The changes in DNA damage were investigated during storage after irradiation. Potato, garlic were irradiated at 0.05, 0.07, 0.1 and 0.15 kGy and stored for 3 months. Ginger was irradiated at 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 kGy and stored for 1 month. The comet assay was applied to the sample immediately after irradiation and at the end of storage. Samples were isolated, grounded and the suspended cells were embedded in an agarose layer. After lysis of the cells, they were electrophoresed for 1 min. and then stained. DNA fragmentation in seeds caused by irradiation was quantified as tail length and tail moment (tail length ×% DNA in tail) by comet image analyzing system. Right after irradiation, the differences in tail length between unirradiated and irradiated samples were significant(p〈0.05) in potato, garlic and ginger. With increasing the irradiation doses, statistically significant longer extension of the DNA from the nucleus toward anode was observed. The results represented as tail moment showed similar tendency to those of tail length. Similarly in the stored samples, even 1 or 3 months after irradiation, all the irradiated samples significantly showed longer tail length than the unirradiated controls. These results indicate that the comet assay could be one of the simple methods of detecting irradiated samples. Moreover, the method could detect DNA damage even after 1 or 3 months after irradiation.
A study on the recognition on the mushrooms by elementary school pupils, middle school students and school dietitians were-carried out. The ways of cooking mushrooms by school dietitians were also investigated. Most students and dietitians highly recognized mushrooms as good food. The most favorite mushroom was Flammulina velutipes, the cooking of mushrooms with meat and the hot mushroom soup with meat(Jungol) being the most preferred cooking methods. School ditetitians like to use mushrooms in school lunch and generally use medium or high duality mushrooms. Students, however, do not tend to prefer mushrooms compared to other vegetables. Mushroom dishes that can promote the consumption by students are mushroom bulgogi, mushroom pizza, sweet and sour mushroom in the order.
This study was conducted to develop functional muffin in which grape seed extract(GSE) was added at 0, 0.5, 1 or 2% levels and to evaluate the quality characteristics. The volume of muffin decreased with the increasing GSE content, but no significant differences were observed. The weight and height of muffins increased with the increasing GSE content. The incorporation of GSE in the product lowered lightness (L value) and increased redness(a value). The mechanical texture parameters including hardness, springiness, gumminess and brittleness increased with the increasing GSE levels. Sensory analysis showed that muffin prepared with 0.5% GSE was considered to be as acceptable as control, based on hedonic scale ratings given by untrained taste panel.
This study is on the changing pattern of fish-and-shellfish uses during the last two thirds of Chosun period on the premise that they are influenced by development of fishing technology. With a literary approach, this paper researches how fish-and-shellfish production and consumption pattern changed, especially in relation to technological development of fisheries. First, we examine into the changes of fishery production. And next, we analyze the kind and cooking method of fish-and-shellfish in [Eum-sik-di-mi-bang](1670) and [Gyu-hap-chong-seo](1815). The analysis of two books revealed that there were significant differences in fish-and-shellfish uses. Because the two books were written with a gap of 145 years and the development of fishing technology and remarkable changes of fishery production affected on the fish-and-shellfish uses. Due to primitive fishing tools and skills, fresh-water and reverse-river-fish and shellfish had been caught in substantial amount until the middle ages of Chosun period. As a result, the availability of seafood were limited extremely even in the upper classes. These situations are evidenced by the analysis of [Eum-sik-di-mi-bang]. Only 12 kinds of fish-and-shellfish are described in [Eum-sik-di-mi-bang]. Most of the sesfoods is mollusc which is easy to catch. As for the salt-water fish, dried cod and dried herring were mentioned. Mullet, the reverse-water-fish, is used most frequently. Only one kind of 'Hoe', which needs extreme freshness, is described. This means that the use of fresh fish-and-shellfish was very limited to some kinds which could be caught near the village. As the netting fishery began to be developed in the 18th century, the production of some salt-water fishes, such as anchovy, shrimp, yellow corvina, pollack, and herring, had increased remarkably to make marine resources more available. Small fish, such as anchovy and shrimp were preserved as 'Jeot-gal' and sold nationwide. Therefore, 'Jeot-gal' and seafood could be used in Kimchi around this time and had a deep influence on the change of Kimchi in taste and nutrition. In [Gyu-hap-chong-seo], 33 kinds of fish-and-shellfish are described. Including cod and herring, 17 kinds of sea water fish and mollusc are mentioned. Some of these are consumed in fresh state, neither as dried nor as salted. Because the merchants promoted the transport of seafoods to other regions according to the growth of commercial economy. As a result the diet of the people could be enriched by the various seafoods.
Rather than focusing on the general recognition of the area and extensive preference about its native cuisine, this study carried out more practical examination on the recognition of the native cuisine by presenting the more detailed introduction of the native cuisine in Hadong area. The findings of this study can be used as basic materials to devise measures for the instillation and advertisement of Hadong area's image, the development and maintenance of its native cuisine benefiting the activation of the local economy, and the reestablishment of Hadong area's native cuisine culture. First, the overall recognition of Hadong area's native cuisine was low and more consumption needs to be boosted by merchandising its foods through the strengthening of recognition. Second, correlation between this area's native cuisine was revealed and tables need to be set and menus need to be organized with this correlation in mind. Basic materials for suggestion sale were garnered. Third, given that most outside tourists visit Hadong by word mouth of all the information sources available, it is highly likely that positive word of mouth through satisfaction with native cuisine will raise the overall recognition of the area. Fourth, precise subdivision market and target market need to be specified. Though the factors like economic costs and the time required cannot be overlooked in strengthening recognition, consistent advertisement to the middle-aged people who are over 40 and live in Kyungsang-Do area will contribute to the fast rise in the recognition of Hadong area's native cuisine, leading to the possibility of economic development in the process.
This study is to investigate the trend of researches on food and culture from 1990 to 2003. With a literary approach, this paper analyzes how many papers were published and what was the major research subject. We classified the journals published during this time into 10 different categories and we are to grasp a research trend. 1) Historical approach on the traditional food and food habit; 2) Globalization of Koran food; 3) Use and preparation for traditional food; 4) Table setting and table manner; 5) Provincial cuisine; 6) Traditional festive food or celebratory meal; 7) Religious food; 8) Fusion food; 9) Food and culture in foreign countries and food habit of Korean people living abroad; 10) Studies related with satins out. It was revealed that 268 papers(=ps) were published. Eating out was the most frequently reported subject(100 ps), followed by provincial cuisine(54 ps), use and preparation for traditional food(49 ps), food habit for foreign people and Korean people living abroad(22 ps). Researches on these 4 topics have been accelerated since the late half of 1990s. This reflects the social factors such as rapid growth of food service industry, settlement of local autonomy, popularization of leisure activities and accelerated introduction of foreign food and culture. Half of the studies on the eating out dealt with eating out behavior. And 30 papers were reports on the food service industry situations. More than half of the studies on the provincial cuisine(26 ps) were concentrated on digging out recipes. Studies on the use and preparation for traditional food were mainly about what kind of food and how often the food is used(17 ps). Kimchi was the most frequently studied food. There were 11 papers regarding food and culture in foreign countries. Most of the authors were historians or linguists. Food habit of Korean people living abroad were investigated in 7 papers. There was few studies on fusion food, table setting and table manner. This doesn't meet with increasing demand for specialized information in then fields. Researches on the traditional festive food or celebratory meal(5 ps) and religious food(9 ps) were negligible. Papers on the historical approach to the traditional food and food habit were limited(12 ps). Moreover, most of them were patchwork of existing literatures. Continuous researches to exploit the historical facts based on literary proof should be tried with patience. Otherwise, the papers will copy the hackneyed knowledge repeatedly. Globalization of Korean food means the development of Korean food for foreign people and export of them worldwide. Only 16 papers were reported on this subject, 14 of them were published after 2000, 8 of them were surveys on the foreigners' food preference. In order to get practical informations on what we develope and how we sell for the foreign customers, profound research on their food habit should be done.
The purpose of this study was to examine Korean restaurant industry during 1979~2001, and to review Korean restaurant industry related by statistics. Finally, to predict the Korean restaurant industry, major restaurant industry was categorized into fast food restaurants, family restaurants, pizza restaurants and ice cream restaurants. A contents analysis used to review Korea food industry yearly statistics and monthly magazine 'restaurant'. Korean food service industry yearly statistics have been published since 1980, the magazine 'Restaurant' has been published since 1985, but the statistics was recorded from 1995.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of food habits and anxiety level of obese children on body weight control program. The body weight control program included nutrition education, psychotherapy and exercise for weekly session during 9 months. The results from this study were as follows. A total of 27 obese children(boys 44.4%, girls 55.6%) participated in this study. The average age of children was 11.7 years, average height and weight were 141.7cm and 48.1kg respectively. Rohrer index(RI) of children was significantly decreased from 167 to 163(p〈0.001) and BMI was significantly decreased from 24.5 to 23.9 (p〈0.01) after body weight control program. This study also found obesity index(OI) was significantly decreased from 133% to 128%(p〈0.01) of 18 children after program. There was not significant difference in food habits score but frequency of overeating, and eating frequency of meats were significantly decreased(p〈0.05) after body weight control program. Also depression score significantly decreased after body weight control program(p〈0.001) and there was significant negative correlation(r=-0.552) between food habits and anxiety level. The factors analysis of anxiety items indicated that children had feelings more calm and sate after program(p〈0.05). Therefore continuous and practical nutritional education and psychotherapy to change food habits and anxiety level are necessary to decrease child obesity. These results suggest that body weight control program including nutrition education, exercise and psychotherapy may be effective physiological and psychological body health of obese children.
This study was conducted to investigate eating-out behavior patterns of youths, especially junior high and senior high school students. 1600 questionnaire surveys were distributed and 1487 were used for analysis. In order to consider regional differences as well as overall characteristics of youths' eating-out behaviors, the subjects were evenly sampled from north Seoul, south Seoul, big cities, middle/small cities and small towns. As for the frequency of eating-out, 62.7% of respondents answered once to twice per week. For the can of more than 5 times of eating-out per week, the respondents from south Seoul showed the highest frequency. For the case of no eating-out, the highest frequency was shown from the small towns. As for the most frequently visited place for eating-out, 33.6% of respondents answered Korean style restaurants, and 17.6% Boon-sik(Sanck-bar). Regarding the preference of Korean style restaurants, the highest rate was shown from the residents of big cities. For the question of when they eat out, 89.6% answered dinner and 6.3% lunch. For the question about reason of choosing particular restaurants, 61.5% of respondents referred to tastes and 16.6% price. For the question of the most important reason of eating out, 52.6% point out 'meal solution' and 25.6% 'for meeting.' As for the people accompanied when eating out, 67.2% of the respondents answered family. For the cost of eating out per person, 45.7% of the respondents spent 2000-4000 won for lunch; 31.1% spent 5000-10,000 won for dinner; 33.7% of the respondents spent more than 20,000 won for the special events. Regarding the regional differences of eating-out cost, respondents from south Seoul tended to spend the biggest amount of money for lunch, dinner and special day.
This study was conducted to examine contents of total acid and free amino acids in the Demi-glace with added quantity of Omija extracts. Firstly, The level of Total acid content of Demi-glace sauces was 1.08~1.89% and Omija extracts was 2.77~7.24%. The more Omija extracts added, there was the higher total acid contents. Sauces and extracts of 5% Omija was the highest. Secondly, Total free amino acids contents of control was 2518.52mg%, and Omija sauces was 2261.52~2894.14mg%. 2% Omija sauces was the highest among them. Hydroxyproline of total 34 free amino acids was the highest, and Glutamic acid 158.42mg%, Proline 78.90mg% was next in order. Arginine was the highest with 27.40~34.40mg% among 9 essential amino acids contents. Glutamic acid was the highest contents with 123.18~158.42mg%. Compared to control's(0.41mg%), Omija added group was 20.63~27.82mg% and it was the highest increase. While other 15 amino acid was analyzed, Hydroxyproline was the highest contents with 1,737.22~2,205.80mg%. Compared to control group(15.63mg%), proline was 57.01~78.90mg% Omija added group and it was increased with the highest contents. In essential amino acid, flavor enhancing amino acid and other amino acid were increased and the highest contents with 2% added Omija sauce. Thirdly, sensory characteristics of Demi-glace sauces based on overall preference, It was find that 2% added Omija was the best. 2% added was the best for color, flavor, taste, texture, overall acceptability(P〈.001). In terms of Demi-glace sauces' gender preference, male and female people liked 2% added Omija color, flavor, taste, texture, overall acceptability. It was find that there was no significant differences between male and female.
The Physicochemical, sensory and cooking properties of functionally fortified rice with dietary fiber and chitosan were compared with regular rice when the rices were cooked with pressure and electric cookers. Moisture content of functional rice before cooking was 11.11%, which was lower than 13.72% in regular rice. Accordingly, moisture contents of functional rice samples cooked both with pressure and electric cookers were lower than those of regular rice. L value showing the degree of lightness of cooked rice was significantly higher in rice samples cooked with pressure cookers. The α value, the degree of redness and the b value, the degree of yellowness, were the highest in the functional rice cooked with an electric rice cookers. Textural measurement of hardness using a rheometer showed the highest value in functional rice cooked with a pressure cooker. The degree of gelatinization measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before cooking showed higher onset gelatinization temperature (T0) and peak gelatinization temperature (Tp) in functional rice compared with those in regular rice. The gelatinization enthalpy (δH) of functional rice was lower than that of regular rice, showing that functional foe had lower gelatinization energy compared with regular rice. When the samples were stored in a refrigerator for one week, the DSC showed faster retrogradation degrees in samples cooked with electric rice cooker, having significantly higher enthalpies of regular and functional rice cooked with electric cooked compared to those cooked with pressure cookers. The functional rice samples cooked with pressure cooker had higher consumer acceptance test values compared to those cooked with electric cookers.