Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2) is a species in the genus Fabavirus and family Secoviridae, which is transmitted by aphids and has a wide host range. The BBWV2 genome is composed of two single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs, RNA-1 and RNA-2. The representative symptoms of BBWV2 are mosaic, mottle, vein clearing, wilt, and stunting on leaves, and these symptoms cause economic damage to various crops. In 2019, Perilla fructescens leaves with mosaic and yellowing symptoms were found in Geumsan, South Korea. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) was performed with specific primers for 10 reported viruses, including BBWV2, to identify the causal virus, and the results were positive for BBWV2. To characterize a BBWV2 isolate (BBWV2-GS-PF) from symptomatic P. fructescens, genetic analysis and pathogenicity tests were performed. The complete genomic sequences of RNA-1 and RNA-2 of BBWV2-GS-PF were phylogenetically distant to the previously reported BBWV2 isolates, with relatively low nucleotide sequence similarities of 76-80%. In the pathogenicity test, unlike most BBWV2 isolates with mild mosaic or mosaic symptoms in peppers, the BBWV2-GS-PF isolate showed typical ring spot symptoms. Considering these results, the BBWV2-GS-PF isolate from P. fructescens could be classified as a new strain of BBWV2.
A male Spheropistha melanosoma Yaginuma, 1957 from Korea in the family Theridiidae Sundevall, 1833 is described with measurements and morphological photos of the diagnostic characteristics. This species was collected with a sweep net around arable lands in a mountainous mixed forest during the investigation of spider fauna on Ulleungdo Island in 2019.
Forest destruction is an inevitable result of the development processes. According to the environmental impact assessment, over 10% of the destroyed trees need to be recycled and transplanted to minimize the impact of forest destruction. However, the rate of successful transplantation is low, leading to a high rate of tree death. This is attributable to a lack of consideration for environmental factors when choosing a temporary site for transplantation and inadequate management. To monitor transplanted trees, a field survey is essential; however, the spatio-temporal aspect is limited. This study evaluated the applicability of remote sensing for the effective monitoring of transplanted trees. Vegetation indices based on satellite remote sensing were derived to detect time-series changes in the status of the transplanted trees at three temporary transplantation sites. The mortality rate and vitality of transplanted trees before and after the transplant have a similar tendency to the changes in the vegetation indicators. The findings of this study showed that vegetation indices increased after transplantation of trees and decreased as the death rate increased and vitality decreased over time. This study presents a method for assessing newly transplanted trees using satellite images. The approach of utilizing satellite photos and the vegetation index is expected to detect changes in trees that have been transplanted across the country and help to manage tree transplantation for the environmental impact assessment.
In 2022, the Korean Ministry of Environment designated Parthenium hysterophorus as an ecosystem-disturbing plant. The purpose of this study was to present a management plan for P. hysterophorus considering its distribution, morphological, physiological, and ecological characteristics, and to introduce various control techniques. P. hysterophorus is native to Central America and occurs in about 45 countries worldwide. However, in Korea, it only grows in some areas of Tongyeong and Changwon, Gyeongsangnam Province. P. hysterophorus is an annual plant and spreads by seeds, moves between countries in the process of importing and/or exporting agricultural seeds, and spreads by agricultural machinery and vehicles after introduction. P. hysterophorus releases parthenin, an allelochemical that suppresses the occurrence of the surrounding vegetation, from its stems and roots. In addition, P. hysterophorus causes damage to humans and livestock through various allergens. P. hysterophorus can be controlled by physical methods, such as cutting its stems or pulling roots, and by treatment with non-selective herbicides, such as glyphosate. Many biological control research studies have been conducted and, unfortunately, there is no a practical solution so far.
E171, a mixture of titanium dioxide, has been widely used as a food additive due to its whitening effect and low toxicity. However, it has been proven that E171 is no longer safe for public health. So far, there are insufficient studies on the toxic effects of E171 on organisms especially using standardized test methods. In this study, toxicity assessments of E171 to two aquatic species, water flea (Daphnia magna) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), were performed using modified standardized test methods based on the physicochemical properties of E171. The hydrodynamic diameter, polydispersity index, and turbiscan stability index (TSI) were measured to ensure the dispersion stability of E171 in exposure media during the test period. The EC50 for immobilization of water flea was 141.7 mg L-1 while zebrafish was not affected until 100 mg L-1 of E171. Measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme activities confirmed that E171 induced oxidative stress, leading to the activation of superoxide dismutase and catalase in both water flea and zebrafish, although the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes differed between species. These results suggested the potential risk of E171 to aquatic organisms and provided toxicological insights into the impacts of E171 on the environment.
Lovenia elongata is a member of the family Loveniidae and is one of the most common tropical echinoids. This species has a broad distribution range in the sub- and tropical regions of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, extending from the Mozambique to the Hawaiian Islands, and from southern Japan to northern Australia. It is commonly found in subtidal areas and on coral reefs within these regions. This species was for the first time recorded from the Ulleungdo Island, Korea. This species is characterized by a teardrop-shaped test that reaches up to 5 cm in length, with a deep groove at the front and tapered at the back end. The petaloid is not obvious, and the primary spines are long and banded. This study is the first to report the newly recorded L. elongata in Korea.
This study was conducted to investigate the vertical distribution and vascular plants in the Gakho mountain. Form the results of three field surveys from May 2022 to September 2022, a total of 478 total taxa, representing 426 species, 11 subspecies, 35 varieties, four forms, and two hybrids were identified, which were categorized in 282 genera and 94 families. We identified the elevational distribution ranges of 398 taxa of vascular plants. Among them, 19 taxa were endemic to Korea, one taxon was identified as a rare plant. The floristic target plants amounted to 72 taxa, specifically two taxa of grade V, two taxa of grade IV, 16 taxa of grade III, 27 taxa of grade II, and 25 taxa of grade I. Further, 71 taxa were identified as northern lineage plants. A total of 19 taxa of alien plants were identified, with a Naturalized Index of 4.0%, an Urbanization Index of 6.6%, and three plants that disturbed the ecosystem. The result of analyzing the pattern of species richness showed a reversed hump shape with minimum richness at midhigh elevation. A cluster analysis showed a high degree of similarity between adjacent elevation sections that are geographically adjacent with similar habitat environments. Warmth index in the Gakho mountain ranged from 57.2°C · month to 84.2°C · month. Our results provide basic data on vascular plants and valuable information on elevational distribution ranges of current plant species in the Gakho mountain, which could serve as a baseline for comparison of the shifts in elevation under future climate change.
We investigated the spatial distribution of heterotrophic bacteria associated with different water masses in the northern East China Sea (ECS) in summer. The surface water masses were divided into the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and high salinity water (HSW). In the CDW region, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and micro Chl-a contribution were high; and bacterial abundance (BA) and ciliate abundance (CA) were also high. In the HSW region with relatively low DIN concentrations, Chl-a concentration and micro Chl-a contribution were low, but pico Chl-a contribution was increased compared to those in the CDW region. BA did not show any significant difference from the CDW region, but CA was decreased. BA showed a positive correlation with Chl-a concentration in the CDW region; however, it did not show a significant correlation with Chl-a concentration in the HSW region. The ratio of bacterial carbon biomass/phytoplankton carbon biomass was exponentially increased with a decrease in the Chl-a concentration. Compared to the past (1990-2000s), the surface phosphate concentrations and the size of dominant phytoplankton have recently decreased in the ECS. Considering this trend of nutrient decrease and miniaturization of the phytoplankton, our results indicate that changes in the strength of the oligotrophic water mass could alter the function of the microbial food web.