This study was conducted to identify changes of insect compositions and diversity after construction of an onshore wind farm. We investigated insect fauna and compositions between a grassland deforested by the construction and a forest located at Yeongdeok and Yeongyang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. Insects were collected using a sweeping net and light trap. A total of 11 orders, 50 families, and 246 species, and 1,076 individuals were collected at study sites. By taxonomic group, Lepidoptera species were the most frequently found with 141 species, 417 individuals (38.8%), followed by Hymenoptera (20.6%), Hemiptera (16.2%), and Orthoptera (12.3%). There were also significant differences in insect species and community compositions between sites. Creating open-field deforested forests are beneficial for some insect groups such as Hymenoptera and Orthoptera. Our results suggest that deforesting by the construction of an onshore wind farm might affect the composition and diversity of insects. Results of this study provide basic data for research on onshore wind farms.
For observation training of firing weapons, military operates Joint Fire Training Simulator system. During the acceptance test for deployment of weapon system, it occurred that could increase training fatigue in mock observation device. This study describes in cause analysis and improvement activities to solve it. Due to the characteristics of observing training with a small image panel through the ocular, image noise and skipping are factors that cause fatigue to training. It was analyzed that the noise of image was caused by HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) splitter and design change was promoted. In addition, it was determined that the image skip occurred due to the software filter for stabilizing the image of mock observation device. It was solved by improving the calculation error of accumulating data. Securing the quality of observation images is expected to reduce training fatigue and contribute to improving the training environment.
Various optical devices are utilized to fire artillery in Korean Army. To transport and store the optical devices, some cases are made up for a set. The covers of cases are made of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic(GFRP) and resin. Because of materials of case, it has a disadvantage in productivity for manufacturing covers and assembling components. In this study, ABS resin is presented for alternative and verify possibility through FEM analysis. Comparing with GFRP, max stress-ratio of ABS is decreased 19.6% for bottom, 8.2% for side and 25.4% for edge. Also each strain is changed 17.3%, 180.3% and 17.7%. According to the research results, ABS resin is considered possible for alternative. And the number of components is decreased for around 73.8%.
In this study, the adsorption/desorption performance of toluene was evaluated using zeolite adsorbent to replace activated carbon with one-off and ignition characteristics. For the proper operation of the VOCs adsorption/desorption and condensate recovery steps, the operating range by various adsorption/desorption temperatures was selected. The adsorbent is a bead-type zeolite, which was put into an adsorption tower of 10 LPM scale. As a result, it was demonstrated that 0.079 mg/g was adsorbed at a low temperature (20°C) during adsorption. In the case of desorption, it was found that VOCs adsorbed on the adsorbent were completely recovered after the desorption operation at 220°C for about 160 minutes. However, in the heating rate step for desorption, it was not possible to maintain an appropriate heating rate by filling the tower with zeolite. This was complemented by applying a copper plate with high thermal conductivity, and it was shown that the time was shortened by about 10 minutes or more. When VOCs are emitted at high concentrations during the desorption process, they can be reused as energy resources through low-temperature maintenance, and a condensation method was attempted. The efficiency of condensing chiller (cooler) with temperature control and liquid nitrogen condensing was compared. It was found that the chiller condensing efficiency increased as the temperature decreased. In the case of liquid nitrogen condensation, the liquid nitrogen temperature was maintained at -196°C, showing a stable efficiency of 90%.
기계 장비의 진동 데이터는 필연적으로 노이즈를 포함하고 있다. 이러한 노이즈는 기계 장비의 유지보수를 진행하는데 악영향 을 끼친다. 그에 따라 데이터의 노이즈를 얼마나 효과적으로 제거해주냐에 따라 학습 모델의 성능을 좌우한다. 본 논문에서는 시계열 데 이터를 전처리 함에 있어 특성추출 과정을 포함하지 않는 Denoising Auto Encoder 기법을 활용하여 데이터의 노이즈를 제거했다. 또한 기계 신호 처리에 널리 사용되는 Wavelet Transform과 성능 비교를 진행했다. 성능비교는 고장 탐지율을 계산하여 진행했으며 보다 정확한 비교 를 위해 분류 성능 평가기준 중 하나인 F-1 Score를 계산하여 성능 비교를 진행했다. 고장을 탐지하는 과정에서는 One-Class SVM 기법을 활용하여 고장 데이터를 탐지했다. 성능 비교 결과 고장 진단율과 오차율 측면에서 Denoising Auto Encoder 기법이 Wavelet Transform 기법 에 비해 보다 좋은 성능을 나타냈다.
High-pressure membrane system like nanofiltration(NF) and reverse osmosis(RO) was investigated as a part of water treatment processes to produce high quality potable water with low organic matter concentration through membrane module tests and design simulation. River water and sand filtration permeate in Busan D water treatment plant were selected as feed water, and NE4040-90 and RE4040-Fen(Toray Chemical Korea) were used as NF and RO membranes, respectively. Total organic carbon(TOC) concentrations of NF and RO permeates were mostly below 0.5 mg/l and the average TOC removal rates of NF and RO membranes were 93.99% and 94.28%, respectively, which means NF used in this study is competitive with RO in terms of organic matter removal ability. Different from ions rejection tendency, the TOC removal rate increases at higher recovery rates, which is because the portion of higher molecular weight materials in the concentrated raw water with increasing recovery rate increases. Discharge of NF/RO concentrates to rivers may not be acceptable because the increased TDS concentration of the concentrates can harm the river eco-system. Thus, the idea of using NF/RO concentrate as the raw water for industrial water production was introduced. The design simulation results with feed water and membranes used in this work reveal that the raw water guideline can be satisfied if the recovery rate of NF/RO system is designed below 80%.
풀명나방과의 Patania brevipennis (Inoue, 1982); Herpetogramma tominagai Yamanaka, 2003; Aethaloessa calidalis (Guenée, 1854); Anania subfumalis (Munroe et Mutuura, 1971) 등 4종을 국내 처음으로 기록한다. Aethaloessa속은 국내에서 처음으로 기록된다. 여기 기록한 종의 외형과 생식기 사진을 제공한다. 필요한 경우, 해당 종의 아종 관계와 국내 발생 상황에 대해 논한다.
본 연구에서는 간벌 이후 지표 절지동물 군집의 장기적인 변화를 확인하기 위해, 잣나무조림지에서 간벌 전후에 조사되었던 과거 지표 절지동물 군집 자료와 간벌처리 10년 후인 2018년에 채집한 군집 자료를 비교하였다. 조사지역에서는 간벌 이후 10년이 지났으나 여전히 간벌처리에 따른 서식 환경 (유기물 깊이, 지표면 식생 피도, 울폐도)의 차이가 나타났다. 2018년 조사된 절지동물 군집은 곤충강 파리목, 벌목, 딱정벌레목, 톡토기강 톡토기목, 거미강 거미목 순으로 우점하였고, 간벌처리 조건 중 강도간벌에서는 거미강 거미목, 곤충강 딱정벌레목과 벌목이, 약도간벌에 서 톡토기강 톡토기목과 곤충강 파리목이 가장 많이 나타났다. 간벌 직후인 2008년에 비해 2018년 곤충강 딱정벌레목과 파리목, 벌목, 갑각강 등각목의 개체수는 감소하였고, 곤충강 노린재목과 메뚜기목의 개체수는 증가하였다. 2018년의 지표 절지동물 군집은 간벌 이전인 2006년 군집에 비해, 간벌 직후인 2008년 군집과 유사한 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구는 지표 절지동물 군집의 변화를 조사지역 및 간벌처리 조건에 따라 나타내어, 차후 산림 내 간벌 계획 작성 또는 간벌을 이용한 산림 자원 관리에 대한 기초 자료를 제공한다. 이후로 다양한 간벌처리지 내 조사 등이 수반된 추가 연구가 수행된다면, 간벌로 인한 산림 절지동물 군집 변화를 더욱 명확하게 규명할 수 있을 것이다.
Fast service access involves keeping track of the location of mobile users, while they are moving around the mobile network for a satisfactory level of QoS (Quality of Service) in a cost-effective manner. The location databases are used to keep track of Mobile Terminals (MT) so that incoming calls can be directed to requested mobile terminals at all times. MT reporting cell system used in location management is to designate each cell in the network as a reporting cell or a non-reporting cell. Determination of an optimal number of reporting cells (or reporting cell configuration) for a given network is reporting cell planning (RCP) problem. This is a difficult combinatorial optimization problem which has an exponential complexity. We can see that a cell in a network is either a reporting cell or a non-reporting cell. Hence, for a given network with N cells, the number of possible solutions is . We propose a biogeography based optimization (BBO) for design of mobile station location management system in wireless communication network. The number and locations of reporting cells should be determined to balance the registration for location update and paging operations for search the mobile stations to minimize the cost of system. Experimental results show that our proposed BBO is a fairly effective and competitive approach with respect to solution quality for optimally designing location management system because BBO is suitable for combinatorial optimization and multi-functional problems.
CKD 추출액은 시멘트공정에서 발생한 폐기물인 CKD를 시멘트 원료로 재사용하기 위해 공정 방해물질로 작용하는 KCl을 추출한 폐수이며, 폐수처리시설 증설 등의 문제로 추출액 무방류 및 이를 재이용하고자 하였다. 이온교환법을 적용하여 KCl을 제거한 결과, 이온교환 후 추출액의 pH는 12.7 에서 pH 2 미만으로 감소하였으며 양이온교환수지의 H+가 이온교환을 거쳐 추출액에 용해되었음을 확인하였다. 이온교환의 선택성에 의해 Ca2+, K+ 순서로 제거되었으며, K+ 이온을 제거하기 위해 접촉시 간의 증가가 필요함을 판단하였다. 이온교환수지와 직접접촉시간이 약 6배 높은 접촉시간을 갖는 회분 식장치에서 연속흐름식장치 대비 4배 높은 K+ 제거 효율을, 7배 높은 Cl- 제거 효율을 확인하였다. 양이온교환수지의 H+가 음이온교환수지의 OH- 대비 1.2배 빠른 교환속도를 가짐을 추출액 pH 변화를 통해 확인하였다.
This study is carried out on the structural improvement of military mobile kitchen trailer for the betterment of fighting power by serving meals to solider in right time. To recognize the real problems of field kitchen trailer, the heat transfers from burner for soup cooker were compared with each other. By the test, the necessity of improvement was deduced. To examine the cause of cooking time, it was determined by the characteristic diagram. Based on the cause, there are two types of kitchen trailer's burner structures. To verify the improved structures, it was carried out for the performance test. As the results, the time did not become longer and the temperature rising rate per minute increased. This study is expected to be devoted to the future improvement of military mobile kitchen trailer.
A wireless sensor network is emerging technology and intelligent wireless communication paradigm that is dynamically aware of its surrounding environment. It is also able to respond to it in order to achieve reliable and efficient communication. The dynamical cognition capability and environmental adaptability rely on organizing dynamical networks effectively. However, optimally clustering the cognitive wireless sensor networks is an NP-complete problem.
The objective of this paper is to develop an optimal sensor network design for maximizing the performance. This proposed Ranking Artificial Bee Colony (RABC) is developed based on Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) with ranking strategy. The ranking strategy can make the much better solutions by combining the best solutions so far and add these solutions in the solution population when applying ABC. RABC is designed to adapt to topological changes to any network graph in a time. We can minimize the total energy dissipation of sensors to prolong the lifetime of a network to balance the energy consumption of all nodes with robust optimal solution. Simulation results show that the performance of our proposed RABC is better than those of previous methods (LEACH, LEACH-C, and etc.) in wireless sensor networks. Our proposed method is the best for the 100 node-network example when the Sink node is centrally located.
본 연구에서는 무전해도금법을 이용한 Pd coating 기술을 활용하여 폐수처리를 위한 전기분해 공정에 anode로의 적용을 목적으로 Ti-mesh 기반 전극을 제조하였다. 제조된 Pd/Ti-mesh 전극은 염색염료인 RO16을 대표로 그 제거성능을 평가하였으며, 전극 제조조건을 다르게 하여 내구성 및 성능을 극대화한 결과 coating 조건은 성능에 크게 영향을 미치지 않았지만, Pd coating 후 열처리 공정의 경우 성능에 크게 영향을 미쳤으며, 내구성 역시 증진됨을 확인하였다. 또한 Ir, Ru, Ta을 복합화하여 성능 및 내구성을 극대화하고자 하였으나, coating법의 한계로 layer의 thickness가 증가함에 따라 저항이 커졌으며, 이에 따라 성능이 감소함을 확인하였다.
우리는 오리온 분자운 복합체의 북부 필라멘트(이하 NF)에 대하여 12CO (J=1-0) 분자선의 자료를 이용하여 은하 평면이 분자의 운동과 운동학에 미치는 영향을 연구하였다. 6 m 서울대학교 전파망원경(Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory, SRAO)을 이용하여 2arcmin 공간분해능으로 은하면으로부터 먼 순서로 NF1, NF2, NF3 세 곳을 총 270시간 동안 관측된 자료를 사용하였다. 은하면과 OMC NF는 12CO (J=2-1) 경우 3% 밀도에서, 티끌의 경우 9% 밝기 수준에서 자기장을 따라 서로 연결되어 있었다. 12CO (J=1-0), 12CO (J=2-1), 성간 티끌 관측결과를 비교해본 결과, 세 경우 모두 NF3에서는 고루 분포했지만, NF1과 NF2에서는 비교적 밀도가 높은 특정 영역에서만 함께 나타났다. NF는 단일 구조를 보였으며, NF1에서는 부분 수축 운동을, NF2에서는 하단에서 회전 운동이 나타났고, NF3에서는 유일하게 명확히 자기장에 연관된 나선형 회전이 보였다. 위치-속도 분석 결과, 12CO (J=1-0)를 비롯한 물질들은 NF2와 NF3을 따라 은하면을 향하여 흐를 가능성이 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 은하면을 향하여 물질이 흐르는 명백한 원인을 이번 연구결과에서 볼 수 없었지만 추후의 더 정교한 관측결과가 NF1과 NF2 상단부의 회전 운동을 확인 할 수 있겠다.
K-means algorithm is one of the most popular and widely used clustering method because it is easy to implement and very efficient. However, this method has the limitation to be used with fixed number of clusters because of only considering the intra-cluster distance to evaluate the data clustering solutions. Silhouette is useful and stable valid index to decide the data clustering solution with number of clusters to consider the intra and inter cluster distance for unsupervised data. However, this valid index has high computational burden because of considering quality measure for each data object. The objective of this paper is to propose the fast and simple speed-up method to overcome this limitation to use silhouette for the effective large-scale data clustering. In the first step, the proposed method calculates and saves the distance for each data once. In the second step, this distance matrix is used to calculate the relative distance rate (Vｊ) of each data j and this rate is used to choose the suitable number of clusters without much computation time. In the third step, the proposed efficient heuristic algorithm (Group search optimization, GSO, in this paper) can search the global optimum with saving computational capacity with good initial solutions using Vｊ probabilistically for the data clustering. The performance of our proposed method is validated to save significantly computation time against the original silhouette only using Ruspini, Iris, Wine and Breast cancer in UCI machine learning repository datasets by experiment and analysis. Especially, the performance of our proposed method is much better than previous method for the larger size of data.