Forest destruction is an inevitable result of the development processes. According to the environmental impact assessment, over 10% of the destroyed trees need to be recycled and transplanted to minimize the impact of forest destruction. However, the rate of successful transplantation is low, leading to a high rate of tree death. This is attributable to a lack of consideration for environmental factors when choosing a temporary site for transplantation and inadequate management. To monitor transplanted trees, a field survey is essential; however, the spatio-temporal aspect is limited. This study evaluated the applicability of remote sensing for the effective monitoring of transplanted trees. Vegetation indices based on satellite remote sensing were derived to detect time-series changes in the status of the transplanted trees at three temporary transplantation sites. The mortality rate and vitality of transplanted trees before and after the transplant have a similar tendency to the changes in the vegetation indicators. The findings of this study showed that vegetation indices increased after transplantation of trees and decreased as the death rate increased and vitality decreased over time. This study presents a method for assessing newly transplanted trees using satellite images. The approach of utilizing satellite photos and the vegetation index is expected to detect changes in trees that have been transplanted across the country and help to manage tree transplantation for the environmental impact assessment.
This study was conducted to identify changes of insect compositions and diversity after construction of an onshore wind farm. We investigated insect fauna and compositions between a grassland deforested by the construction and a forest located at Yeongdeok and Yeongyang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. Insects were collected using a sweeping net and light trap. A total of 11 orders, 50 families, and 246 species, and 1,076 individuals were collected at study sites. By taxonomic group, Lepidoptera species were the most frequently found with 141 species, 417 individuals (38.8%), followed by Hymenoptera (20.6%), Hemiptera (16.2%), and Orthoptera (12.3%). There were also significant differences in insect species and community compositions between sites. Creating open-field deforested forests are beneficial for some insect groups such as Hymenoptera and Orthoptera. Our results suggest that deforesting by the construction of an onshore wind farm might affect the composition and diversity of insects. Results of this study provide basic data for research on onshore wind farms.
다시마를 첨가한 건어묵 면의 수분함량의 평균값은 3.71±0.12%이었으며 수분활성도는 0.185-0.332로 다시마 분말함유량이 증가할수록 수분활성도가 낮아졌다. 재수화도는 다시마 분말함유량이 3%와 5%일 때, 각각 1.49, 1.77 g water/g solid로 대조군에 비해 증가하였다. 색도 측정결과 녹색계열의 다시마 분말함유량이 증가할수록 명도, 적색도 및 황색도 값이 낮아지는 결과를 볼 수 있었다. TPA를 이용한 조직감분석에서는 다시마 분말의 함유량이 증가할수록 탄력성은 증가하였고 경도와 씹힘성이 낮아졌다. 관능검사 결과로 5% 다시마 분말을 첨가한 어묵 면이 조직감, 맛, 전체적인 기호도 평가에서 가장 높게 나타났으며 면발의 단단함에 대한 강도에서는 다시마 분말의 함량이 많아질수록 낮은 결과를 나타내었다.
Well-defined methacrylate based amphiphilic block copolymers (BCs) used as additives to fabricate poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) UF membranes, where the amphiphilic BC additives hydrophilically altered PVDF with PPEGMA block segment by strong interaction with the other PMMA block segment, which reduced water resistance to the PVDF polymer solution during phase separation. FT-IR and XPS studies showed carbonyl groups of BCs in the PVDF membranes. Obtained membranes showed porous surface layer and finger-like pore structures on the sublayers, of which sizes were increased with the increase of BC contents. Obtained membranes showed MWCO with 100K PEO and the best water flux was achieved in the PVDF membrane with BC/LiCl additive and improved the anti-fouling property for BSA protein.
A series of amphiphilic block copolymers consisting of hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGEMA) were synthesized by Cu based ATRP and utilized as an additive to prepare asymmetric ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) with PVDF. Obtained PVDF based UF membranes gave in-situ hydrophilic surfaces on the hydrophobic PVDF matrix because of strong compatibility PMMA block segment to PVDF and the hydrophilicty of PPEGMA block segment to the non-solvent (water), which showed improved water flux in comparison to neat PVDF UF membrane.
본 연구에서는 아질산염 대체제로서 녹차, 세이지, 파프리카 올레오레진 추출물을 미세캡슐 화하여 돈육 패티 제조과정에서 첨가 시 4oC의 저장과정에서 색도, 총 플라보노이드 함량, DPPH radical 소거활성, TBARS, 총균수 등의 변화를 비교 분석하였다. 색도에서는 미세캡슐화한 처리구 2가 비 캡슐화의 처리구 1나 아질산염첨가 대조구보다 저장기간 내내 높은 a 값을 보였다. 총 플라보노이드함량에 있어서 저장초기 대조구와 처리구간에 유사한 값을보였으나 저장 7일후에는 저장초기대비 대조구는 약 52%의 감소가 나타난 반면 처리구 1과 처리구 2에서는 각각47과 43%가 감소하였다. DPPH radical 소거활성은 저장초기의 대조구가 8.68%로서 가장 낮았으며 처리구 1과 처리구 2는 각각 18.15와 23.27%로 높게 나타났다. TBARS값에서는 대조구, 처리구1 및 처리구 2는 각각 0.54, 0.36및 0.33mg/kg으로 나타나 아질산염을 첨가한 대조구가 천연첨가물의 처리군에 비하여 높은 값을 보였다. 저장과정에서도 저장 7일 후 대조구는 약 61%의 증가가 있었던반면 처리구 2에서는 약 30%의 증가에 그쳤다. 총균수에서는 저장초기 대조구와 처리군 간의 차이가 없었으며2.98-3.38log CFU/g 수준이었고 저장 중 급격한 증식이없었다. 저장 7일 후에도 3.32-3.64log CFU/g 수준으로유의성차이를 보이지 않았다.
본 연구는 초미세분쇄기술을 이용하여 옥수수전분의 입자구조파괴가 이루어졌을 때 분자구조적, 물리적 변화가 어떻게 이루어지는지를 구명하고자 하였다. 초미세 분쇄처리 후 옥수수전분의 평균직경은 약 50% 감소가 이루어졌으며 비표면적은 567% 증가하였다. 초미세분쇄처리 전·후의 옥수수전분에 대한 분자량분포를 GPC로 측정한 결과 분쇄 후 저분자량의 Peak II의 면적이 21.0%에서 86.5%로 상승하였다. 손상전분 함량은 각각 9.63%와 83.57%로 초미세분쇄처리에 의하여 크게 증가하였다. 옥수수전분의 경우는 겔(gel)을 형성하였으나 초미세분쇄처리 후에는 전분의 분쇄과정에서 전분입자파괴와 아울러 옥수수전분의 분자량이 저분자화 되면서 겔 형성능력이 크게 저하되었다.
Non processed onion (Allium cepa L.) powder or onion powder processed with β-cyclodextrin+1% calcium chloride+1% soluble starch solution was added to the diet of 16 week old Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) for 5 weeks. 36 SHR and Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 diet groups, each of six. They were named control, NPO (non processed onion), PO (processed onion). The rats of the control group were fed diet without onion powder. To NPO and PO groups were added 5% of non processed onion and processed onion, respectively. Body weight gain, food efficiency ratio (FER), blood pressure, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and Na excretion of urine and feces were analyzed. The processed onion and non processed onion diet reduced body weight gain without affeting the total food intake in Wistar rats (p〈0.05). The body weight gain was lowest in Wistar rats fed with a diet with processed onion powder. The rats fed with diet containing PO or NPO had lower blood systolic blood pressure in SHR (p〈0.05). The effect of onion powder on decreasing the blood pressure was not significant in Wistar rats. The ACE activity in lung was lowered in the SHR fed with either PO or NPO (p〈0.05) compared to those fed with control diet. The urinary Na excretion was significantly lower in SHR than Wistar rats. The effects of PO and NPO on increasing the urinary and fecal excretion of Na were significant (p〈0.05). These results suggest that onion processed with β-cyclodextrin+1%+1% calcium chloride+1% soluble starch solution to reduce volatile flavor, browning and caking preserves an antihypertensive effect of non processed onion.
Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate the effect of dietary rice starch with different particle size on growth performance, intestinal function and proliferation. There were two dietary treatment: rice starch (RS), ultra finely pulverized rice starch with less than 15μm size (PRS). They were eight rats per treatment. In vitro digestibility, body weight change and organs weight were evaluated. Serum GPT, GOT and blood urea nitrogen were analyzed. Transit time, short chain fatty acid contents of cecum, and cell proliferation of duodenum and jejunum were measured. In vitro digestibility of PRS was higher than that of RS. Rats fed ultra finely pulverized rice starch for 3 weeks grew faster than rats fed rice starch. PRS group has higher weights of liver, kidney, spleen and epididymal fat pad, perhaps as a result of increased digestibility. GPT and GOT were not different between two groups. Blood urea nitrogen was higher in RS-fed rats than that of PRS-fed rats. Feeding ultra finely pulverized rice starch resulted in a proliferation of duodenum significantly. These results suggest that ultra finely pulverized rice starch increases the growth performance in weanling animals with reduced number of cells in the cell cycle of small intestine.
Male rats were fed a purified diet containing one of 3 experimental diets, gelatinized rice starch that was not modified physically (RC), gelatinized physically modified rice starch using ultrasonic homogenizer(RU), gelatinized physically modified rice starch using hydroshear homogenizer(RH) during 28 days. RC was used as the rice starch control. Feeding a physically modified rice starch (RU) caused an increase in liver weight and RH increased RNA and protein contents in kidney significantly although there were no differences in food intakes compared to feeding a RC diet. The wet weight of liver, kidney and heart were higher in RU. The wet weights of fecal output of the rats fed RH was greater than in rice control group. The gut transit time was longer in the rats fed RH than in the rice control group significantly. Serum GOT, GPT, total bilirubin concentration were tended to be lower and blood urea nitrogen was significantly lower in RH group. The maturation index of kidney was higher in RU than in RC. These results suggest that physically modified rice starch improved growth performance and physiological functions in organs of growing rats.
생 찐솔잎에 콩기름과 올리브유를 첨가하여 추출한 솔잎추출유의 저장기간에 따른 산패도를 측정하였고 솔잎추출유를 김에 발라 제조한 맛김에 대한 관능검사 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 저장기간에 따른 중량변화 측정 결과, 콩기름은 14일째 생 찐 솔잎추출유는 21일째 생 찐 올리브유 솔잎추출유는 14일부터 중량이 서서히 증가하여 28일에 중량이 가장 크게 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 2. TBARS 생성량도 저장기간 14일째 콩기름에 비해 콩기름에 생 찐 솔잎을 첨가할 경우 TBARS의 함량이 유의적으로 낮았고, 28일째 올리브유도 생 찐솔잎을 첨가할 경우 TBARS의 함량이 유의적으로 낮게 나타났다. 3. 지방산 산화의 2차 생성물은 aqueous layer에서 저장기간에 따라 감소하였고 특히 14일째에 다른 추출유에 비해 콩기름이 크게 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 한편 organic layer는 저장기간 14일째 콩기름에서 가장 크게 증가하였고 솔잎을 첨가할 경우 유의적으로 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 올리브유의 경우도 솔잎을 첨가한 올리브 솔잎 추출유에서 2차 생성물이 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 4. 제조된 생 찐 솔잎 추출유를 김에 발라 7점 기호척도법을 이용하여 관능검사를 실시한 결과 향, 맛 그리고 전반적인 기호도 모두 유의적인 차이가 나타나지 않아 솔잎추출유를 김에다 바를 경우 거부감을 주지 않는 것으로 조사되었다. 이상의 결과 솔잎에 콩기름과 올리브유를 첨가하여 추출한 솔잎추출유는 원유보다 산화에 대해 안정한 것으로 나타났고, 이를 이용한 맛김도 좋은 것으로 평가되어 솔잎추출유의 식품에 이용 가능성이 시사되었다.
Since 1982, female agricultural workers are populous than male in Korea. Previous study was suggested that female workers are more sensitive to the agricultural medicine poisoning than male. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the impact on plasma components and nutrient intakes in female agricultural workers by the use of pesticides. Data were obtained from 44 females residing in Wonjoo, Kangwon-do area. Analysis for the general characteristics, nutrient intakes, and plasma components of the subjects were performed by physical examination, 24-hour recall method and venous blood sampling. They were divided into 3 groups according to the degree of the pesticide use: 8 in none(Non-expose group), 14 in low(〈4/yr)(Low-expose group), and 22 in high(≥4/yr)(High-expose group). The results are summarized as follows. Serum glucose, SGOT, SGPT, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol did not correlated with pesticide use and were not different among the groups. But serum total cholesterol was higher in pesticide use group. With increasing the number of pesticide use times, leukocyte count was tended to increased. Eighty two percent of the subjects were hemoglobin less than or equal to 12g/dl. Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum Fe, Serum ferritin belonged to normal range and did not correlated with pesticide use. Intake of energy, Fe, vitamin B2 were lower than RDA. Fe, K, and vitamin A intake were higher in don't use group than the other groups. There are not many differences according to using the pesticide in anthropometric measurements, nutrient intakes, and blood components, except for serum total cholesterol level and some nutrients intake. But these results suggest the need the systemic researches about the effects the pesticide using on nutritional status in Korean agricultural workers.
To investigate the perception and preference of foreign visitors to Korean traditional foods, 206 visitors(male 142, female 61) were surveyed with questionnaires translating in English, Chinese and Japanese. Subjects had various nationality such as China(77.4%), America(20.9%), Japan(16.0%), Canada(6.5%), Southeast Asia(2.5%) and Europe(2.5%). The 70.2% of the respondents had been tried Korean dishes before visiting Korea on the recommendation of friends or acquaintances(59.9%) or by the advertisement, articles, and travel agency. Bulgogi and Kimchi were the most popular menu that they had been tried in their country and Bibimbop, Kalbi, Korean dumpling, Samgaetang and Chapchae were following. 29.8% of the respondents had never tried Korean dishes because of they didn't have a chance to try(43.1%) or there were no Korean restaurant near their place(25.5%) or they had no interest in Korean dishes(23.5%). As expected, Kimchi and Bulgogi were well known food, showing rank of highest recognition. Chun and Dduck were the dishes that they had heard or saw but not eaten and Goojeolpan and Shinsunro were the dishes that they had not heard or saw. Preference to Korean dishes shows the same tendency as perception, Bulgogi, Bibimbop, Kalbi and Kimchi were the highly preferred group and Samgaetang, Bindaedduck, Chapchae, Dumpling and Raengmyon were mildly preferred one and Cucumber Kimchi, Kalbitang, Chun, Namul, Dduck were lower group of preference and Shinsunro and Goojeolpan were rarely preferred. These result shows that it is needed to advertise Korean dishes and to make events for globalization of Korean food.
This study was undertaken to investigate the dietary behavior and sugar intake of korean school children. The subject were 131 school lunch program children and 149 non school lunch program children lived in Soung Nam city. Sugar intake, food intake, dietary behavior and anthropometric measurement were studied through personal interview using 24-hour recall dietary data and records. Total daily energy and nutrient intake of children were higher than RDAs except for intake of Calcium and vitamin A. The nutrients intake of school lunch program children were significantly higher than that of non school lunch program children (p〈0.05). The range of daily sugar intake was 10 g to 220 g and the total daily sugar intake was 63.0±37.4 g. Sugar intake of school lunch program children (51.4±25.7 g) was significantly lower than non school lunch program children (73.1±42.9 g) (p〈0.0001). The more sugar intake increase more intake of Energy, Fat and Carbohydrate. The result of stepwise multiple regression analysis using the sugar intake of children as dependent variable, energy, vitamin B2, protein, niacin, calcium school lunch program, education of fathers are significant explanatory variables, explaining 44.8% of variation. Result of this study suggest that school lunch program is desirable for good dietary behavior and decreation of sugar intake of school children.