The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparison of nutrient intake and metabolic syndrome between single person households and non-single person households in elderly subjects. We analyzed data from 2,903 subjects ≥ age 65 who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2013~2015. As a result, single-person households had lower income and economic ability, overall nutrient intake was deteriorated, and the proportion of high-carbohydrate intake was high, compared to non-single person households. After adjusting for potential confounders (sex, age, education, household income, economic activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, walking frequency, health status, depression status, and dietary factors), the singleperson household showed a tendency of 1.22-fold higher ORs of metabolic syndrome and 1.3-fold higher ORs of hypertriglyceridemia than the non-single-person household. We suggest that the single-person household may be associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemia in the elderly subjects.
현대인은 급격한 사회변화와 발전 속에서 기회의 불균등으로 인해 인간성 상실과 갈등이 심화되고 있다. 이를 해결하기 위한 방법으로 인성교육의 필요성이 제기되고 있다. 이에 유아교육현장에서 쉽게 접 할 수 있는 그림책을 활용한 체계적이고 구체적인 인성교육 활동이 영유아의 자아존중감과 바람직한 인성 교육에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 연구를 통해 인성 교육 방법을 제시하고자 한다. 따라서 본고는 유아가 그림책을 통해 자연 스럽게 감정을 표현하고 자신의 정서를 조절하는 인성프로그램 개발 및 바람작한 인성교육 활성화 방안을 모색하고자 한다.
This study investigated the Sachanbalgi, which record the royal feasts given by the royal family of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. These records are contained within the Gungjung Balgi, which recorded the types and quantity of items used in royal court ceremonies. The Eumsikbalgi is the general name for the records of food found within this document. Using these Eumsikbalgi, and in particular the Sachanbalgi, this study investigated the food eaten and bestowed by the Joseon royal family. The Sachanbalgi describes four categories or occasions of feasts: royal birthdays, childbirth, royal weddings, and funerals. These records allow us to reconstruct who the attendees were and what the table settings and food were for instances not directly indicated in oral records, books, or other documents. The food at these Sachan (feasts) was diverse, being related to the specific event, and its contents varied based on the position of the person who was receiving the food. Usually, Bab (rice) was not found at a Sachanbalgi, and only on two occasions were meals with Bab observed. Specifically, it was served with Gwaktang (seaweed soup) at a childbirth feast. There were seven kinds of soups and stews that appeared in the Sachanbalgi: Gwaktang, Yeonpo (octopus soup), Japtang (mixed food stew), Chogyetang (chilled chicken soup), Sinseonro (royal hot pot), and Yukjang (beef and soybean paste). Nureumjeok (grilled brochette) and Saengchijeok (pheasant), and Ganjeonyueo (pan-fried cow liver fillet) and Saengseonjeonyueo (pan-fried fish fillet) were eaten. Yangjeonyueo, Haejeon, Tigakjeon (pan-fried kelp) and other dishes, known and unknown, were also recorded. Boiled meat slices appeared at high frequency (40 times) in the records; likewise, 22 kinds of rice cake and traditional sweets were frequently served at feasts. Five kinds of non-alcoholic beverages were provided. Seasonal fruits and nuts, such as fresh pear or fresh chestnut, are thought to have been served following the event. In addition, a variety of dishes including salted dry fish, boiled dish, kimchi, fruit preserved in honey, seasoned vegetables, mustard seeds, fish, porridge, fillet, steamed dishes, stir-fried dishes, vegetable wraps, fruit preserved in sugar, and jellied foods were given to guests, and noodles appear 16 times in the records. Courtiers were given Banhap, Tanghap, Myeonhap, wooden bowls, or lunchboxes. The types of food provided at royal events tracked the season. In addition, considering that for feasts food of the royal household was set out for receptions of guests, cooking instructions for the food in the lunchbox-type feasts followed the cooking instructions used in the royal kitchen at the given time. Previous studies on royal cuisine have dealt mostly with the Jineosang presented to the king, but in the Sachanbalgi, the food given by the royal family to its relatives, retainers, and attendants is recorded. The study of this document is important because it extends the knowledge regarding the food of the royal families of the Joseon Dynasty. The analysis of Sachanbalgi and the results of empirical research conducted to reconstruct the precise nature of that food will improve modern knowledge of royal cuisine.
현대사회의 저출산 심화와 여성의 사회활동 참여로 인한 가족 및 가족 구조의 다양화 등으로 이른 시기 어린이집을 경험하는 영유아들이 많아지게 되었으며 또한 영유아들은 영유아의 특성상 하루 대부분을 보육교사와 상호작용하며 생활하게 되었다. 이에 본 연구는 보육의 질에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있는 시점에 보육의 질 향상을 위한 보육의질 관련 변인 중 영유아의 보육의 질에 직접적 영향을 미치는 보육교사의 보육헌신, 행복감, 교사･영유아 상호작용관련 선행연구를 살펴보고 보육교사의 보육헌신과 행복감 및 교사-영유아의 상호작용과 어떠한 상관관계가 있는지 알아보고 분석해 보는데 목적이 있다. 이를 통하여 보육의 질에 기초가 되는 교사･영유아의 상호작용이 긍정적으로 이루어져 보육의 질을 높이고 교사와 영유아가 모두 행복한 보육환경을 만들어 가는데 기초자료로 제공하고자한다.
The aim of this study was to introduce the foods recorded in「Bongjeopyoram」, a cookbook, of which the date of production and author are unknown. This was described in an old document belonging to the Hansan Lee family clan from Chungcheongnam-do and revealed its content and significance in the food culture history of Korea to academia for the first time, A close examination of「Bongjeopyoram」 showed that, as with other cookbooks from the Joseon Dynasty, it started with methods of making alcoholic beverages. This was followed by recipes for different types of food in the following order: rice cakes and confectioneries, jeol-sik (seasonal foods), daily meals, foods made for jesa (ancestral rites) or a feast, food for weddings, and food for sijeol-jesa (seasonal ancestral rites). The book contained a total of 18 types of alcoholic beverages, 11 types of rice cakes and confectioneries, 20 types of daily meals, 28 types of jeol-sik and food for sijeol-jesa, 12 types of food for jesa and feasts, and 37 types of food for weddings, for a total of 126 types of food and beverages.「Bongjeopyoram」 was an ancient cookbook with detailed records on how to carry out jesa, which was an important event hosted by jonggas, or the head family of a family clan, and how to receive and serve guests in the Joseon period. This book is expected to play a valuable role as a guidance with significance as a cookbook of a jongga from the Joseon Dynasty, a time when bongjesajeopbingaek (hosting jesa for one’s ancestors and serving one’s guest) was considered important.
This study investigated the characteristics of main house food cultures in Gyeonggi-do using a case study on the head family. The subject of this study was selected through an advisory committee of experts; it incorporated intangible and tangible elements of the main family based on relevant data. Selected representative main house of Gyeonggi-do had 12 parts in total. The entire investigation was conducted in five parts; literature search, telephone survey, in-depth interviews, inheritance food research of the head family, and cuisine demonstrations. Twelve families within the researched family clan had members of high merit or scholarly reputation qualified enough to serve bulcheonwi, a form of important religious worship. Food in Gyeonggi-do, specifically, can be served for Bongjesa jeopbingaek, which is a combination of performance of ancestral rites and greeting guests. Meat ingredients were frequently used. Articles of clothing were colorful and vivid, with wootgi that needed lots of work. Soup and steamed dishes tended to favor simple but fresh tastes that come with their cultural and historical context.
This study was performed to analyze health problems in older adults in a comprehensive manner, including usual livinghabits, nutritional status, and society psychological factors. Research was conducted by a structured questionnaire byinterviews with a test group of 316 people over the age of 65 from April 2012 to August 2012. Elderly people’s dietary intakewas assessed using NSI (Nutrition Screening Initiative) by the 24-hour retrospective method, and elderly people’s feeling ofhelplessness and sense of belonging were assessed using the measuring device. Material analysis, descriptive statistics, andregression analysis were performed using SPSS. Elderly people with increased age showed higher chances of being in thehigh-risk and undernourished group. Elderly with high NSI showed low intake of fat, protein, fibrin, vitamin C, E, B1, B2,Niacin, K, Fe, Zn, and Cu than those with low NSI. Findings from this comparative analysis indicate that elderly with betternutritional status showed a lower feeling of helplessness than those with poor nutritional status. Overall, elderly peopleconsumed a b road variety of foods, and social emotional stability of elderly people increased at optimal dietary levels.
This study aimed to examine the cooking methods used in the Joseon Dynasty using cooking books. We chose「Suwoonjabbang」 (1500’s) and「Eumsikdimibang」 (1610) as the subjects of this study. Cooking methods from these tworecipe books were categorized into staples, side dishes, rice cakes, Korean traditional sweets and cookies, drinks, fermentedfoods, seasonings, and storage methods. Firstly,「Suwoonjabbang」 contains a total of 121 cooking methods divided intotwo volumes. In contrast,「Eumsikdimibang」includes 146 cooking methods. There are 18 methods for noodles and dduks,74 methods for fish and meat, and 54 methods for drinks and vinegars, and others. Secondly,「 Suwoonjabbang」 writtenby Yu Kim in Chinese characters can be described in simple terms. It provides caution against indulging in the taste of food.In contrast,「Eumsikdimibang」 by Kye Hyang Jang contains detailed cooking methods that have disappeared. Thirdly,「Eumsikdimibang」 introduced more diverse cooking methods for noodles, dumplings, side dishes, rice cake, Koreantraditional sweets and cookies, and fermented foods as compared to 「Suwoonjabbang」. In conclusion, unique cookingmethods introduced in these two cooking books, which are rare these days, are expected to be further applied anddeveloped.
The research aimed to provide accurate and basic data comparing different perceptions of head family’s food and food for religious ceremonies depending on age with the goal of sustaining traditional Korean food in the future. The gender distribution of the participants was 274 Males (42.5%) and 370 Females (57.5%). Age distribution was 211 participants (32.7%) in their 20s, 215 participants (33.3%) in their 30 to 40s, and 220 participants (34%) in their 50 to 60s. The older generation appeared to beaware of the definition of head family or 'The eldest’s house of head family’ as well as the concept of one’s family five generations ago with more reductive and emphasis than imaginary concept of head family of the younger generation. The image of the head family was perceived as ‘head family’s food’ in younger generations and as ‘eldest son’ in older generations. Family role and meaning most often manifested as ‘succession of tradition’ and ‘cultural symbols’ in younger generations, respectively, whereas older generations responded ‘hallmark of the head family’. Family ancestral rites and head family’s food had positive effects on awareness of head family’s food. Moreover, those with experience in practicing family ancestral rites responded that head family’s food should be more popular. People who viewed family’s food more positively were more open with the idea thathead family’s food could go mainstream. In conclusion, positive perception of head family’s food and traditional pride are crucial environmental factors in public support of popularizing head family's food to the public.
This study aimed to develop a new commercialization model for theindustrialization of head family food as a gentry families' complex food culture product. We tried to develop a head family food and propose a city sightseeing style's head family product by interviews with 'Hakindang' as the center, the head house of the Suwon Baek clan, and Injaegong group in Jeonjoo. Hakindang (in Jeonju) was confirmed as an improved model Korean-style house in the enlightenment period and the twentieth style modern head family as emerging capitalist. Hakindangsupported independence war funds in the Japanese colonial era and was widely known as gate of filial piety in Jeonju. Representative seasonal foods of Hakindang include pan-fried sweet rice cake with flower petals in the spring, hot spicy meat stew and polypus variabilis in summer, hanchae in autumn, and napa cabbage kimchi with salted flatfish seafood in the winter. When parents-in-law had a birthday, there were party noodles, sliced abalone stuffed with pine nuts, brass chafing dish, fish eggs, slices of blilde meat, and matnaji. Daily, there were mainly salted seafood, slices of raw fish, grilled short rib patties, braised fish, baked fish, syruped chestnut, grilled deodeok root, bean sprouts, radish preserved with salt, dongchimi, soy sauce-marinated horseshoe crab, butterbur, perilla seed stew, salted clams, raw bamboo shoot, agar, fried kelp, etc. The most basic virtue of the head family is filial duty, and they developed mosim dining as a representative food of Hakingdang's head family. The mosim menu is composed of 65% carbohydrates, 20% protein, and 15% fat because it is table for parents-in-law like more than 75 years old. The sensory evaluation showed a chewy texture that is easily swallowed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing sales of health functional foods by door-to-door saleswomen. A total of 450 women who worked as door-to-door salespersons in Seoul were enrolled. The survey questionnaire was composed of five parts as follows: general characteristics, factors related with door-to-door sales process, task education, competency required for door-to-door salespersons, and customer relationship beliefs. The survey was conducted in October 2011. Finally, data on 302 subjects were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 package program. Reason for sales of health functional foods (p<0.01), time required for sales promotion (p<0.001), difficulties during sales of health functional foods (p<0.05), satisfaction of task education (p<0.01), and failure of salesperson's memory as problems of task education (p<0.01) were significantly associated with sales of health functional foods. However, means of sales promotion, frequency and time of task education, and competency required for door-to-door salespersons were not significantly related with sales of health functional foods. Customer relationship beliefs did not show significant association with sales of health functional foods either. In conclusion, certain factors were associated with sales of health functional foods by door-to-door saleswomen. These results provide an understanding for sales of door-to-door health functional foods and provide basic information for preparation of task education for health functional food saleswomen and marketing.
The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient method for Korean food to make inroads into Paraguay. In-depth interviews with 15 Korean restaurant owners in Asuncion, Paraguay and foodies (food experts) who had experiences with Korean food were conducted. The results are as follows: Paraguay wants to establish economic ties with Korea currently, and economic development is ongoing in Paraguay. The food service industry for the middle class in Paraguay is now in the development stage. There are not many Korean restaurants (currently 15) in Asuncion. First and second generation Korean immigrants are operating these restaurants. It is necessary to provide support for a comprehensive food culture system by developing a menu composition system to meet local tastes, a strategy for improving distribution of Korean food materials, and a plan for sanitary management and operations.
This study was designed to measure taste sensitivity and the five basic senses by an educational classification instrument. The instrument was a rice kit that could use samples in a dry powder form or oil extract after long-term storage To test for taste, sucrose, salt, citric acid, and quinine sulfate were made at different concentrations and taste sensitivity was measured on a scale from level 1 to level 5. To obtain baseline data, an inspection tool for the five senses was used and randomly applied on 101 schoolchildren in the third and fourth grade in the city of Cheonan in Korea. The inspection tool was composed of 17 questions; 5 questions regarding visual characteristics and three questions each for characteristics regarding taste, hearing, smell, and touch. The average age of the schoolchildren was 9.5 years old and there were 49 third grade students (9 years of age), and 52 fourth grade students (ten years of age). There were slightly more male students than female students, 56 (55.4%) compared to 45 (44.6%), respectively. The average height of female students was higher than that of males, but the average BMI (body mass index) of the male students was slightly higher than that of female students (18.28 compared to 18.09, respectively). Female students were slightly more sensitive to salty tastes than male students (2.8 compared to 2.5, respectively). In the score distribution for each sense, touch sense was the highest at 7.59, sight sense was 7.49, hearing sense was 5.43, smell sense was 5.24, and taste sense was lowest at 3.69. Therefore, schoolchildren first tend to recognize and deem important the touch and sight of food before its taste.
Century-old nutrition and health concepts can be revived and applied in the modern age in the forms of newly developed menus, recipes, and lifestyle education. Current medical nutrition therapy concepts were first described in the Chosun Dynasty (1392-1897) in Korea based on the philosophy that food and medicine originate from the same source, which is known as ‘food as medicine’. Recognizing the importance of culture, tradition, local diet, and lifestyle on health and medical nutrition therapy, we tried to rediscover traditional Korean approaches towards food consumption and nutrition through systematic review of the literature and developed contemporary menus accordingly. The medical nutrition therapy prescriptions described in ‘Shikryochanyo’ (1460) by the Chosun Dynasty’s royal physician Soonyi Jeao cover 45 different diseases. In this project, we developed contemporary menus for those disease models that are most prevalent in modern society. Menus developed with foods that are readily available today were evaluated for their nutritional content and adequacy using a computer-aided nutritional analysis program (CAN pro 3.0, developed by the Korean Nutrition Society for comparison with RDA for Koreans). Therefore, century-old nutrition and health concepts can be revived and applied in modern society as newly developed menus recipes and lifestyle education.
Cyclodextrin-graphene oxide film on the carbon nanotubes matrix is synthesized by a simple chemical method, and physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of the composites are investigated. Capacitance is improved markedly up to 84 F/g with chemically reduced graphene oxide at the current density of 0.7 A/ g compared with 2.6 F/g of the previous composites having no graphene oxide. The new composites electrodes show more redox processes, originated from the graphene oxide, in the cycle voltammetry compared to the previous composites which had no graphene oxide, indicating enhancement of capacitances. Following improved energy density of the new composite makes it possible to be an electrode of the hybrid capacitors.
The purpose of this study was the development of traditional food recipes from local food contents related to the historical and cultural heritage in the representative long-lived area Damyang. The information on digging 'story' was collected through the region's representative local native journal, searching for related websites, analyzing old literatures, and interviewing traditional household; 'telling', the part of conveyance, was organized by reviewing the literatures, including historical condition, regional food materials, cuisine, region symbolism, etc. After nutritional analysis, the prepared, balanced, and healthy Korean food dishes using the traditional food contents were displayed. In Damyang, the story was extracted from Heuichoon Ryu (柳希春, 1543-1577) - figura of Damyang - and his collection, 'Miam's diary', and described about native food. The traditional history of many foods that were used mainly as rewarding during one's trouble, showing good faith, and delivering gratitude is recorded in Miam diary. A little effort has been made to express the classical scholar's clean and neat dining table which was the mixed Damyang's clean image and nobleman's straight integrity in the middle of the Choson Dynasty. Nutrition fact of 'Miam's table' was based on the Daily Reference Values of Koreans aged 65 or older.