The aim of this study was to compare the dietary patterns and behaviors of female university students according to their type of residence. The subjects consisted of 369 female students from the Gyeongju area. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The SPSS 14.0 statistical package was used for the data analysis. The results are as follows: the height and weight means were 162.7±4.6 cm and 53.9±6.7 kg respectively. For BMI, 44.2% of the subjects were with in the normal (18.5-23) and 49.1% were underweight and 6.2% were overweight. In terms of alcohol consumption, 78.9% of the subjects consumed alcoholic beverages, and there was no significant difference by the type of residence However, for drink proportion and the preferred type of alcoholic drink there were significant differences by the type of residence (p〈0.001). Third, for smoking status and the intention of quitting smoking there were significant differences by the type of residence (p〈0.000, p〈0.05 respectively). Also, for exercise regularity and preference as well as food preference and taste, there were again significant differences by the type of residence (p〈0.001). Finally, in terms of breakfast intake and kinds of foods eaten at breakfast significant differences were found by the type of residence (p〈0.01).
The objective of this study was to investigate a method to improve and to increase the utilization of Korean traditional food in middle school students by examining preferences and perceptions. Middle school students in Seoul area were surveyed from 29 November to 6 December 2007. The results are summarized as follows: 83.9% students ate Korean food as breakfast. The reasons for the success of Korean food were 'Nation's traditional food' (29.2%), 'fit in taste' (27.4%), and 'suitable match of nutrients' (24.8%). Students responded that the following needed to be changed in order to improve Korean food: 'alleviation of strong taste' (30.3%), 'various cooking methods' (23.9%), and 'convenience of eating the food' (22.1%). Meal preferences in this survey of middle school students were 'Korean food' (4.09), 'Western food' (4.08), 'Japanese food' (4.00), 'Chinese food' (3.91) and 'Fast food' (3.55). Perceptions in the taste of Korean food were 'spicy taste' (3.28), 'hot taste' (3.22), and 'salty taste' (3.15). Male students (3.23) perceived a higher salty taste than female students (3.05). Expectations for the taste of Korean food included 'spicy taste' (3.16) and hot taste (3.03). Male students (3.25) anticipated the spicier taste more than female students (3.05).
This study examined the changes of side dishes in "Eumsikdimibang", "Gyuhapchongseo", "Chosunmusangsinsikyorijebub" over time. As food ingredients, seaweed, red pepper, salted fish, Korean hot pepper paste have been used in "Gyuhapchongseo". The use of cattle by parts, saltwater fish, Chinese cabbage, powdered red pepper, garlic have increased in"Chosunmusangsinsikyorijebub". Cooking techniques, such as the use of wheat flour, a double boiler by the use of steam, and boiling and then roasting cuisine were mostly used in"Eumsikdimibang", but reduced in"Gyuhapchongseo". In "Gyuhapchongseo", the cooking methods are primarily aimed at a positive visual effect, and slices of dried meat seasoned with spices have increased. In"Chosunmusangsinsikyorijebub", various Tang (Guk), the taste of food changed by controlling the gravy content (Gigimi, Chigye, Chorim), meat mixing oil, vegetable and mushroom together to cook and boiling down the main food ingredients to soak the seasoning were increased. Dog-meat steamed dish using the intestine of dog in "Eumsikdimibang" was changed to small intestine of cattle steamed dish in "Gyuhapchongseo". And seasoned dog meat with choncho in "Eumsikdimibang" influenced on beef tail soup with Korean hot pepper paste in "Gyuhapchongseo", and Yookgyejang soup using Korean hot pepper paste in"Chosunmusangsinsikyorijebub". In steamed young chicken, the stuffing such as soybean paste, choncho, welsh onion, leek and flour in "Eumsikdimibang" was changed to minced beef, welsh onion, dropwort and Shiitake mushroom in"Gyuhapchongseo". The steamed young chicken in "Chosunmusangsinsikyorijebub" with stuffing was added to chicken soup using glutinous rice, and ginseng powder. Now, the chicken soup was changed to Samgyetang with glutinous rice, and ginseng. In "Chosunmusangsinsikyorijebub", various vegetable dishes were cooked with beef.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between personal value and the motivation for drinking of Korean undergraduate student alcohol drinkers. Data were obtained from undergraduate students experienced in alcohol consumption in Seoul, Kyeonggi-do, and Kyeongsangnam-do. Trained researchers for this particular study conducted the survey and data from 208 students was analyzed using the SPSS package program. In this study, two personal values were examined: 'internal value' and 'external value', and four motives for drinking alcohol were identified: social motive, coping motive, enhancement motive, and conformity motive. The results of the present study showed that personal value had significant effects on the motives for drinking of Korean undergraduate student alcohol drinkers: 1) The internal value was significant on the coping motive and enhancement motive. 2) The external value was significant on the social motive. 3) Neither value was significant on the conformity motive. Based on the findings of the present study, personal value would be a useful variable in the field of alcoholic beverage marketing such as alcohol consumption, consumer behaviors and segmentation of the alcoholic beverage market.
This study was conducted to develop the unique native local foods of Namwon and to provide basic data needed to reinvigoratethe tourist industry and local economy. Perception and satisfaction with native local foods of Namwon were surveyed in 483 tourists (246 men and 237 women 53% visiting Namwon for the first time). Of the participants, 41.2% did not stay or eat in Namwon. Most tourists visited with other family members and spent approximately 20,000 won per capita on food. Of the foods sampled for the first time, preferred foods were (in order of preference and intention to order again) Chueo-tang, Hanjeongsik, wild edible greens-jeongsik, and black pork. The degree of food satisfaction was relatively favorable (3.54±0.08 points on a 5-point satisfaction scale), with taste being the most important factor affecting the degree of satisfaction for 92.9% of the subjects. However, willingness to revisit Namwon on the basis of the local foods was not as high as the degree of satisfaction with the foods. Insufficient information and publicity concerning Namwon local foods were cited as impediments, and suggested improvements included taste, sanitation and food-based tourism. The degree of satisfaction was higher in men than in women. Age, residence, and occupation were not related to the degree of satisfaction. But, the willingness to revisit Namwon to sample local foods was related with gender (men more willing) and occupation (public service personnel, business owners, salaried employees, professionals, and housewives more willing, in order). Women in general and housewives in particular were most critical in food assessment.
This study was conducted to investigate bone density and food behavior of middle-aged (〈65-years-of-age) and oldaged women (≥65-years-of-age) in the Seoul area of Korea. Average height and weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-hip ration (WHR) of the middle-aged participants were 158.0 cm, 58.4 kg, 23.3, 29.7%, and 0.88. Corresponding measurements for old-aged participants were 152.6 cm, 56.3 kg, 24.1, 33.1%, and 0.93. T- and Z-scores for middle-aged women were -1.20 and -0.21, and those of old-aged women were -2.02 and -0.49. Osteopenia and osteoporosis percentage of middle- and old-aged women were 41.2% and 14.7%, and 45.2% and 37.1%, respectively. Significant differences were evident concerning between-meal, overeating, exercise, and nutritional supplementation among the two groups. Middle-aged women displayed a positive relationships between bone density and the parameters of height (p〈0.05), weight (p〈0.05), exercise (p〈0.05), consumption of soybean and soybean-processed food (p〈0.05), and negative relationships between bone density and the parameters of WHR (p〈0.001), consumption of meat and meatprocessed food (p〈0.05), and tea drinking (p〈0.05). In old-aged women group, positive relationships were evident for bone density and the parameters of height (p〈0.05), weight (p〈0.05), exercise (p〈0.05), nutritional supplementation (p〈0.05), and consumption of soybean and soybean-processed food (p〈0.05). The results reveal a link between healthy bones and desirable food behavior, indicating the importance of a practical and systematically organized food behavior education program for middle- and old-aged Korean women.
The aims of study were to provide basic data for the internationalization of Contract Foodservice Management Companies (CFMC) and to gain a better understanding of internal push-and-pull factors through in-depth interviews. The interviewees were managers of four large CFMCs and one small-to-medium CFMC. The non-structured interview format employed an interview guide of open-ended questions. All interviews were digitally recorded and notes were taken simultaneously by an interview assistant. The narrative data analysis involved transcription, coding, classification by categories, and content analysis. Eighty-eight codes were generated from the interview analyses, and the subordinate variables uncovered included seven push factors, eight pull factors, one interactive factor, and 10 internal dynamics. These factors will be useful in further studies of the internal operations of specific CFMCs, and more generally, the practical condition of the industry.
Existing literature on the CRM [Customer Relationship Management] has emphasized the marketing strategies between the franchisor and franchisee. In this study, we focused instead on factors involved in forging relationships based on marketing strategies between franchisee and the customers. A survey questionnaire was completed by 250 customers of Korean-style food franchises located in Seoul and Inchon. Each questions is based on a 5-point likert-type scale. After initial data recording, 41 questionnaires were deleted from the data set because of missing or insincerely answer. Finally, the sample data of 209 questionnaires were used for the statistical analysis. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 13.0 software to assess consumer satisfaction, trust, and support/reputation on flexibility and commitment. Regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between flexibility and commitment. Satisfaction and support/reputation significantly influenced flexibility, both satisfaction and trust significantly influenced commitment, and both flexibility and commitment significantly influenced the restaurant-consumer relationship.
This study examined the effects of added amounts of shrimp powder on the physical and sensory properties of Jook for elderly foodservice operation. According to the amylograph data, the composite shrimp flour-wheat flour samples increased the gelatinization temperature, with increasing shrimp-flour content; moreover, initial viscosity at 95℃, viscosity at 95℃ after 15 minutes, and maximum viscosity were reduced. As the level of shrimp powder in samples increased, L-values decreased, and a-values and b-values increased. In addition, the Jook had higher viscosity and lower spreadability values as the amount of shrimp powder increased. Sensory characteristics, such as nutty taste, color, viscosity, and overall preference increased significantly with the addition of shrimp powder. In conclusion, to enhance the quality of Jook, a 3% addition of shrimp powder would be the most beneficial.
The quality of baked Yackwa with rice bran oil varied with dipping temperature (80 and 25℃) and dipping time (5, 10, and 15 minutes at 80℃, and 60, 90, and 120 minutes at 25℃). The moisture content and hardness of baked Yackwa increased and decreased, respectively, with dipping time. The expansion ratio increased with time when baked Yackwa was dipped at 80℃, but decreased with time when dipped at 25℃. Flavor and color were optimal for product dipped at 80℃ for 15 minutes followed those dipped at 25℃ for 120 minutes; the dipping conditions produced no significant difference in the degree of expension, aroma, texture, and overall quality. Baked Yackwa showed better results than fried Yackwa in sensory evaluation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of tomato sauce, which is widely used in Western cuisine, according to tomato variety. The plum tomato sauce treatment had the highest pH at 4.13 while sauces made with Seo gwang and Young gwang tomatoes exhibited the lowest pH level of 4.07 (p〈0.05). Sweetness was highest in the plum tomato sauce at 9.80˚Brix. This might have been due to the fact that the plum tomato variety was the sweetest among the different tomatoes. There were no significant differences among the treatments in terms of reducing sugars, salinity, or viscosity. A color difference analysis indicated that redness (a-value) was highest in the plum tomato sauce, which contained a high level of lycopene. Sensory evaluations were performed by 15 professional panelists with scoring tests for color, flavor, taste, aftertaste, viscosity, and overall acceptability. The plum tomato sauce received the best scores in every evaluation, except for viscosity. These comparative results will support the development of better quality tomato sauce using plum tomatoes.
The purposes of study were to survey the status of nutrition education in school and investigate the perception of nutrition teacher candidates concerning the direction and ideal method for nutrition education. A questionnaire was distributed to 554 nutrition teacher candidates from August to October, 2006. A total of 468 usable data were collected (84.5% response rate). The statistical data analysis was completed by using SPSS for Windows (ver. 10.0) for descriptive analysis, ANOVA and 2-test. About 52% of respondents had nutrition education teaching experience. Half of the respondents indicated that the necessity for nutrition education stemmed from their own need for such education. The main problem in students' dietary life was 'the increasing intake of processed foods, instant foods and fast foods (4.23 out of Likert 5 point scale)' and the major nutritional problem was 'high calorie intake with low essential nutrients (3.96 out of Likert 5 point scale)'. Over half the respondents (53.4%) recommended that nutrition education be oriented towards behavioral change rather than knowledge delivery. Social learning theory was preferred mostly as an theory apt to nutrition education (60.3%) and the most effective means of education was referred to organizing the regular class for nutrition education (50.5%). The 'playing such as songs or game' was reported as both effective and realizable method in nutrition education.