On April 29, 2021 (1st), June 2 (2nd), and August 17 (3rd), we surveyed benthic macroinvertebrates fauna at Muljangori-oreum wetland in Bonggae-dong, Jeju Island, Korea. Muljangori-oreum wetland was divided into four areas. The survey was conducted in three accessible areas (areas 1-3). As a result of habitat environment analysis, the average monthly temperature from 2017 to 2021 was the highest in July and August and the lowest in December and February. This pattern was repeated. As a result of analyzing changes in vegetation and water surface area through satellite images, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased from February to July and decreased after July. Normalized difference water index (NDWI) was analyzed to show an inverse relationship. A total of 21 species from 13 families were identified in the qualitative survey and a total of 412 individuals of 24 species from 15 families were identified in the quantitative survey. A total of 26 species from 17 families, 8 orders, 3 classes, and 2 phyla of benthic macroinvertebrates were identified. The dominant species was Chronomidae spp. with 132 individuals (32.04%). Noterus japonicus was a subdominant species with 71 individuals (17.23%). As a result of comparative analysis of species identified in this study and the literature, it was confirmed that species diversity was high for Coleoptera and Odonata. Main functional feeding groups (FFGs) were found to be predators. Habitat orientation groups (HOGs) were found to be swimmers. In OHC (Odonata, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera) group, 17 species (73.91%) in 2021, 23 species (79.31%) in 2016, 26 species (86.67%) in 2018, and 19 species (79.17%) in 2019 were identified. Cybister japonicus, an endangered species II, was confirmed to inhabit Muljangori-oreum wetland in the literature. Ten individuals (2.43%) were also confirmed to inhabit Muljangori-oreum wetland in 2021. Therefore, continuous management and habitat protection are required to maintain the habitat environment of C. japonicus in Muljangori-oreum wetland.
Phytoplankton communities, with emphasis on picoplankton and nanoplankton, were investigated in Gamak Bay, South Korea, where freshwater input and coastal water intrusion shape ecosystem functions. Shellfish farms and fish farms are located in the inner bay and outer bay, respectively, and tides translocate uneaten food and urine production from aquaculture farms toward the inner bay. Water masses were distinctly different based on a significantly different density between the surface and bottom layer and among three water masses, including the inner bay, outer bay, and Yeosu Harbor. Phytoplankton communities were quantified using flow cytometry and size-fractionated chlorophyll-a (chl-a) was measured. Salinity was a principal variable separating phytoplankton communities between the surface and bottom layer, whereas Si(OH)4 controlled the communities in the inner bay, and NH4 + and PO4 3- governed the outer bay communities. While phycocyanin-containing (PC) cyanobacteria dominated in the outer bay, phycoerythrin-containing (PE) cyanobacteria dominance occurred with cryptophyte dominance, indicating that nutrients affected the distribution of pico- and nanoplankton and that cryptophytes potentially relied on a mixotrophic mode by feeding on PE cyanobacteria. Interestingly, picoeukaryotes and eukaryotes larger than 10 μm were mostly responsible for the ecological niche in the western region of the bay. Given that chl-a levels have historically declined, our study highlights the potential importance of increased small phytoplankton in Gamak Bay. Particularly, we urge an examination of the ecological role of small phytoplankton in the food supply of cultivated marine organisms.
The germination characteristics of the resting cysts of Pheopolykrikos hartmannii collected from the southern coastal sediments of Korea were studied at different temperature conditions, and the morphology and phylogeny of the germlings were examined. The resting cysts of Ph. hartmannii were round and characterized by a red accumulation body and many arrow-like spines and could germinate at temperature of 10 to 30°C. High germination rates (>90%) were observed at 15 and 20°C, indicating that the resting cysts could act as seed populations for the bloom initiation of Ph. hartmannii in Korean coastal waters in early summer or early fall. The morphology of the germlings was generally consistent with the previous description, and an apical groove characterized by a fully enclosed loop was observed. Phylogenetic analysis based on large SubUnit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences revealed that the germlings shared an identical sequence with the Korean and American isolates of Ph. hartmannii and was a sister clade of Polykrikos species.
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the plasticizers used in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. It is known to be easily released into the environment. In this study, we investigated effects of DEHP on growth, metabolic pathway, and virulence gene expression in soil-borne bacterial plant pathogen, Pectobacterium carotovorum SCC1 using in vitro assays. As a result, DEHP at 20 μg mL-1 did not affect the growth, cell membrane permeability, or ATPase activity of P. carotovorum SCC1. However, it decreased succinyl-CoA synthase (SCS) activity in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Relative expression levels of virulence genes encoding pectate lyase and pectin were differentially influenced by DEHP treatment. These results suggest that biological characteristics of P. carotovorum might be influenced by DEHP in soil.
Suncheon Bay Ecological Park, possessing abundant fisheries and biological diversity, was registered as a Ramsar wetland in Korea. Approximately 300 bacterial strains were isolated from the Suncheon Bay in a comprehensive study of indigenous prokaryotic species conducted during 2019-2020 in South Korea. A total of 12 bacterial strains were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, demonstrating >98.7% sequence similarity with validly published species. These species were determined to be unrecorded bacterial species in Korea. A total of six strains were isolated from brackish water and Phragmites communis Trin (reed) species. These unrecorded species were phylogenetically diverse and belonged to three classes, six orders, and ten genera. Regarding the genus and class levels, the previously unrecorded species belonged to Jiella, Martelella, Rhizobium, Paracoccus, Rhodovulum, and Altererythrobacter of the class Alphaproteobacteria; Mycolicibacterium, Demequina, and Microbacterium of the class Actinobacteria; Confluentibacter of the class Flavobacteria. The twelve species were further characterized by gram staining, colony and cell morphology, biochemical properties, and phylogenetic position.
Barnea manilensis is a bivalve which bores soft rocks, such as, limestone or mudstone in the low intertidal zone. They make burrows which have narrow entrances and wide interiors and live in these burrows for a lifetime. In this study, the morphology and the microstructure of the valve of rock-boring clam B. manilensis were observed using a stereoscopic microscope and FE-SEM, respectively. The chemical composition of specific part of the valve was assessed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. 3D modeling and structural dynamic analysis were used to simulate the boring behavior of B. manilensis. Microscopy results showed that the valve was asymmetric with plow-like spikes which were located on the anterior surface of the valve and were distributed in a specific direction. The anterior parts of the valve were thicker than the posterior parts. EDS results indicated that the valve mainly consisted of calcium carbonate, while metal elements, such as, Al, Si, Mn, Fe, and Mg were detected on the outer surface of the anterior spikes. It was assumed that the metal elements increased the strength of the valve, thus helping the B. manilensis to bore sediment. The simulation showed that spikes located on the anterior part of the valve received a load at all angles. It was suggested that the anterior part of the shell received the load while drilling rocks. The boring mechanism using the amorphous valve of B. manilensis is expected to be used as basic data to devise an efficient drilling mechanism.
The mass-rearing system for Neodryinus typhlocybae as a biological control agent of Metcalfa pruinosa was established. Depending on the density of host nymphs and plants, the average number of cocoons produced by the parasitoids was 5-8 and 70-150 cocoons per leaf and sapling of mulberry, respectively. There is a significant difference in cocoon length between females (6.10-6.46 mm) and males (4.20-4.62 mm). Sex determination of cocoons before emergence will be helpful for efficiently releasing this parasitoid in fields. The parasitic rate of N. typhlocybae at the semi-field condition was on average 13-17%. The release number of this parasitoid did not affect parasitism. Nevertheless, the population growth rate of M. pruinosa was reduced by increasing the release number of N. typhlocybae. The parasitoid offspring’s sex and bivoltine were influenced by the host age. On young host nymphs, the bivoltine portion of parasitoid increased. When parasitized on 4th or 5th nymphs, the offspring’s female ratio of N. typhlocybae increased. This result may be useful for potentially controlling mass rearing production of parasitoid.
Bacterial phytopathogen Pectobacterium causes soft rot disease in several vegetable crops globally, resulting in heavy agricultural losses at both the pre and postharvest stages. The present work was carried out to screen Kimchi cabbage genetic resources conserved at the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Rural Development Administration, Korea, for resistance against the soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum KACC 21701 over a period of three years (from 2020 to 2022). Infection of the phytopathogen was carried out at four-leaf stage and for each accession, twenty-five plants per germplasm were infected with KACC 21701. Kimchi cabbage cultivars Wangmatbaechu, Seoulbaechu, and CR Kiyoshi were used as control. Seven-days post-infection, the Disease Index (DI) values were manually recorded from zero to four, zero matched perfectly heathy plants and four completely dead plants. The 682 accessions of Kimchi cabbage exhibited varying degrees of disease resistance to KACC 21701 and thirty accessions, exhibiting a DI≤2, were considered for replication studies. During the replication studies, four landrace germplasms (IT102883, IT120036, IT120044, and IT120048) and one cultivar (IT187919) were confirmed to be moderately susceptible to KACC 21701. Results of the preliminary screening as well as replication studies were documented for the all the 682 germplasms. Addition of such information to the passport data of stored germplasms might serve as potential bio-resource for future breeders and researchers to develop resistant varieties or study the mechanisms involved in resistance of plants to such phytopathogen.
A total of 31 bacterial strains were isolated from the Geum River basin in the Republic of Korea during our investigation of indigenous prokaryotic species. The isolated bacterial strains had high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>98.7%) with those of validly published bacterial species, which have not been reported in Republic of Korea. The 31 bacterial strains were phylogenetically diverse and assigned to 4 phyla, 8 classes, 18 orders, 21 families, and 27 genera. At the genus level, the unreported species were affiliated with Kineococcus, Pedococcus, Rhodoluna, Salinibacterium, Rhodoluna, Arthrobacter, Williamsia, Nakamurella, Nocardioides of the class Actinobacteria, Patulibacter of the class Thermoleophilia, Pontibacter, Hymenobacter of the class Cytophagia, Flavobacterium of the class Flavobacteriia, Geomicrobium of the class Bacilli, Brevundimonas, Gellertiella, Rhizobium, Paracoccus, Taonella, Sphingomonas of the class Alphaproteobacteria, Burkholderia, Polaromonas, Hydrogenophaga, Chitinilyticum, Azospira, Zoogloea of the class Betaproteobacteria, and Pseudomonas of the class Gammaproteobacteria. The unreported bacterial species were further characterized by examining their morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties. The detailed descriptions of the 31 bacterial strains were provided.
To understand functional changes of forest ecosystems due to climate change, correlation between decomposition rate of leaf litter, an important function of forest ecosystems, and microclimatic factors was analyzed. After 48 months elapsed, percent remaining weight of Quercus mongolica leaf litter was 27.1% in the east aspect and 37.0% in the west aspects. Decay constant of Q. mongolica leaf litter was 0.33 in the east aspect and 0.25 in the west aspect after 48 months elapsed. Initial C/N ratio of Q. mongolica leaf litter was 38.5. After 48 months elapsed, C/N ratio of decomposing Q. mongolica leaf litter decreased to 13.43 in the east aspect and 16.72 in the west aspect. Average air temperature and soil temperature during the investigation period of the research site were 8.2±9.0 and 9.1±9.3 in the east and 8.5±7.4 and 9.3±7.3°C in the west aspect, respectively, with the west aspect showing higher air and soil temperatures. Soil moisture showed no significant difference between east and west aspects (average soil moisture: 19.4±11.0% vs. 20.5±5.7%). However, as a result of analyzing the correlation between decomposition rate and microclimatic factors, it was found that the decomposition rate and soil moisture has a positive correlation (r=0.426) in the east aspect but not in the west aspect. Our study shows that the correlation between decomposition rate and microclimatic factors can be significantly different depending on the direction of the aspect.
In recent years, macroalgal bloom occurs frequently in coastal oceans worldwide. It might be attributed to accelerating climate change. “Green tide” events caused by proliferation of green macroalgae (Ulva spp.) not only damage the local economy, but also harm coastal environments. These nuisance events have become common across several coastal regions of continents. In Korea, green tide incidences are readily seen throughout the year along the coastlines of Jeju Island, particularly the northeastern coast, since the 2000s. Ulva species are notorious to be difficult for morphology-based species identification due to their high degrees of phenotypic plasticity. In this study, to investigate temporal variation in Ulva community structure on Jeju Island between 2015 and 2020, chloroplast barcode tuf A gene was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for 152 specimens from 24 sites. We found that Ulva ohnoi and Ulva pertusa known to be originated from subtropical regions were the most predominant all year round, suggesting that these two species contributed the most to local green tides in this region. While U. pertusa was relatively stable in frequency during 2015 to 2020, U. ohnoi increased 16% in frequency in 2020 (36.84%), which might be associated with rising sea surface temperature from which U. ohnoi could benefit. Two species (Ulva flexuosa, Ulva procera) of origins of Europe should be continuously monitored. The findings of this study provide valuable information and molecular genetic data of genus Ulva occurring in southern coasts of Korea, which will help mitigate negative influences of green tide events on Korea coast.
During a survey of free-living marine nematodes of Korea, two new marine desmoscolecid nematodes belonging to subgenus Quadricoma Filipjev, 1922 were discovered. Tricoma (Q.) jejuensis sp. nov. and T. (Q.) unipapillata sp. nov. are described based on specimens obtained from washings of coarse sediments from eastern and southern coasts of Korea. Tricoma (Q.) jejuensis sp. nov. is characterized by having 33 quadricomoid body rings and inversion at main ring 23, pentagonal head with truncated anterior end, a pair of ocelli situated at main ring 6, somatic setae comprising of 8 pairs of subdorsal setae and 12 pairs of subventral setae, and relatively short spicules (42-46 μm long). Tricoma (Q.) unipapillata sp. nov. is characterized by 44 quadricomoid body rings and inversion at main ring 32, somatic setae comprising of 7 pairs of subdorsal setae and 10 pairs of subventral setae, globular head truncated anterior end, relatively short and stumpy cephalic setae with cuticular flange, one single naked ventral median genital papillae situated on main ring 20, and spicules with a proximally marked capitulum. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations of these two new species are provided in this study.
A strain of Amphidinium species was established from samples collected from the intertidal zone of a sandy beach of Jeju Island, Korea. Its cells were 13.0-15.0 μm in length and 10.0-13.0 μm in width. Its cell shape was round or oval and dorsoventrally flat. A pyrenoid was located in the center of the cell and a nucleus was posteriorly located. Its epicone was small and left-deflecting. Its cingulum had V-shape on the ventral side, forming a ventral ridge and extending to the sulcus. Polygonal amphiesmal vesicles and ring-shaped body scales not described previous were observed on the surface of the cell. Its morphological features were consistent with those of previously described Amphidinium fijiense. Phylogeny based on ITS region and LSU rDNA sequences revealed that this Amphidinium isolate was clearly clustered with other A. fijiense strains, but separated from other Amphidinium species. These results indicate that this Amphidinium isolate is A. fijiense. This study reports its presence for the first time in the intertidal zone of a sandy beach of Jeju Island, Korea.
For the assessment of the benthic community health of Jinhae Bay using the Benthic Pollution Index, macrobenthic fauna samples were seasonally collected from 23 different sites between February, 2011 and November, 2012. The macrobenthic community health status was classified as “Poor” or “Very Poor” except for the bay mouth part of Jinhae Bay at the northern part of Geoje Island. A large proportion of functional Group IV and even azoic conditions appeared due to summer hypoxia at sites in sheltered regions of Jinhae Bay. Some of the dominant species recruited after summer hypoxia were Paraprionospio patiens, Sigambra bassi, and Theora fragilis belong to typical opportunistic species. By comparing the BPI values of the macrobenthic communities from other special management areas of Korea, Jinhae Bay was considered to have the lowest condition that was heavily polluted among special management areas.
The process of biological invasion is led by the dynamics of a population as a demographic and evolutionary unit. Spatial structure can affect the population dynamics, and it is worth being considered in research on biological invasion which is always accompanied by dispersal. Metapopulation theory is a representative approach to spatially structured populations, which is chiefly applied in the field of ecology and evolutionary biology despite the controversy about its definition. In this study, metapopulation was considered as a spatially structured population that includes at least one subpopulation with significant extinction probability. The early phase of the invasion is suitable to be analyzed in aspects of the metapopulation concept because the introduced population usually has a high extinction probability, and their ecological·genetic traits determining the invasiveness can be affected by the metapopulation structure. Although it is important in the explanation of the prediction of the invasion probability, the metapopulation concept is rarely used in ecological research about biological invasion in Korea. It is expected that applying the metapopulation theory can supply a more detailed investigation of the invasion process at the population level, which is relatively inadequate in Korea. In this study, a framework dividing the invasive metapopulation into long- and middle-distance scales by the relative distance of movement to the natural dispersal range of species is proposed to easily analyze the effect of a metapopulation in real cases. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying invasions and improved prediction of future invasion risk are expected with the metapopulation concept and this framework.
Perilla plant is a special crop that is used as oilseed and food in Korea. Root lesion nematodes have caused great damage to perilla plants, so for effective management of root lesion nematodes, it is necessary to understand their ecology in perilla. In this study, we investigated the effect of temperature in the development of Pratylenchus penetrans (Pp) and Pratylenchus vulnus (Pv) when the nematodes infected the perilla plant. To estimate the effect of temperature, we assessed the reproduction factor (RF); final population/initial population (Pf/Pi) of these two nematode species. We used perilla plants as inoculated hosts and investigated the density of nematodes at 10 weeks after inoculation. As a result, the RF of Pp was highest at 20°C (0.41 (1st test), 2.2 (2nd test)) followed by 25, 30, and 15°C. The RF of Pv was highest at 30°C (9.84 (1st test), 31.39 (2nd test)), followed by 25, 20, and 15°C. Comparing the RF by temperature between Pp and Pv, Pv was higher than Pp at all temperatures used in the test. This study showed the optimal development temperature of Pp was 20-25°C and Pv was 30°C, respectively.
The temperature-dependent development of Poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus was studied at eight constant temperatures (15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, and 32.5±1°C), 65±5% RH and photoperiod of 16L : 8D conditions. The developmental stages were divided into egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, pre-pupa, pupa, and adult. The total developmental time in the immature stage was 40.4 days at 15.0°C and 11.6 days at 30.0°C, and it decreased with increasing temperature. The lowest temperature of the whole immature period was 10.7°C, and the cumulative temperature to complete the entire immature period was 217.4 degree days. The optimal development temperature (Topt) for the whole immature stage was estimated to be in the range of 30.51-31.21°C. Topt for each immature stage was 31.64-35.47°C at egg, 30.02-33.08°C at 1st instar, 29.16- 34.43°C at 2nd instar, 27.63-29.21°C at pre-pupa, and 29.81-30.12°C at pupa. In the analysis of the six non-linear models, Logan 6 model was the most appropriate as Zi (Weighting Factors) was 0.18.
Various social and environmental problems have recently emerged due to global climate change. In South Korea, coniferous forests in the highlands are decreasing due to climate change whereas the distribution of subtropical species is gradually increasing. This study aims to respond to changes in the distribution of forest species in South Korea due to climate change. This study predicts changes in future suitable areas for Pinus koraiensis, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa cultivated as timber species based on climate, topography, and environment. Appearance coordinates were collected only for natural forests in consideration of climate suitability in the National Forest Inventory. Future climate data used the SSP scenario by KMA. Species distribution models were ensembled to predict future suitable habitat areas for the base year (2000-2019), near future (2041-2060), and distant future (2081-2100). In the baseline period, the highly suitable habitat for Pinus koraiensis accounted for approximately 13.87% of the country. However, in the distant future (2081- 2100), it decreased to approximately 0.11% under SSP5-8.5. For Cryptomeria japonica, the habitat for the base year was approximately 7.08%. It increased to approximately 18.21% under SSP5-8.5 in the distant future. In the case of Chamaecyparis obtusa, the habitat for the base year was approximately 19.32%. It increased to approximately 90.93% under SSP5-8.5 in the distant future. Pinus koraiensis, which had been planted nationwide, gradually moved north due to climate change with suitable habitats in South Korea decreased significantly. After the near future, Pinus koraiensis was not suitable for the afforestation as timber species in South Korea. Chamaecyparis obtusa can be replaced in most areas. In the case of Cryptomeria japonica, it was assessed that it could replace part of the south and central region.
Three free-living marine nematodes (Desmoscolex (Desmoscolex) max Timm, 1970, Daptonema longiapophysis Huang and Zhang, 2010, and Pseudosteineria sinica Huang and Li, 2010) were newly recorded in Korea. Desmoscolex (D.) max was found from subtidal coarse sediment around Wangdolcho in the East Sea. It was characterized by the presence of untypical setae arrangement, obviously elongated triangle-shaped head, long hairy cephalic setae, a long naked tail spinneret, and the absence of peduncle at the base of somatic setae. Daptonema longiapophysis was obtained from intertidal sandy sediments in the southern coast of Korea. It was characterized by the presence of setiform labial sensilla, spicules with a projection on both sides, and gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis. Pseudosteineria sinica was discovered from the intertidal sediment in the Yellow Sea. It was characterized by unobservable amphideal fovea, different lengths of spicules, and gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis. In this study, we provide detailed morphological features of three free-living marine nematodes by differential interference contrast microscopy.
This study was conducted to identify changes of insect compositions and diversity after construction of an onshore wind farm. We investigated insect fauna and compositions between a grassland deforested by the construction and a forest located at Yeongdeok and Yeongyang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. Insects were collected using a sweeping net and light trap. A total of 11 orders, 50 families, and 246 species, and 1,076 individuals were collected at study sites. By taxonomic group, Lepidoptera species were the most frequently found with 141 species, 417 individuals (38.8%), followed by Hymenoptera (20.6%), Hemiptera (16.2%), and Orthoptera (12.3%). There were also significant differences in insect species and community compositions between sites. Creating open-field deforested forests are beneficial for some insect groups such as Hymenoptera and Orthoptera. Our results suggest that deforesting by the construction of an onshore wind farm might affect the composition and diversity of insects. Results of this study provide basic data for research on onshore wind farms.