서는 국내 야생에서 처음으로 확인된 서부비단거북의 관찰 사례를 보고하였다. 다양한 외래거북들이 국내 생태계에서 지속적으로 발견되고 있으나 그 실태가 잘 알려지지 않고 있다. 따라서 외래생물의 효과적인 관리를 위해서는 지속적인 조사와 보고가 있어야 할 것이라 판단된다.
To enrich a country’s food culture, it is essential that residents understand and care about that culture. Although various efforts to globalize Korean food have been made outside Korea, the importance of understanding Koreans’ perception of and increasing interest in Korean food has been neglected. Thus, this study was conducted to identify the cognitive structures regarding Korean food among 30 Koreans living in metropolitan cities using in-depth laddering interviews based on the means-end chain theory. The most dominant cognitive structures toward Korean food were familiarity (attributes), ease of digestion and health (functional consequences), sense of responsibility and will to live (psychosocial consequences), and family affection and sense of achievement (values). In short, Koreans were found to consume Korean food to achieve perceived high-dimensional values rather than simply for its attributes or benefits. These findings have important implications for future strategies and policies aimed at increasing Korean food consumption by Koreans, as they suggest that underlying and symbolic values rather than the attributes of Korean food are more effective in promoting its consumption. Further studies on understanding perceptions and values using a larger Korean population are needed to preserve and further develop Korean food.
문학산은 인천광역시 남구의 문학동, 관교동, 학익동과 연수구의 선학동, 연수동, 청학동의 경계를 이루고 있는 산이다. 문학산은 미추홀 왕국의 발상지로서 유서 깊은 역사의 장소이다. 이러한 중요한 역사적 상징이자 생태계 교란의 완충지가 될 수 있는 도시내 녹지공간인 문학산을 보존하기 위해 연구를 실시하였다. 본 조사는 2015년 4월에서 9월 동안 총 5회의 조사를 실시하였다. 채집방법으로는 Sweeping, Beating, Sieving 등을 실시하였다. 채집한 개체들은 100% Ethanol에 넣어 보관, 실험실에서 현미경을 통해 생물의 동정을 실시하였다.
조사결과 총 14과 30속 36종이 확인되었다. 문학산에 서식하는 거미류 중 종 구성이 풍부한 과의 우점순위는 꼬마거미과 9종(25.0%), 접시거미과 5종(13.9%), 깡충거미과 4종(11.1%)의 순으로 나타났다. 생활형에 따른 종 구성은 정주성 19종(52.8%), 배회성 17종(47.2%)로 정주성 거미가 좀 더 우세하게 조사되었다.
본 연구는 중간 포식자인 거미의 분류, 생태학적인 조사를 통하여 도시내 녹지공간의 보존과 보호를 위한 기초자료로 활용하고자 하는데 있다. 그러므로 인근 도시내 녹지공간의 지속적인 조사가 필요할 것으로 사료된다.
본 연구에서는 국내에서 반추가축에게 주로 이용되는 조 사료원들의 영양소 함량 및 반추위 in situ 소실율을 평가 하기 위해서 수행하였다. 착유우 30두 이상의 50여개 농가 를 대상으로 조사한 결과를 토대로 선정한 12종류의 조사 료를 다양한 수입원을 고려하여 확보한 다음, 주요 영양소 성분과 미네랄을 분석하였다. 또한 그 중 5개의 조사료원 (티모시, 알팔파펠렛, 볏짚, 클라인글라스 및 톨페스큐)을 선정하여 반추위 cannula가 장착된 거세 한우 2두(평균체 중 526 ± 14 kg)를 이용하여 반추위 in-situ 소실율을 평가하 였다. 조사한 조사료원들의 영양소 함량은 한국표준사료성 분분석표에 비하여 전반적으로 낮은 함량을 나타내었다. 최종 반추위 in-situ 건물 소실율은 클라인글라스가 가장 높 게 나타났으며 티모시, 알팔파 펠렛, 톨 페스큐, 볏짚 순으 로 낮아졌다. 최종 조단백질 소실율은 알팔파 펠렛이 가장 높았으며 클라인 글라스, 티모시, 톨페스큐, 볏짚 순으로 높게 나타났다.
This study investigated the effects of the diet with Cucurbita moschata (CM), adlay seed (AS), and Cudrania tricuspidata leaf (CTL) mixed-powder on the visceral fat, fecal amount, and serum lipid profiles in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mixed ratio of CM, AS, and CTL as a functional food ingredient was 1:1:1 on a weight basis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (D12492; 45 kcal fat) for 5 weeks during the first phase. In the second phase, which lasted 5 weeks, the rats were divided into six experimental groups. The groups were: a high-fat diet group as a control during the 10 weeks of experimental period; and a high-fat diet with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30% mixed powder supplement group. The adipose tissue (RFP, EFP) weights were significantly decreased in the 20% and 30% mixed powder supplement groups than in the HFD group (p<0.05). The fecal weight produced by the 15%, 20%, and 30% mixed powder supplement groups was significantly increased during the second phase compared to the first phase (p<0.05). In terms of serum lipids, TG (triglyceride) content was decreased in the 10% and 15% mixed-powder supplement groups. The blood glucose levels were significantly decreased in all experimental diet supplement groups than in the HFD group (p<0.05). The findings show that the high supplement groups could improve the visceral fat accumulation, fecal amount, and blood glucose content compared to the HFD group.
The aim of this study was to classify Korean consumers based on their food-related lifestyle type, and to investigate the relationship between sushi consumption and food-related lifestyle type. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 300 Korean adults. The SPSS 18.0 program was used to analyze the samples. Data was analyzed by frequency, descriptive factor, reliability, cluster analysis, ANOVA, and chi-square test. A factor analysis extracted four factors comprising foodrelated lifestyle, which we named Health-seeking (factor 1), Taste-seeking (factor 2), Convenience-seeking (factor 3), and Economy-seeking (factor 4). According to a cluster analysis based on those four factors, consumers were classified into three clusters. Cluster 1 was the Taste and Health-seeking cluster, Cluster 2 was the Convenience-seeking cluster, and Cluster 3 was the Passive Eating Habits cluster. The results also indicated that the selection attributes of each cluster were significantly different in terms of perception, the global state of sushi, sushi preference, frequency, companions, place of sushi consumption, and preference for different sushi sub-ingredients. Based on these results, consumer characteristics in the sushi market are discussed.
The aim of this study was to develop a KDPS (Korean dietary pattern score) to assess dietary patterns and diet quality of Koreans from a food culture perspective. The KDPS was applied to dietary data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2007, and the validity and reliability of the KDPS were evaluated. The targets of the study included 2,278 Korean adults aged 20n89 years. The KDPS was developed using the sum of the scores of 13 components. Each component scored up to 10 points and there was a total of 130 points. The first seven components were for the KSMS (Korean-style meal score) and assessed the dietary balance based on the 3-Chup Bansang daily basic table setting. The components numbered 8 to 13 were for the FGS (food group score), which measured the degree of compliance with the six major food groups based on the Korean recommendation for one serving size of grains, meats, vegetables, fruits, milk, and oils. This KDPS was verified through content validity, concurrent-criterion validity, principal components analysis, and a reliability analysis. The results showed that content validity and construct validity were high. The KDPS developed in this study adhered to the Korean dietary pattern and a healthy diet intake. Furthermore, this study presented an integrated index by scoring the Korean style table setting in addition to evaluating meals from a nutrition perspective. This study can be extended to develop a score for assessing.
Ramyen and Korean noodles (guksu) are popular foods in Korea and around the world. Since 1998, rice consumption in Korea has gradually decreased, whereas consumption of noodles has continuously increased. The purpose of this study is to assess the consumption of ramyen and Korean noodles of Koreans, using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) of 2007. Korean adults (>20) were selected to examine the associations between noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake and health status. SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 9.1 were used for the data analysis. 10.3% of Korean adults consumed ramyen, and 15.4% consumed Korean noodles. The consumption of ramyen and Korean noodles were higher in men than in women, in lunch than in other meals, and in the lowest income quartile than the highest quartile. Ramyen and Korean noodle consumer groups consumed more grain products, seasonings, and oils than the nonconsumer group. The noodle group showed significantly lower systolic blood pressure than the non-consumer group. The noodle groups showed lower rates of hypertension and metabolic syndrome than the non-consumer group. From these results, we conclude that ramyen and Korean noodles may have positive health effects. More studies on the association between noodles and the health of Koreans and those in other countries should be done in the future.
색에 의한 맛의 연상과 관련된 선행 연구에 의하면 사람은 제한된 특정 색만을 맛과 연관지어 생각한다고 한다. 그리고 그 연관성은 음식물의 색에 대한 개인적인 경험의 종류와 정도에 의해 결정된다고 한다. 그리하여 본 연구에서는 특정 맛을 연상시키는 특정 색이 있을 것이라 가정하고, 색과 맛의 연상에 관한 특성을 파악하기로 하였다. 보다 객관적이고 일반적인 연구를 위해 "우리말 색 이름 사전"과 "표준 국어 대사전"을 활용하여 일반인들이 흔히 접하고 사용하는 24개의 색과 24개의 미각 형용사를 추출하였다. 그리고 색과 맛에 민감하면서도 그 어휘를 모두 구사할 수 있는 20명의 대학생을 대상으로 각각의 24개의 색 샘플을 보여준 후, 각각의 24가지의 미각형용사가 얼마나 느껴지는지 7점 척도로 측정하였다. 그렇게 수집된 정보는 다차원 척도법을 이용하여 분석하였다. 실험 결과, 색과 미각의 5가지 분명한 관계가 발견되었다. 이 연구 결과를 통해 미각을 연상시키는 색은 한정되어 있다는 것을 알 수 있고, 또 한정된 색들도 한정된 미각만을 연상시킨다는 것뿐만 아니라 그것은 성별에 따라 다를 수 있음을 도출해낼 수 있다. 본 연구는 특정 색과 특정 미각의 연관성뿐 아니라 다른 특정 색들과의 관계도 나타내므로 효과적인 식품 패키지 디자인, 광고 등에 활용될 수 있을 것이다.
In this paper, we present a temporal association rule based on item time intervals. A temporal association rule is an association rule that holds specific time intervals. If we consider itemset in the frequently purchased period, we can discover more sign
In this paper, we present a temporal association rules based on item time intervals. A temporal association rules is an association rule that holds specific time intervals. If we consider itemset in the frequently purchased period, we can discovery more significant itemset satisfying minimum support. Because the previous study did not consider the time interval between purchased item, it could find itemset that did not satisfy the minimum support in case some item was frequently purchased in a specific period and rarely or not purchased in other period. Our approach use interval support which is counted by period with support and confidence in the association rule to discovery large itemset.