국내 주요지역에서 생산되는 곶감 및 표면 백색분말의 당조성과 분말의 형태를 주사전자현미경으로 관찰하였다. 곶감과육의 당함량은 56~59% 정도였으며 주로 glucose와 fructose로 이루어져 있었다. 백색분말은 당 84.6%, 수분 12.5% 및 불용성 물질이 2.7% 정도였으며 당조성에 있어서는 glucose가 83.3%를, fructose가 16.7%로 대부분이 glucose였다. 백색분말을 주사전자현미경으로 관찰한 결과 판, 꽃, 침 및 뿔등의 형태를 이루고 있었으며 수화후 재결정화한 glucose와 비슷한 형태를 나타내었다. 곶감 표면의 백색분말은 건조과정중 과육내부의 당이 수분의 이동과 함께 건조표면으로 이동하여 건조가 진행됨에 따라 주로 glucose가 결정화된 것으로 보여진다.
The 18th Winter Universiade will be held in Muju in 1997. It is a good opportunity to inform the local foods of Muju to the inside and outside of Korea. First of all, we carefully investigated the quantity of all kinds of food material, their circulation ability, and cookery per year in Muju. We found about sixty kinds of food as many as restaurant. We presented how to improve such kinds of food as O-Chunk (fish porridge), Minmulmaeuntang, Kochunaengi chungsik, etc. and how to use the special products of Muju such as yam, kochunaengi, wasabi and wild herb. The many kinds of cookery were specialized to cooks through manual and actual skills. And then we held a food contest that twenty-two cooks took part in the contest and there were exhibitted forty-two kinds of foods. Finally, through discussion and food contest, Muju Sanchae Bibimbap (meal which mixed rice with wild plants), Muju Sanchae chungsik (meal which has various wild plants with rice), Muju Kochunaengi Chungsik (meal which has various wild plants and wasabi with rice), Ma Naengmyun (cold yam noodle) and Muju Minmulmaeuntang (hot fish porridge) were recommended.
To find out the reference data of the school food service system, I serveyed four primary schools in Seoul, Korea and Nara, Japan respectively. The school children and their parents of whom arbitrary selected two classes among each primary school, were taken the questionaire about the present school food service system and their favorate food. The results were as follows; 1) 74.8% of Korean and Japanese children, and 92.5% of their parents were in favor of school food service. 2) Korean childrin wanted more amount of food and less salty taste. 3) Korean and Japanese children and their parents believed that the school food service system correct children's unbalanced diet. 4) Korean children wished more kinds of foods, western-styled cooking and that the food would be served in warm state. 5) Korean parents wanted that school food service system should be natural and better quality food material, and teacher should educate good eating habit. 6) Korean school children prefer yogurt, cuttle-fish, chicken, bean-curd, tomato, orange, dried laver, sweet potato, pine-mushroom in each food group. In conclusion, school food service system should be enough to meet children's good nutrition status, and the menu would be selected with consideration of children's preference and Korean traditional diet habit. Good table manner and eating all kinds of foods should be targht by school food service system as well as preparing good quality of food.
The main purpose of this study was to observe the effect of school lunch program on dietary habits of elementary school children and their food preferences. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 785 children and their mother in ele-mentary school with and without school lunch program. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: 1. 91.1% of subjects were eating rice for breakfast menu and 12.2% of subjects were skipping breakfast every morning. 2. Most of the children preferred fruits, ddugboggi, ice cream, fritter, cookie, bread, beverage and hot dog for snacks. 3. Despite of its restrictive practice, the school lunch program proved to be contributory to the improvement of children's food intake habits, table manners, keeping social order, sanitary consiousness, gratitude for their parents. 4. Children preferred kimbap, bokumbap and hamburger for main dish, fish jelly soup, brown seaweed soup and bean-sprout soup for soup, animal food for side dish and frying saute for cooking methods. 5. Most of the children disliked crown daisy, green pepper, mushroom, green onion, onion, dropwort, soybean and carrot for their food materials.
자화수의 조리용수로써 기능에 대하여 연구한 결과 다음과 같은 현상을 관찰하였다. 1. 자화수의 pH의 변화는 수도수, 생수 공히 자화수가 약간 알칼리성을 띄었으며 시간이 지남에 따라 수도수에서는 pH가 유의하게 감소하고 생수에서는 증가하였다. 2. 건조식품을 불림에 있어 자화수의 경우 수도수를 사용한 경우보다 수화율이 유의적으로 높게 나타났다. 자화수에 침수한 버섯의 경우 초기부터 수분 흡수율이 약간 높았으며 90분 이후부터는 유의적으로 높아졌다. 콩은 하루밤 방치후 자화수에 침수한 시료에서 유의적으로 흡수율이 높게 나타났다. 3. 표면장력의 변화는 자화수의 표면장력이 수도수에 비해 작았고 시간의 경과에 따라서 유의하게 감소하였다. 4. 염장식품을 수침한 경우 자화수에서 특히 초기침수 5분 이내에 염장물로부터의 염분 유출량이 유의적으로 많았다.
[Goshogi] which is held from 9th to 16th January, every year is the Buddhist service of praying for the soul of Shinran's (l173~1262) after death. It is the most majestic high-filling style and also unparalled in the annals of Japanese history in sacrificial offering. Shinran was horned in the Fujiwara's family. And not only he believed Prince Shodoku's belife but also retired to the mountain to enter the priesthood by it. Prince Shodoku built Horyu temple which is the typical temple of Nara ages. Buddism was transmitted from Korean peninsula, three countries of Silla, Bekje and Kokuryo effected on many field of Japnese culture during that ages. At the same time, Kasugadaisha and Danjanjinja of Shinto religion was built by Fujiwara Family. Both of them was Buddhist temple before. Throughout like these historical background, the facts what the religious services and the sacrificial offerings for Prince Shodoku, Wakamiyasai of Kasugas' and Kakitsusai of Danjanjinja must be influenced from Korean Peningula. So the dietary culture of the religious rites and traditional customs between two countries could be thought the relation with a narrow stream strait. But among them, in the size, color and shape, the cooking method and technique in the usage of rice powder and sugar, it is tops in value. The noteworthy points of the thought were as follows: 1. high-filling style of the sacrificial offerings what is mixed and harmonized with Buddhism, Confucious, Sharmanism, Toaism and Korean traditioal customs. 2. eating together of god and human. 3. the fusion of gods and Buddha.
This study was conducted to standardize the cooking methods of Omija-Pyuns and to investigate the effect of different starch densities (6% 7%, 8%, 9%) on the texture and taste of Omija-Pyuns. The results of these studies were as follows: 1) It was better for Omija to soak for 18 hours. The most favorite Mungbean starch density of 7% of Omija-Pyuns has the degree of lightness of 18.90, the degree of redness of 19.18, and the degree of yellowness of 3.98. 2) The Brix of syrup used for Omija-Pyuns was 49.4%. 3) As a result of the measurement of texture through Instron, if Mungbean starch density is increased, its hardness also increase. Each of the Omija-Pyuns (6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, in density) has showed its effection (p<0.05). 4) The result of the sensory evaluation showed that the Omija-Pyuns produced with Mungbean starch density of 7% was most preferred in appearance and overall taste, but it did not show the statistical effection (p<0.05) from the Omija-Pyuns produced with Mungbean starch density of 8%. The flavour was highest in Omija-Pyuns of 6%, and as the density was increased, the flavour decreased.
This study was carried on the analysis of food and nutrient intake for elementary school foodservices in Seoul. The survey was conducted through the 200 menus submitted by the 5 elementary schools in Seoul. Energy and all nutrient intakes exceeded the Recommended Daily Allowances of Koreans. Carbohydrate provided 56.32% of total energy intake; protein accounted for 16.06%; fat provided 27.62%. Total intake of food was 549 g on the average, which consisted of 90.04 g cereals, 130.17 g vegetables, 31.56 g meats, 21.63 g fishes and 200.00 g milks. The basic menu patterns were Rice+Soup (or Stew)+Kimchi, and 2 other side dishes including milk. These data underscore the necessity of developing the 'Standard Menu' for elementary school foodservices.
This study understands the actual conditions and problems for making traditional Korean food into the fast food. 1. Convenience to eat and nice atmosphere with friends (25%) are the best motive of visiting fast food restaurant. 2. The frequency of eating fast food is one to three times a month and the result of analysis on interrelation of human being in social anthropology represents that the fast food represents negative (-) interrelation by increasing of the age. The opinion about the fast food's nutrition is that the fast food lacks the nutrition (23.3%) and has excessive fat (40%). 3. The consumers were satisfied with the atmosphere of the fast food restaurant and unsatisfied with it's high prices. 4. The consumers' opinion on making the traditional food into a fast food was 66.4%. The consumers' opinions on traditional food to be improved are the sanitation (37.9%), the cookery (25%), the taste (11.7%), the nutrition (10.7%) and the opinions about inheritance of the traditional food is that 87.5% of people gave positive responses.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the various kinds of recipes of pheasant through classical cookbooks written from 1670 to 1943 which are the basic materials to the meat cooking. The recipes of pheasant are found 39 times in the literature, which can be classified into eleven groups. Chronologically, the recipe of mandu (ravioli) was first appeared, and guk, tang (soup), kui (roasted), jang (salted meat), chim (steamed), po (dried meat), whe (raw meat), gijim (boiled in soy sauce), cho (sparkly heated in soy sauce and sugar), jolim (hard boiled in soy sauce), and jungol (meat with vegetable cooked in pan) followed in the records. Kui was the most popular one with the frequency of 43.6%, which proves that kui is the most suitable one for pheasant among all of recipes. Mandu and guk, tang were 10.2%, chim and po were found with the same rate of 7.7% and the next ones were jang, gijim, cho, and jungol with the rate of 2.6%. The recipes of pheasant were recorded much less than those of beef, chicken, pork, lamb, and dog meat. Particularly, in comparison with chicken belonging to fowls, the frequency of pheasant cooking did not reach even to one third of that. The Korean recipes of pheasant have been independently developed with originality, having nothing to do with the Chinese ones. The recipes of pheasant before the late 1800s have based on the strict recipe principles along with the spirit of art and sincerity, but they were deteriorated to simple and easy ones discarding principles. The main ingredient was the flesh of pheasant and the sub-ingredients such as flour, pinenut, buckwheat powder, and mushroom were included in common. In additon, oil, soy sauce, black pepper, and stone leek were frequently used as main seasonings.
A literature on Korean rice cakes by ingredients and preparation methods was reviewed with published literatures in Korea from 1950 to 1995. The result were as followed; 1. The 46 volumes about preparation of Korean rice cakes were reported. There were 32 steamed (Jeung-byung), 6 pounded (Do-byung), 4 fried (Yu-jeon-byung), and 4 boiled Korean rice cakes (Kyung-Dan). This result showed that steamed Korean rice cake was the most frequently studied among any other kinds of Korean rice cakes. 2. The reports on preparation of Korean rice cakes were rare during 1950's~ 1960's. In 1970's, there were few papers about basic study for Korean rice cakes. And it was reached 8 volumes of steamed, each 1 volume of fried or boiled Korean rice cakes. From 1990's, the more scientific researches were progressed vigorously so reached 11 volumes till 1995 but it was limited to Solgi and Jeungpyun etc. This result shows that the experiment for Korean rice cake was not various. 3. The preceded studies for Korean rice cake were investigated to see texture, sensory, quality characteristic and effect of substitutes added to original ingredients.
This study was carried out to develop the computer-assisted Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) program for a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards for foodservice manager to assure the microbiological quality of food in hospital foodservice operations. Sanitation practices were surveyed and analyzed in the dietetic department of 4 hospitals. Among them, one 762-bed general hospital was selected as standard model to develop computer-assisted HACCP program. All data base files and processing programs were created by using Foxpro package for easy access of HACCP concept. HACCP program was developed based on the methods suggested by NACMCF, IAMFES and Bryan. This program consisted of two parts: the pre-stage for HACCP study and the implementation stage of the HACCP system. 1. Pre-stage for HACCP study includes the selection of menu item, the development of the HACCP recipe, the construction of a product flow diagram, and printing the HACCP recipe and a product flow diagram. A menu item for HACCP study can be selected from the menu item lists classified by cooking methods. HACCP recipe includes ingredients, their amount and cooking procedure. A flow diagram is constructed based on the HACCP recipe. The HACCP recipe and a product flow diagram are printed out. 2. Implementation of HACCP study includes the identification of microbiological hazards, the determination of critical control points, the establishment of control methods of each hazard, and the complementation of data base file. Potentially hazardous ingredients are determined and microbiological hazards are identified in each phase of the product flow. Critical control points (CCPs) are identified by applying CCP decision trees for ingredients and each process stage. After hazards and CCPs are identified, criteria, monitoring system, corrective action plan, record-keeping system and verification methods are established. When the HACCP study is complemented, HACCP study result forms are printed out. HACCP data base file can be either added, corrected or deleted.
This study was designed to investigate clinical features, allergy-inducing substances as well as foods, and nutritional behavior of allergic patients. Sixty-eight adult male and 78 adult female patients were surveyed by using the self-developed questionnairs. The results were as follows: 1. The common target organs of allergic symptoms included bronchus, skin and nose. 2. 37.7% of the subjects did not recognize their allergy inducing substances. Among the known substances, house-dust mite, food, temperature and weather change, pollens, smoke, air pollution materials, drugs and even stress provoked symptoms. 3. As for the food allergy, a number of foods were found to be implicated in allergic reactions. These foods included pork, chicken, seafoods such as mackerel, crab & shrimp, milk, egg, peanut, apple and pupa. Symptoms and signs of food reactions included urticaria, asthma, and rhinitis. 4. The nutrition adequacy ratio (NAR) of energy was below 0.75 for male patients and about 0.80 for female patients. And 24.0% of the subjects were regarded as excellent, 31.5% as fair, and 44.5% as poor in food related behavior evaluation.
Food consumption patterns are predictors of nutritional status at all age levels and vary among and between different age groups. This study was designed to asses food habits and fast food eating patterns of college students in Ulsan area through questionnaries. Data from 330 useable forms was analyzed for percent differences, frequency of consumption, and statistical significance of differences between male and female students (T-test and chi square methods were utilized). Food habit score of female students was significantly higher than of male students. The reason for using fast food chain was 'convenience' or 'good taste'. The most preferred food by subjects was noodle or dumpling and least preferred food was pizza. In general, they had a higher satisfaction scores in taste and service of fast food and lower scores in amount and price of it. From this results it appears there is a need for developing domestic brand fast food to lower the price of fast food and giving the nutrition education for proper food selections and eating patterns.