This paper elucidates the novel direction of food research in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution characterized by personalized approaches. Since conventional approaches for identifying novel food materials for health benefits are expensive and time-consuming, there is a need to shift towards AI-based approaches which offer more efficient and costeffective methods, thus accelerating progress in the field of food science. However, relevant research papers in this field present several challenges such as regional and ethnic differences and lack of standardized data. To tackle this problem, our study proposes to address the issues by acquiring and normalizing food and biological big data. In addition, the paper demonstrates the association between heath status and biological big data such as metabolome, epigenome, and microbiome for personalized healthcare. Through the integration of food-health-bio data with AI technologies, we propose solutions for personalized healthcare that are both effective and validated.
Food upcycling has emerged as an effective approach to sustainably utilize the food waste generated within the food supply chain. This review article examines upcycled food with respect to its definition, consumers’ knowledge and perception on it, and the process by which by-products from the food supply chain are utilized for the creation of upcycled food products. The definition of upcycled food varied among manufacturers, research institutions, and the Upcycled Food Association, depending on the specific values and objectives of each sector. This has resulted in the use of different keywords to highlight the distinctive characteristics of their respective interpretations of upcycled food. This review also summarizes the various consumer traits that can influence the awareness and acceptance of upcycled food, encompassing functional, empirical and emotional, symbolic and self-expressive, and economic benefits. Additionally, the review presents strategies to utilize by-products produced in large quantities in Korea, while also addressing the control of hazardous components to ensure biological or chemical safety and the changes in nutritional value that may occur during the utilization of these byproducts.
Kimchi, a centuries-old Korean fermented food, has gained global popularity due to increased interest in Korean cuisine. However, little is known about the actual status of kimchi information provided by major foreign online encyclopedias. In this study, we analyzed the content and quality of kimchi information in major foreign online encyclopedias, such as Baidu Baike, Encyclopædia Britannica, Citizendium, and Wikipedia. Our results revealed that the kimchi information provided by these encyclopedias was often inaccurate or inadequate, despite kimchi being a fundamental part of Korean cuisine. The most common inaccuracies were related to the definition and origins of kimchi and its ingredients and preparation methods. Our findings highlight the need for more accurate and reliable information about kimchi in major foreign online encyclopedias. This is particularly important in the context of promoting Korean food culture and increasing international awareness of kimchi. To achieve this, the collaborative efforts of Korean food experts and online encyclopedias are needed to ensure the accurate representation of kimchi in these resources. In conclusion, our study shows that foreign online encyclopedias often contain incomplete, inaccurate information about kimchi. This shortcoming must be addressed to promote a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of kimchi and Korean cuisine.
There has been an increase in the viewing of YouTube content among children and adolescents. This, coupled with the popularity of live-streamed video content such as mukbang, where viewers watch the host eat, has raised concerns about media addiction and the indiscriminate imitation of eating behavior. Therefore, there is a need for guidance on the appropriate behavior for viewing YouTube food content to promote healthy eating habits among children. In this study, we aimed to compare the patterns of the main caregivers and their children while viewing media and investigate the impact of viewing YouTube food content on the physical and mental health of the children. The findings suggest that active YouTube food content viewing by the main caregivers may reduce imitative behaviors due to passive media consumption by their children. This study provides valuable insights by comparing and analyzing the YouTube content viewing of the main caregivers and their children. The results can be used as a basis for the development of lifestyle-centered guidelines for children. However, it is important to note that this study was conducted during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic when there was a significant increase in the use of media, which is limitation of the study.
To develop customized food products for gastric cancer patients, it is crucial to understand their dietary characteristics and changes in their perception of smell and taste due to their condition. This study conducted in-depth interviews and administered olfactory and gustatory tests on 20 patients with gastric cancer. A control group of 20 healthy, gender and age matched individuals, was included for comparison. Patients reported difficulties in sustaining their appetite, particularly during chemotherapy. This could be attributed to gastrointestinal discomfort and an altered perception of smell and taste. The olfactory test revealed that cancer patients were significantly less sensitive than the control group. Also, a smaller number of participants in the cancer group were reported to have a normal taste function, which enabled them to perceive umami, one of the five basic taste compared to those in the control group. These findings demonstrated that gastric cancer patients experience post-surgical digestive issues, chemotherapy-induced changes in smell and taste, and appetite loss. To improve the quality of life of these patients and the efficacy of the treatment, it is necessary to consider not only their nutritional requirements but also other factors such as appetite loss and discomfort when developing meals specifically for them.
The objective of this study was to explore how different types of rewards affect customers’ inclinations to engage in environmental activities promoted through restaurant social media platforms. In addition, we investigated the potential moderating role of customer level of participation within the social media community. A total of 202 valid responses obtained by distributing a self-administered survey among restaurant patrons were subjected to hierarchical regression analysis to examine relationships between variables. The findings underscored the significant influence of economic and social rewards on shaping customer intent to participate in environmental initiatives promoted within restaurant social media communities. Furthermore, the study revealed that the extent of customer participation within the social media community moderated the relationship between rewards and their likelihood to partake in environmentally conscious behaviors. These results have meaningful implications for restaurant managers seeking to promote environmental initiatives effectively through social media platforms and within their establishments.
In this study, the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior (ETPB) was applied to analyze consumers’ intention to purchase meal kits. The perception of ESG management practiced by companies was used as a moderating variable to investigate its influence and moderating effects between each variable. An online survey was conducted over 4 days in January 2023 on consumers aged 20 years or older who had purchased meal kits within 6 months. Hypotheses were tested using IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 and AMOS 24.0 programs with an effective sample size of 324 copies (100%). Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, perceived sustainable package, and price sensitivity of the theory of planned behavior toward meal kit products had a significant positive effect on purchase intention, and all research hypotheses were accepted. The moderating effect of consumers' perceptions of ESG management practiced by companies had a positive and significant effect on attitude and perceived behavioral control.
This study was conducted to identify the nutrition literacy levels of Korean adults and the associated influencing factors. A total of 770 adults aged 19–64 years participated in online surveys and individual interviews conducted according to age groups from May to October 2021. The results of the evaluation of the nutrition literacy levels showed that the average correct answer rate among the participants was 78.7%. Nutrition literacy levels were found to be high in females, lower age groups, metropolis residents, those with high monthly incomes, and those with a bachelor’s degree or higher. Multiple regression analysis showed that males, higher age groups, and rural area residents had a negative correlation with nutrition literacy compared with that of females, lower age groups, and metropolis residents. A more positive correlation was observed in those with higher monthly incomes and educational degrees. In the future, experts should monitor whether the nutritional information transmitted through various forms of media is correct or incorrect, and specific measures should be taken to enhance nutrition literacy to promote the health and nutrition management of Korean adults.
We performed a study to examine the association between diet quality and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our study included 3,586 women aged 40-64 years who participated in the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study subjects were classified into the NAFLD group (n=816) and the normal group (n=2,770) using the hepatic steatosis index. The anthropometric indices, blood profiles, and dietary intake data of the subjects were obtained. The waist circumference, body mass index, and the serum levels of triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in the NAFLD compared to the normal groups (p<0.001, respectively). The intakes of protein (g/kg body weight, p<0.001), potassium (p<0.001), and vitamin A (p=0.006) were significantly lower in the NAFLD group. It was observed that the higher the total Korean Healthy Eating Index score, the lower the risk of NAFLD. A reverse relationship was shown between the NAFLD risk and the intakes of total fruits, total vegetables, vegetables excluding Kimchi and pickled vegetables, meat, fish, eggs and beans. Therefore, it is recommended that middleaged women in Korea increase their intakes of fruits, vegetables, and foods high in protein for the proper management of NAFLD.