This study examined the status of food specialties in Korea during the Japanese colonial period through『Specialities of Joseon (朝鮮の特産)』. The book recorded a total of 164 areas and 317 specialties, focusing on five railway lines and branch lines on the Gyeongbu, Honam, Gyeongui, Gyeongwon, and Hamgyeong. Among the specialities, 211 species were included, excluding overlapping ones. The food specialties accounted for 100 kinds in 159 regions or 47.4 percent of the specialties. There were 47 food specialties in 47 areas of the Gyeongbu Line, 21 food specialties in 20 areas of the Honam Line, 32 food specialties in 40 areas of the Gyeongui Line, 26 food specialties in 15 areas of the Gyeongwon Line, and 33 food specialties in 42 areas of the Hamgyeong Line. Among the specialties, the amount of fish and their workpiece was overwhelmingly the largest. Next came processed goods of fruits, grains, and vegetables. In modern factories, corn, tomatoes, blueberries, and sardines were made of processed goods. Factories have been constructed for glass noodles, sugar, and soju. Specialities and processed goods produced in each region were brought to Japan during the Japanese colonial period.
This study reviewed the literature on the changes in Maekjeok, Seoryamyeok and Neobiani. Choi Nam-sun first mentioned the Maekjeok in「Maeilsinbo」 as a “Buyeo·Goguryeo” style meat roast in 1937. Maekjeok was assumed to be made of various kinds of meat, including wild boars, and it was seasoned and baked as a whole. Seoryamyeok is a royal food found in Uigwe of the Joseon Dynasty and meat that was also eaten in the private sector. In 1609, the ingredients for the dish were pork, but beef was later used. The recipe has been simplified since the 19th century. Neobiani is known as royal cuisine, but it does not appear in official records. The first known record thus far is ‘Neobiani’ in「Siuijeonseo」. On the other hand, ‘Neobuhalmi’ which was presumed to be the same food as ‘Neobiani’, was found in a「Dictionnaire Coreen- Francais」(1880). In addition, ‘Neobiani’ was found in「A Korean-English dictionary」(1897). From Maekjeok, followed by Seoryamyeok and Neobiani, Korean roasting meat culture has a common feature of roasting pre-sauced meat, and this trait has continued to bulgogi.
This study examined the nutritional status and dietary behaviors of university students in Gangwon-do as well as the effects of dietary education on them. Forty college students were recruited, and their dietary lifestyle was examined using an Adult NQ questionnaire before and after dietary education. The questionnaire items were grouped into four categories: balance, diversity, moderation, and dietary behavior. The mean NQ score out of 100 was 48.00. Among the three grades of the NQ grade criteria, most subjects (50%) were in the lowest grade, which was poor. The mean scores of the NQ factors were highest for moderation (68.76%), followed in order by diversity (50.81%), dietary behavior (45.66%), and balance (21.01%). Compared to the criterion value, moderation was only good, and balance was the worst. These results suggest that the nutritional status of the subjects is poor. On the other hand, there was a significant change in the areas of the NQ score (53.7), balance (29.22) and dietary behavior (56.77) after dietary education. Nevertheless, the ‘balance’ area remained lower than the average, highlighting the need for education on food intake to enable diverse food intake.
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the consumption behaviors for purchase of Home Meal Replacement (HMR) products and importance and satisfaction on selective attributes of HMR in middle-aged adults by gender. The subjects were 919 middle-aged adults (400 males and 519 females; 40 to 64 years) residing in Seoul and its metropolitan area, who have HMR purchasing experience. The survey was conducted from January to August 2018. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 23.0 program. Consumption frequency of HMR products in male and female subjects was 1-2 times a month by 42.3% and 40.8% and 4-6 times a month by 26.8% and 19.8%, respectively (p<0.05). Reasons for purchasing HMR in male and female subjects were shown significantly different from saving time by 44.8% and 50.5% and easy cooking by 25.8% and 16.6%, respectively (p<0.01). HMR products with high preference and satisfaction for the subjects included Gimbap, precooked dried rice, and frozen food. According to the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA), selective attributes of HMR with high importance and low satisfaction in the second quadrant were food additives, origin, nutrient content, and price, for both male and female subjects; additionally, hygiene was a factor included only by female subjects. Therefore, these results suggest that it is needed to consider to produce HMR products with improved qualities using reliable food materials and ingredients and to maintain competitive pricing for the expansion of HMR products consumption of middle-aged adults.
This study assessed the nutrient consumption of children from lunch at day care centers and kindergartens. A total of 184 lunch plates were selected in two child day care centers and two kindergartens in Seoul. Weights of the menus in planned meals were measured and amount of served and consumed lunches were calculated using a digital photography technique. Nutrients of the planned, served, and consumed lunches were assessed using CAN-Pro 4.0 and the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) was calculated for each meal. Compared with the estimated energy requirement for lunch for 3-5 year old children, the planned meals of the child day care centers and kindergartens contributed 42.8% and 98.8% of the daily energy requirements, respectively. At a child day care center, a served meal provided more nutrients than a planned meal since some children requested more servings after eating the served meals. This showed that the planned meal did not meet children’s needs as well as the nutrient requirements. At the other child care center, children were served less than the planned meal by 6.8%, which resulted in serving less energy, calcium, potassium, and vitamin C than the required nutrients for lunch. Kindergarten A served meals with the energy requirement for lunch of 101.8%, but Kindergarten B served a meal with the energy requirement of 83.5%. Since the served portions were too small to meet nutrient requirements of the children, they consumed almost all the food served, and their nutrient consumption was similar to the nutrients served. Even though they consumed all the food served, their nutrient consumption did not meet their nutritional requirements. When assessed by INQ, the quality of the meal was good; children could consume enough nutrients when served proper quantity. Teachers who are responsible for serving meals need to be educated on proper portion sizes and how to encourage children to practice healthy eating. To promote healthy eating among children, parents need to provide children with messages consistent with what they have learned at institutions and to be a good role model in daily dietary life.
This study examined the relative importance and the effective utility of fermented milk by consumers. The questionnaire was developed by an in-depth interview and literature review and was surveyed on-line. Statistical analysis was carried out descriptive analysis, ANOVA, paired t-test, and conjoint analysis using the SPSS package. First, an analysis of the consumption status of fermented milk found that the consumption frequency was 1-2 times/week (36.2%), 3-4 times/week (26.5%). The product choice attributes of fermented milk were found to be the same with ‘taste’ (3.93) and ‘manufacturing date/expired date’ (3.92), rated the highest, followed in order by, ‘sanitary quality’ (3.82), ‘origin of ingredient’ (3.81). Comparative analysis of the importance and satisfaction level of the choice attributes of fermented milk showed that the choice attributes with lower satisfaction compared to importance were ‘taste’, ‘nutrients’, ‘manufacturing data/expired date’, ‘sanitation quality’, ‘price’, ‘manufacturing method’ and ‘certification of quality’ (p<0.001, p<0.01). ‘Price’ and ‘certification of quality’ were the choice attributes of fermented milk classified as ‘Focus Here’ because of its high importance and low satisfaction. The preferred combination of relative importance in choice attributes of the fermented milk was ‘domestic resource’, ‘Eat with spoon’, and ‘none additives’. Therefore, it is believed that sales will increase if dairy companies can improve the ‘price’ and ‘certification of quality’. In addition, the use of domestic ingredients in the development of new fermented milk products in the future could be an important marketing factor in consumer choice.
This study examined the dietary behaviors and dietary quality of high school students according to the number of times they skipped breakfast. A total of 474 high school students (225 boys and 249 girls) residing in Incheon participated in this survey. The subjects were divided into the three groups according to the frequency of eating breakfast; Regualr (eating breakfast everyday, n=226), Irregualar (eating breakfast 1~6 times/week, n=143, and Skipping (skipping breakfast everyday, n=105). The dietary quality was assessed using a nutrient quotient for adolescents (NQ-A). A higher monthly allowance and a higher rate of working mothers were significantly associated with a higher frequency of skipping breakfast. A higher intake frequency of processed beverages, and street food was significantly associated with a higher frequency of skipping breakfast. Students who had a higher rate of breakfast skipping had significantly lower intake frequency of fruits, white milk, bean and bean products, and fish. The high frequency of skipping breakfast among high school students was associated with lower dietary quality, as illustrated by the low total NQ-A score and sub group score including balance, environment, and practice. This information can inform efforts to provide nutrition education program to promote breakfast consumption and guidelines to students who skipped breakfast frequently.
This study investigated the effect of offering eco-friendly fashion items on consumers’ perceived image of stores and their intention to purchase food in a hybrid cafe setting. The data were collected using an online survey of 465 adults aged 20 to 49 years. In order to compare ‘a general cafe’ where only food is sold and ‘a hybrid cafe’ which offers eco-friendly fashion items as well as food, we developed two store types (general×hybrid) with two store designs (modern×eco-friendly) as stimuli, resulting in four scenarios. The results indicated that offering eco-friendly fashion items at a cafe did not significantly affect consumers’ perceived eco-friendly image of the store. Further, this negatively affected consumers’ perceived healthy and tasty images of the store and intention to purchase food. Such negative effects on the healthy and tasty images of the store increased in the store with a modern design. In conclusion, offering eco-friendly fashion items at cafes may not contribute to enhancing the stores’ images or sales.
This study examined the difference of dietary intake behavior between groups of adults aged >20 years with or without dyslipidemia, and comparing the various types of dyslipidemia, based on the Seventh (2016) KNHANES. Men showed higher rate for triglyceridemia and LDL-cholesterolemia than women and subjects in the age group 50-59 years exhibited the highest incidence of triglyceridemia, total cholesterolemia and HDL-cholesterolemia. The ratio of obese people was higher in most types of dyslipidemias. The top five foods in each group of cereal & grain, meat, vegetable, and fruit were selected for analysis, based on the food frequency. The dyslipidemia group showed higher intake frequencies for mixed grains, cabbage kimchi and leafy vegetable than the no-dyslipidemia group, and the group with high blood total cholesterol for mixed grains, apple, and cutlassfish-croaker. Group with high blood triglyceride showed higher intake frequencies of rice and mackerel-mackerel pike than the other groups of high blood triglyceride. No food showed significant difference in the frequencies between groups of LDL-cholesterol. Group with high blood HDL-cholesterol showed higher intake frequency of bibim-fried rice, deep fried chicken, stir fried chicken, apple, tangerine, banana and butter-margarine. These results indicate that people with high levels of blood total cholesterol are more concerned with food having health benefits than those with abnormal levels of other blood lipid. More information on dietary benefits need to be provided to patients having high levels of triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol.
Two experiments were conducted to determine how much sodium in food could be detected using a salinity meter. First, the salinity of mixed solutions of 0 to 6% sugar, 0 to 5% oil, and 0 to 6.4% MSG in a 1% NaCl solution was measured using a salinity meter and a Mohr titration method, and the results were compared with the calculated sodium expectations. As a result, the sodium contents of the sugar solutions and MSG solutions measured using a salinity meter were lower than the expected concentrations at 2% or more and 0.8% or more, respectively (p<0.05). The salinity of the 18 HMR products was measured in the same way, and the results were then compared with the sodium contents of the nutrition facts. The average sodium content of all products measured using the salinity meter and Mohr method was 1.12 times and 1.06 times the sodium content of the nutrition facts, respectively. On the other hand, the differences between the products were significant. The correlation coefficients between the nutrition facts and salinity meter, the nutrition facts and the Mohr method, and the salinity meter and Mohr method were 0.885, 0.920, and 0.950, respectively (p<0.01).
This study investigated the effect of temperature deviation on the water-holding capacity, tenderness, lipid oxidation, and color stability of Korean Hanwoo (韓牛) beef during long-term aging. The striploins (M. longissimus lumborum) were aged for 56 days at 2±1oC (T1), 2±2oC (T2), or 2±3oC (T3). Drip loss and cooking loss were higher (p<0.05) in T3 than in T1 on day 56. The Warner-Bratzler shear force value was similar for all treatments during aging times. On day 56, the content of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was higher (p<0.05) in T3 as compared to T1. The CIE L* and b* values were similar for all treatments, but the a* value was lower (p<0.05) in T3 than in T1 on the last day. These findings indicate that high temperature deviation adversely affects the water-holding capacity, lipid oxidation stability, and color stability of Hanwoo beef during long-term aging.
The purpose of this study was to optimize the rice protein extracted using a response surface methodology. The experiment was designed based on a CCD (Central Composite Design), and the independent variables were the high pressure (X1, 0-400 MPa) and processing time (X2, 0-10 minutes). The results of the extraction content (Y1), residue content (Y2), and recovery yield (Y3) were fitted to a response surface methodology model (R2= 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93, respectively). Increasing the pressure and processing time has a positive effect on the extraction content (Y1), residue content (Y2), and recovery yield (Y3). Therefore, these high-pressure conditions (independent variables) can significantly affect the improvement in rice protein extraction efficiency. Thus, the optimal conditions of X1 and X2 were 400 MPa and 10 min., respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted values of Y1, Y2, and Y3 were 62.93, 57.53 mg/g, and 91.76%, respectively.
This study examined the changes in the protein and mineral composition of Gryllus bimaculatus fermented with Bacillus substilis and the mycelia of Basidiomycetes. Normal Gryllus bimaculatus (S) and experimental group data obtained after an inoculation of Bacillus substilis (SC) (KACC 19623), Pleurotus eryngii (SP) and Cordyceps millitaris (SC) were compared. The crude protein content of the Gryllus bimaculatus (control) was 75.48%, but it decreased to 64.55, 54.32, and 63.53% after fermentation with SB, SP and SC, respectively (p<0.05). An analysis of the organic elements showed that the contents of the carbon and nitrogen sources were also reduced after fermentation, and the most significant decrease was observed after fermentation with SP. In SDS-PAGE, a 120 kDa and a 48 kDa protein of Gryllus bimaculatus were found. On the other hand, protein bands faded after fermentation with SP and SC, respectively. Moreover, no visible band was observed after fermentation with SB. According to amino acid analysis, the total free amino acid content increased 3.84 and 1.74 times after fermentation with SB and SP, respectively, compared to the corresponding baseline data. In contrast, it decreased by 0.52 times after fermentation with SC. Among the essential amino acids found in crickets fermented with SB, the valine and isoleucine content was 3.57 and 2.64 times higher, respectively, than the recommended daily amount of essential amino acids.
This study was performed to examine the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of the sponge cakes with different contents (0, 2, 4, 6, 8%, w/w) of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) powder (LBP). An increase in LBP content in the cake led to a significant increase in the baking loss rate, specific volume, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, total phenol contents and total flavonoid contents of the cakes (p<0.05). As the LBP content increased, significant decreases were shown in the specific gravity of batter, sugar contents, pH, lightness, redness and yellowness of the cakes (p<0.05). Ash contents, uniformity index and other textural properties of hardness, springness, cohesiveness, and brittleness did not show any significant differences between the sample groups (p>0.05). These results suggest that LBP can be applied to sponge cakes to achieve positive textural properties such as uniform pore formation and increased volume with increased antioxidant properties.
Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai is a deciduous shrub of a flowering plant in Oleaceae. It is an important plant resource and consists of only one species in the entire world. A. distichum Nakai is well known an edible, medicinal herb in its habitat districts, but the toxicological evaluation for the safe use of its extract is still insufficient. The study characterized the toxicity of an Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai ethanol extract in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and determined the safe dosage levels in a 13 weeks toxicity study. Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai ethanol extract was orally administered once daily for 2 weeks at 0, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day to male and female SD rats. while recording the clinical signs of toxicity, body weight, food intake/consumption, eye test and urine analysis. Only the total protein frequency in the urine of male SD rats (p<0.05), the right ovary of the 500 mg/kg group (p<0.01) and the right adrenal gland of the 1,000 mg/kg group (p<0.05) in the female rats showed statistically significant changes. But no toxic effects were noted from repeated-dose administration of the Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai ethanol extract in the SD rats during the observation period. The post-mortem examinations showed no test substance-mediated changes. The hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry data demonstrated no toxic effects from repeated-dose administration of Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai ethanol extract in the SD rats during the observation period. Based on these results, this data suggests that a dose of 1,000 mg/kg/day is a highest treatment to administer when conducting a further 13 weeks toxicity study.