During the late Chosun Dynasty, famine was the main cause of climate ecological background, such as frequent floods and droughts, the Little Ice Age (小氷期), and epidemic. In addition, it influenced the social and cultural background, such as failure toprovide Yiangbeop (移秧法), breakout of war and revolt, loss of farming cattle, grain consumption due to brewing, the concentration of wealth, and tenacity of shamanism. "Limwongyungjeji" "Injeji" of the last part had been written about the famine; wild plants to raw, dried, or dried powder, or processed pharmaceutical goods. Grain couldbe replaced in more than 330 types of famine relief food and recipes; 170 species of vegetables, 34 species of vegetation, and 33 kinds of fruit - the botanic foods were mainstream. Edible parts of these plant foods are those of 14 kinds: 175 species of leaves, 113 species of sprouts, 99 kinds of buds, and other fruits, roots, stems, flowers, etc. The recipe (poaching, salting, and oil-marinated) was written 186 times or forsoup, raw, and boiled.
This study examined the cooking method in "Eumsikdimibang", "Gyuhapchongseo" and "Jusiksiui" over time. The Korean cook book, "Jusiksiui", published in the late 1800s, was mainly investigated. The results showed that"Jusiksiui" contained more than 99 foods. In particular, there were 49 side dishes, including five types of porridge three types of noodles, and four types of dumplings. Most food recipes in "Jusiksieu" are the same as those in "Gyuhapchongseo". Results of comparison between "Gyuhapchongseo" (1809) and "Jusiksiui" (late 1800's), Korea's significant archives of Korean recipes, showed that approximately 50 recipes out of 99 recipes were the same as those indicated by "Yeolgujatang" and "Seunggiactang" as hospitality foods and "Gochujang", "Jeupjang", and "Jeupjihi" as traditional paste foods. This indicates that recipes in "Gyuhapchongseo" were transcribed into those in "Jusiksiui". Thus, "Jusiksiui" is the archive that includes recipes that have been passed down from generation to generation in a traditional family and transcribed archive of "Gyuhapchongseo", which was widely read by midwives in the late 1800's.
This study examines the awareness of traditional Korean food culture among immigrant housewives in multicultural families, with the aim of introducing educational plans suitably designed for them. Our survey shows that Korean traditional holidays most well-known to the immigrant housewives are New Year's Day and Chusuk. Sambok and Chusuk are at the top in terms of preference. Samgyetang, Ddukguk, and Ogokbab are among the best known festive food to immigrant housewives for holidays such as New Year's Day, Jeongwol Daeboreum, Sambok, Chusuk, and Dongji; Samgyetang is the most preferred food, followed by Ddukguk and Patjuk. In addition, a vast majority of immigrant housewives who have ever attended Korean traditional cuisine education programs found the need for such an experience, with the score of 4.16 out of 5. In addition, the survey shows the order in which the immigrant housewives want to learn: the recipe of Korean food (53.5%), followed by table setting and manners (16.5%) and then nutrition (15%). The recipe of interest for most respondents is the one concerning daily food (69.5%). And more than half of the respondents prefer cooking practice as a desirable educational method. The difficulties that they have when attending such an educational course are usually inability to understand the language, difficulty in identifying the ingredients (seasonal), and lack of cultural understanding. The most preferred educational method is direct lecture (71.5%), followed by written materials such as books and newspaper (10.5%) and the Internet (9.5%). Finally, strategies for promoting traditional food culture are suggested as following: developing educational resources (31.5%), making various educational programs more available (25%), narrowing the cultural gap (22%), and improving the educational environment (21.5%). Therefore, this study proposes that there is a need to develop and diffuse Korean traditional food culture first, and then provide many immigrant housewives with a variety of educational programs. It is expected that these efforts will solve the problems caused by cultural differences in the early stage of international marriages and eventually contribute to the harmony in multicultural families.
The purpose of this study was the development of traditional food recipes from local food contents related to the historical and cultural heritage in the representative long-lived area Damyang. The information on digging 'story' was collected through the region's representative local native journal, searching for related websites, analyzing old literatures, and interviewing traditional household; 'telling', the part of conveyance, was organized by reviewing the literatures, including historical condition, regional food materials, cuisine, region symbolism, etc. After nutritional analysis, the prepared, balanced, and healthy Korean food dishes using the traditional food contents were displayed. In Damyang, the story was extracted from Heuichoon Ryu (柳希春, 1543-1577) - figura of Damyang - and his collection, 'Miam's diary', and described about native food. The traditional history of many foods that were used mainly as rewarding during one's trouble, showing good faith, and delivering gratitude is recorded in Miam diary. A little effort has been made to express the classical scholar's clean and neat dining table which was the mixed Damyang's clean image and nobleman's straight integrity in the middle of the Choson Dynasty. Nutrition fact of 'Miam's table' was based on the Daily Reference Values of Koreans aged 65 or older.
To study the importance of family meals in adolescents, 251 middle school students were surveyed through a questionnaire on their family meal patterns, dietary behaviors, food intake, and life satisfaction. The family meals were defined as "meals with all family members living together" by 62.2% of the students. For the frequency of family meals, 42.2% of the students replied having family meals "More than once a day". A common reason for the difficulty in having a family meal was a "lack of time" (73.3% of the students). Students tended to respond that they would be most fond in having meals with entire family members with traditional Korean food. Having more frequent family meals was found to benefit both individual and familial dietary behavior. In terms of food intake according to the frequency of family meals, the group having frequent family meals consumed significantly more rice, tofu, legumes, meats, fishes, eggs, green vegetables, seaweeds, fruits, milk, and milk products. This indicates that students can achieve a balanced diet through family meals. In terms of emotional status, the group having more frequent family meals showed a higher satisfaction with their daily life, health, nutritional status, and care from their relatives. In terms of personal mental status, the group having more frequent family meals was also found to be more effective at controlling undesirable emotions such as loneliness, indignation, and lethargy. As a result of this study, students in the group having more frequent family meals were found to have a positive dietary behavior, a balanced nutrition, a higher life satisfaction, and a more stable mental status. This result is useful as nutritional and educational information in schools to impress upon the public the importance of family meals for adolescents.
The purpose of this study is to identify a suitable organizational diagnostic model for analyzing the management efficiency of food service firms. We used the three-iteration Delphi technique on a panel of 19 business employees, 7 industry experts, and 4 employees in the food service industry. A total of 36 assessment indicators were developed through this panel, with numerous major findings. First, it is important to evaluate the leadership qualities of employees in terms of their motivation and competency. Second, it is important to evaluate the ability of employees to interface well with other employees. Third, it is important to evaluate and manage the brand image recognized by customers. Fourth, it is important to evaluate the fairness and regularity of the rewards given for an excellent job performance. Fifth, it is important to evaluate the level of communication and information distribution in the organizational culture. Last, but not least, it is important to evaluate the transparency and fairness of an organization in its human resource management (HRM) and the efficiency of its organizational structure. In conclusion, this study empirically shows how food service firms can develop an organizational diagnostic model to increase their managerial efficiency.
We investigated treatments for the browning prevention of black carrot extracts and determined the characteristics and qualities of jelly supplemented with black carrot extract. Ascorbic acid, citric acid, and NaCl were added to black carrot extract and changes in color, texture, and anthocyanin content were evaluated. Changes were also determined and a sensory evaluation was performed for jelly supplemented with black carrot extract. The addition of 0.15 and 0.20% ascorbic acid prevented the browning of black carrot extracts and decreased anthocyanin content during the storage period. However, citric acid did not have a preventative effect, despite decreasing the pH below 5.0. Similar to results on the extract, 0.15% ascorbic acid maintained a reddish-violet color in jelly supplemented with black carrot extract by lowering browning during the storage period. Jelly supplemented with 0.15% ascorbic acid had an increased elasticity, gumminess, and chewiness, but jelly supplemented with 0.15% ascorbic acid+0.05% NaCl had a lowered hardness compared with the control during the storage period. In a sensory evaluation, the overall preference, in descending order, was: 0.15% ascorbic acid+0.05% NaCl > 0.15% ascorbic acid > control. In conclusion, 0.15~0.20% ascorbic acid prevented the browning of black carrot extract and inhibited a decrease in anthocyanin content. Jelly supplemented with black carrot extract and 0.15% ascorbic acid+0.05% NaCl were optimal for producing a soft jelly texture.
This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and educational needs regarding breast feeding of women's mothers and mother-in-laws with a grandchild aged less than 24 months. The degree of knowledge regarding breast feeding was 14.84 points out of 25 points, while the attitude toward breast feeding was 83.88 points. Additionally, 16.4% of the respondents reported that education regarding breast feeding was unnecessary. There were significant differences in knowledge regarding breast feeding among individuals of different age (p<0.05), economic status (p<0.05), and with different aged grandchildren (p<0.05). Additionally, there were significant differences in attitude toward breast feeding based on the type of feeding (p<0.05), the practice of breast feeding (p<0.01), and reasons for low breast feeding rate (p<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge regarding breast feeding and attitude toward breast feeding. The factors affecting knowledge regarding breast feeding were attitude toward breast feeding and middleclass economic status. In addition, the factors affecting attitude toward breast feeding included knowledge of breast feeding and the practice of breast feeding. Overall, the subjects had high educational needs regarding breast feeding; therefore, women's mothers and mother-in-laws should be given the opportunity for various types of education to improve their breast feeding knowledge.
This study investigated the quality of noodles containing different amounts of Lagocephalus lunaris powder (LLP). Noodles were prepared at ratios of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% LLP based on flour weight, after which cooking quality, mechanical texture properties, and viscosity were measured, and a sensory evaluation was performed. The gelatinization points of the composite LLP-wheat flours were shown to increase. Additionally, measurement of the viscosity at 95, viscosity at 95 after 15 minutes, and the maximum viscosity values decreased, as the LLP content increased. As increasing amounts of LLP were added, the L and a values decreased, whereas the b value increased and the color values, weight, and volume of cooked noodle increased, as did the turbidity of the soup. Finally the LLP additive increased hardness and decreased adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Sensory evaluation showed that high quality cooked noodle could be produced by inclusion of 5% LLP.
The quality characteristics of Omija (Schizandra chinesis Baillon) extracts under various extraction temperatures and times were examined. The pH level of the extracts ranged from 3.35-3.47. The sugar and solid content of the samples significantly increased with increasing extraction temperatures and times (p〈0.01). In contrast, the lightness of the extracts decreased with increasing extraction temperatures and times (p〈0.001). In a palatability test, extracts boiled at 80℃ for 30 minutes scored high in terms of color, flavor, turbidity, sourness, and overall acceptability. Hydroxy radical scavenging activity and polyphenol content of the extracts significantly increased with increasing extraction temperatures and times (p〈0.01). Furthermore, direct correlations between hydroxy radical scavenging activity and polyphenol content (or flavonoid content) were established through simple regression (r〉0.9) for different extraction temperatures and times. From these results, extracts boiled at 80℃ for 120 minutes is the best to product omija beverage considering functionality and sensory evaluation as well.