The purpose of this study was to determine the empirical cause-effect relationships among business ethical values and person-organization fit, job satisfaction, turnover intent, and organizational performance within family restaurants and feeding facilities. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 459 restaurant employees. The SPSS and Amos programs were then applied to the data to perform frequency, factor, reliability, correlation and SEM analyses. The primary results are as follows. First, business ethical values had a significant positive effect on person-organization fit. Second, person-organization fit had a significant positive effect on job satisfaction, and a significant negative effect on turnover intent. Third, job satisfaction had a significant positive effect, and turnover intent had a significant negative effect, on organizational performance. Finally, upon verifying the possible direct and indirect effects of business ethical values within family restaurants and feeding facilities, it was determined that the ethical values had significant direct and indirect effects on person-organization fit, job satisfaction, turnover intent, and organizational performance. These findings have various implications. For example, an improved in-house ethical working environment leads to greaterperson-organization fit, and having employees that feel there is better in-house ethical reliability leads to greater consistency between personal and organizational values, resulting in higher job satisfaction and ultimately organizational performance.
The objectives of this study were to: a) examine foreign customers’ satisfaction and expectations for the food and service attributes of Korean restaurants located in the U.S., b) measure the gap between the satisfaction and expectations for food and service attributes, c) analyze through IPA analysis the crucial attributes needing improvement in order to minimize the discrepancy between customers’ expectations and performance, and d) analyze the effects of factors related to the food and service attributes on overall customer satisfaction in regard to Korean restaurant selection. A total of 255 American customers who had visited four Korean restaurants located within metropolitan and rural areas of the U.S. were surveyed for this study. Statistical analyses, including t-tests, factor analysis, and multiple regression, were performed using the SPSS statistical package (12.0). The American customers’ overall satisfaction of the food and services offered by the Korean restaurants was relatively high, with the exception of tangible service attributes such as comfortable chairs, restroom cleanliness, and restaurant interior. The urban foreign customers, however, were dissatisfied with the use of healthful ingredients in Korean food, because their expectation level toward this aspect exceeded their satisfaction level. In terms of Korean restaurant selection, tangible services related to the restaurant facilities were identified as the critical factor having an effect on American customer satisfaction.
The purpose of this study was to measure employee ‘awareness’ and ‘practice’ of business ethics in the foodservice industry, and to determine possible correlations between these two variables. Self administrated questionnaires were completed by 1003 employees and data were analysed to ascertain frequency, factor, reliability, correlation and canonical correlation. Two factors were obtained from factor analysis of business ethics(BE) awareness; “Organizational awareness”, and “Individual awareness”. Similarly, two factors were also obtained for business ethics practice; “Systematic practice”, and “Compensatory practice”. Canonical correlation analysis produced two significant functions. For canonical function 1, it was found that organizational awareness of BE was positively correlated with systematic practice. For canonical function 2, it was found that individual awareness of BE was negatively correlated with the compensatory practices of BE. The findings of this study demonstrate that higher organizational awareness of business ethics in the foodservice industry led to higher systematic practices of BE, while higher individual awareness of BE led to lower compensatory practices of BE. In conclusion, higher organizational awareness of BE places a higher priority on building an external system from an institutional perspective, while higher employees awareness of BE leads to higher expectation from the company, resulting in relatively low compensatory practices.
The present study assessed how restaurant brand personality affected customer’s awareness/association, emotional-relationship and image, and how these factors influenced brand loyalty. As well, the influence of restaurant brand personality to brand loyalty was assessed. The model was tested in family restaurants in the metropolitan cities of Ulsan and Daegu. Between January 1 and February 28, 2007, questionnaires were distributed to restaurant patrons. A total of 274 questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Empirical results confirmed that restaurant brand personality increased brand awareness/association, brand emotional?relationship and brand image, and that these attributes increased brand loyalty. Restaurant brand personality affected brand loyalty. The research findings indicate that managers of family restaurants should pay attention to the emotional reaction of customers to their establishment. This involves employee actions that make dining a pleasurable experience.
The purpose of this study was to determine the detailed customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors of family restaurants in Korea, and to then classify the factors into 3 groups, inlcuding core service, quality service, and basic service. ‘Core service’ represents the critical factors that generate both satisfaction and dissatisfaction; ‘quality service’ generates only satisfaction; and ‘basic service’ generates only dissatisfaction. This categorization is based on Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory (1976) as well as Cadotte & Turgeon (1988). Based on the characteristics of the three groups, differentiation strategies in managing customer service were suggested to the family restaurant managers. A qualitative research method, termed the critical incident technique (CIT), was used in the study. This method helps researchers find new factors or attributes by grouping key issues from the anecdotes (critical incidents) and then categorizing common factors from the key issues. This research categorized key satisfiers and dissatisfiers into 33 factors, which were from 402 critical incidents described by 261 respondents. Eleven factors (response to service failures, food taste and quality, attention paid to customers, coupon/mileage point/discount card, customer’s ordinary requests, waiting, food diversity, food price, facility sanitation, checking out, customer’s special requests) were classified into core service, which required maximum management not regarding the level of customer satisfaction. Six factors (employee attitude, event, education and explanation, complementary food, customer’s mistakes, attention paid to children) were classified into quality service, which required differentiation strategy management. Finally, nine factors (speed of food service, employee’s mistakes, food sanitation, atmosphere and interior, seating, forcing orders, parking, other customers, reservations) were classified into basic service, which required minimum management at the level of the industry standards.
In this study, 3,301 domestic and foreign patents, established from 1980 to June, 2007, were reviewed in order to examine the technological trends in treating or preventing liver disease. Primary focus was placed on countries such as Korea, Japan, and the United States - the leading nations with regard to liver function research. This paper explores the systematic search that utilized a research-focused database and research analysts. Since the year 2000, Korea has demonstrated increased developments in the area of diet and liver disease, as shown by an increase in relevant patent caseloads and submissions especially for medicinal preparations containing compounds or reaction products with undetermined constitutions. In addition, there was up to a 29% increase in themarket share and the frequency of patent submissionshad increased. Japan has shown a similar trend to Korea with an increase in research, but has focused more on medical preparations containing active organic ingredients. In the United States, an increase in the number of patents was shown after the year 2000.
In this age of information ruled by new technologies and knowledge, the world is interconnected as a single community, and within this trend of globalization, new cultural codes are emerging through temporal fusion between the past and the present and spatial fusion between different regions and countries. In this situation, it seems meaningful to review Korean fusion foods and restaurants serving such foods, as well as to consider their future directions. Thus, the objective of the present study was to survey and analyze Korean fusion restaurants representing Korean culture not only in Korea, but also in foreign cities, and to identify the expression characteristics of such restaurants. Based on restaurants recommended in relevant magazines and on Internet sites, 18 spaces were selected, visited, and surveyed, in which tradition and modernism were well-mixed. Data on the shapes, materials, colors, and patterns of spatial elements and food-related elements, including photographs, were collected and analyzed. The results are as follows. Of the 18 restaurants, 13 (72%) showed temporal fusion in both spatial and food-related elements, 4 showed temporal fusion in spatial elements and cultural fusion in food-related elements, and 1 showed cultural fusion in both spatial and food-related elements. In general, the spaces were mainly designed with modern elements and partially with traditional elements (ceilings, windows, furniture, articles), and the fusion of food-related elements was made in diverse forms that included temporal fusion restructuring traditional menus contemporarily, and cultural fusion harmonizing traditional food with Western cookery.
This study analyzed the survey results of 302 college students from a coed university in Korea. The following three research components were examined: relationships among different eating styles, violation behaviors after unwanted eating, and consumption behaviors for three different food types. The analysis results showed that restrained eating was positively related to emotional eating, but negatively related to external eating. And emotional and external eating displayed a positive relationship. Body shape dissatisfaction was a significant variable in explaining restrained eating behavior. After unwanted eating, the restrained eaters expressed more regrets and stronger determination to diet than the less restrained eaters. The emotional eaters and external eaters responded that they could not stop eating and performed binge eating behaviors when they failed their diet. With regard to food attitudes and eating styles, snacks were favorably related to emotional eating. Fast food attitudes were negatively associated with restrained eating. Preference was the only significant variable in explaining snack consumption frequency; however sex, preference, and restrained eating were significant for fast foods. Finally, vegetarian foods were explained by preference and sex.
본 연구에서는 연근의 건강식품 소재로서의 활용가능성을 확인하기 위하여 연근의 성분분석 및 연근을 이용하여 만든 연근음료 및 연근 발효음료의 항산화효과를 비교하였으며, 고지방식이를 공급한 흰쥐에게 연근음료 및 연근발효음료를 7주간 공급하여 혈청의 지방대사에 미치는 영향을 검토하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 연근음료 및 연근발효음료는 1%에서 각각 25.55%, 23.88%의 항산화 활성을 나타내었고, 10%에서는 각각 87.5%, 95.81%로 항산화 활성이 매우 높게 나타났다. 또한 아질산염 분해활성은 pH 3.0 및 pH 6.0에서 연근음료의 경우 24.97%, 23.73%의 아질산염 분해활성을 나타내었으며, 연근발효음료도 음료의 농도에 비례하여 아질산염 분해활성이 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 고지방식이를 먹인 흰쥐에게 연근음료 및 연근발효음료를 7주간 병행 공급하였을 때 1일 체중증가량은 고지방식이 급여 대조군에 비해 감소하였으나 유의적이지는 않았다. 식이효율은 고지방식이를 급여한 실험군 모두가 정상군에 비해 유의적인 증가를 나타내었다. 체중 100g당 간의 무게는 고지방식이 급여 대조군에 비해 연근음료 투여군은 11.6%, 연근발효음료 투여군은 9.9% 감소하였으나 유의적이지는 않았다. 혈액 중 총 지방함량과 중성지방 함량은 연근음료와 연근발효음료 급여 시 고지방식이 급여 대조군에 비해 유의적인 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 혈액 중 총콜레스테롤 함량은 연근음료 및 연근발효음료 공급 시 고지방식이 급여 대조군에 비해 유의적인 감소를 나타내었으나 음료 종류에 따른 유의적인 차이는 나타나지 않았다.
In this study, Astragalus membranaceus powder was added (3, 6, 9%) during yeast bread preparation and its effect on product quality was examined. The results showed that the dough pH increased as the Astragalus membranaceus powder content increased. However, dough volume during fermentation did not differ significantly among the samples. Bread volume decreased (p<0.001) with an increasing amount of Astragalus membranaceus powder. Also, as the Astragalus membranaceus powder content increased, the Hunter’s color ‘L’ value of the crust decreased and the ‘a’ value increased, and for the crumb, the ‘L’ value decreased and the ‘a’ value increased. Textural property analysis indicated that hardness increased with an increasing amount of Astragalus membranaceus powder. However, up to the 6% level, there were no sensory attribute differences among the samples.
In this study, the physicochemical and microbiological properties of market-available skate (Raja kenojei) kimchi were evaluated in comparison to long-term fermented Baechu kimchi. The comparative results for the skate (Raja kenojei) and Baechu kimchi products are as follows: salt concentrations = 3.40% and 3.95%, respectively; pH and acidity values = 4.01 and 3.90, and 0.65% and 0.82%, respectively; redox potential Eh values = 119.82 mV and 123.08 mV respectively; reducing sugars levels = 15.51 mg% and 13.23mg%, respectively; ascorbic acid levels = 24.21mg% and 22.18mg%, respectively; color L-values = 46.86 and 44.54, a-values = 15.46 and 12.28, and b-values = 29.94 and 28.36, respectively; hardness properties = 11.36 kgf and 10.23 kgf, respectively; hot water soluble pectin (HWSP) contents and sodium hexametaphosphate soluble pectin (NaSP) contents = 15.23% and 17.35%, and 32.51% and 29.64%, respectively; hydrochloric acid soluble pectin (HClSP) contents = 55.1% and 53.2%, respectively; total viable cell counts = 4.78×108 and 1.35×108, respectively; lactic acid bacteria counts = 5.18×105 and 1.32×105, respectively; and yeast levels = 8.52×105 and 5.23×105, respectively.
This purpose of this study was to develop a functional muffin by adding yam powder in the shape of a muffin as a partial surrogate for wheat flour. The yam has been found to be effective for liver and kidney function, as well as the digestion of protein, since it produces glucuronic acid in the body. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the optimal mixing conditions of yam muffins by adjusting the amounts yam powder, butter, and sugar. The mixing conditions for the yam muffins included 3 categories: yam powder (X1), sugar (X2), and butter (X3) by Central Composite Design (CCD) which was optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The effects of the three variable additions on muffin quality were examined via physical and chemical experiments, such as the analysis of texture (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess), coloration (lightness, redness, yellowness), and height. Lastly, we performed a sensory test, which revealed significant findings for gumminess, color, appearance, flavor, softness (p〈0.05), redness, and overall quality (p〈0.01). Consequently, the optimal mixing rate which best satisfied the sensory items were 34.35g of yam powder, 80.15 g of sugar, and 80.55 g of butter.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of skate (Raja kenojei) flour on the functional and sensory characteristics of Mandupi. Mandupi samples were prepared with wheat flour along with the addition of different amounts of skate flour, followed by functional measurements and sensory evaluations. According to the amylograph data, the composite skate flour-wheat flour samples had increased gelatinization temperatures with increasing skate flour content; whereas initial viscosity at 95℃, viscosity at 95℃ after 15 minutes, and maximum viscosity were reduced. In terms of color values, L and b values decreased, but the a-value increased with increasing skate flour content. Furthermore, the addition of skate flour increased hardness, springiness, chewiness, and adhesiveness in the samples. Overall, based on sensory evaluations, the Mandupi containing 5% skate flour was preferred over the other samples.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that body composition, nutrient intake, and biochemical indices have on skin status, as well as their associations with skin health status, by assessing 44 female university students. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to skin sensitivity: sensitive skin (n=11), slightly sensitive skin (n=24), and normal skin (n=9). The study included anthropometric measurements and body composition analyses, dietary intake evaluations, blood chemical analyses, and skin health status assessments. Based on % body fat, the results indicated the subjects were moderately obese (29.6%). Obesity indices were not different among the groups, but the sensitive skin group tended to have higher skinfold thickness. Dry skin was determined as the skin type of all subjects. In the sensitive skin groups, U-zone and T-zone sebum were significantly lower (p〈0.05), and spots were significantly higher (p〈0.05) than in the normal skin group. In terms of nutrient intakes, the sensitive skin groups consumed significantly lower amounts of P and vitamins A and E (p〈0.05). There were no significant differences in serum lipid fractions or total antioxidant status among the groups. In correlation coefficients analysis, skin elasticity had significant negative correlations with subscapular and midaxillary skinfold thickness, body protein, and body minerals (p〈0.05). Wrinkling had positive correlations with triceps and thigh skinfold thickness (p〈0.05). Skin evenness had negative correlations with energy intake, vitamins A, B1, B2, C, E, niacin, and zinc (p〈0.05), as well as folate and P (p〈0.01) and vitamin B6 (p〈0.001). A similar correlation tendency was observed for spots and nutrient intake, showing negative correlations with vitamins A, B6, and E, as well as folate, Fe, and P. U-zone sebum showed significant positive correlations with serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides. From these findings, skin health status appears to be affected by both nutrient intake and body composition. Therefore, having a proper balance between dietary intake and body composition may influence skin health status in females with sensitive skin.
The breast feeding habits of 507 college students were evaluated between March 27 to April 26 (2006). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS for Windows V.12.0. The study population consisted of 245 (48.3%) male and 262 (51.7%) female college students that answered ‘yes’ when asked whether they had been breast feed. A total of 52.7% of the study population were fed with breast milk (most frequent answer), as opposed to 11.0% that were fed with infant formula (least frequent answer) during their infancy. When asked whether they ever got educated on breast feeding, 78.1% of the college student subjects answered ‘no’. A total of 95.1% of the female college students replied ‘yes’ when asked if they intended to breast feed their child. Moreover, 62.2% of the college student subjects indicated that their parents had an influence on their decision to breast feed. A comparison between male and female college students indicated that female college students had a superior knowledge level of the general characteristics of breast feeding over the male subjects (p<0.05) . Moreover, a comparison of the different levels of college attained suggest that freshman college students had the highest knowledge level, followed by senior, sophomore and junior college students in terms of advantage, BF Tabu (p<0.05). Also, students provided with education on breast feeding had a higher knowledge level than college students with no formal education. In summary, the results suggest that the knowledge on breast feeding in college students were different by general characteristics such as gender, major and school year, and education on breast feeding in advance was appeared to be an important factor, therefore nutritional education course on breast feeding is recommended for the college students.
Among all the ingredients usedin mandu, the following types were used:, 13 types of grains were used (12.38%), 30 types of vegetables, fruits, bulbs,and nuts were used (28.57%), 32 types of marine products, birds, meats, fishes, and shellfishes were used (30.48%), 10 types of functional ingredients were used (9.52%) and. For spices, 20 types of spices were used (19.05%). 2. Cooking Methods offor Mandu. The mMandu eaten at in the early Joseon era had was primarily made ofusedbuckwheat that contained boiled tofu or egg uiijuk in the kneaded dough for the most part and while kneading with buckwheat, the tofu or egg uiijuk has been boiled down to knead the dough, and and starch powder, bean powder, or rice powder, etc were mixed to make the mandu coating. Buckwheat powder was mixed toadded to the flourwer or was used by itself, while meat, vegetables, tofu, and shiitake mushroom, etc were also addedincluded. From the 18th century, the host plant, or cabbage kimchi, were prepared and combined had been sliced to be used as filling together while red pepper powder was mixed combined withto spices or vinegar soy sauce to be used together. Also, Radishes had beenwere also used as filling, but shown as not being used fromafter the start of the 1900's. For the shape of mMandu, it was madeinto different shapes such as as triangle, rectangle, date plum, gwebul, half moon, or pomegranate shapes, and then shapes to be boiled in simmering water, baked, or cooked as soup in clear broth for soup., In the 17th to 18th century, boilingthen in a steamer gradually became a cooking style, assumed the style of boiling in a steamer in 17th~18th century while in the 16th century,the an essay ofn fermenting flour in ‘Food Dimibang’ in 16th century had indicated it was cooked as the style ofby steaming in a rice steamer. Also, Mandu may have also contained the following: the thin-cut and boiled fish was cut out thin to put into the filling and boiled down, made by putting in added pine nuts after making bbeef jerky or boiled- down meat, fish, or shellfish itself to extractsand mold mandu only the ingredients combined withto put on starch powder, and then boiled down and put on pine nut powder finally, after it or cooled it wasdown to be eaten by dipping in vinegar soy sauce. In conclusion, many different types of mandu were made during the Joseon era using a variety ofwhile the ones using such various ingredients. are also one type of mandu.
중국은 일찍 농업에 편중하는 식생산전통과 백성들이 어렵게 생계를 유지하는 식생활상태가 형성되었으며 이런 상황은 중국인들이 신랄(辛辣)한 맛에 대한 기호를 결정하였던 것이다. 중국인들이 신랄(辛辣)한 맛을 즐긴 역사는 선사시대까지 거슬러 올라간다. “랄(辣)”자(字)는 “신랄(辛辣)”이라는 단어에서 분리하여 특별히 매운 맛을 의미하는데 즉 일반적인 “신(辛)” 보다 더욱 “신(辛)”하다는 뜻이며 이 문자는 한(漢)나라 이후에야 나타난다. 고추는 명(明)나라 중엽에 해상을 통해 중국대륙에 전해 들어왔고 짧은 기간 내에 중국인들이 제일 보편적으로 식용하고 좋아하는 매운 음식으로 자리 잡았다. 중국에서 고추는 번초(蕃椒), 해초(海椒), 랄각(辣角), 랄호(辣虎), 랄자(辣子) 등 다양한 명칭을 갖고 있는데 이는 그 분포의 지리적 특징과 인문적인 특징을 반영한 것이다. 고추에 대해 최초로 기록한 한문문헌으로는 1591년에 출간된 「존생팔전(尊生八箋)」이다. 본 논문에서는 상기 문헌의 고추에 관한 기록에 대한 종래 연구자들의 보편적인 견해와는 다른 새로운 관점을 제기하였다. 고추는 짧은 시간 내에 화초(花椒) 등 허다한 전통적인 매운 양념들을 재치고 결국 중국인들의 고추정서가 형성된 것은 “그 맛이 최고로 매웠던 것(기미최랄(其味最辣))” 및 적응성이 강하고 재배 할 때 소요되는 인력물력도 적게 드는 것과 중국인들이 보편적으로 매운 맛을 즐겼던 정서가 결합된 필연적인 결과라고 하겠다. 관습은 쉽게 개변하지 않고 오래 접하면 자연히 은이 생기며 강한 자극을 통쾌하다고 여기는 인간의 통성(通性)은 매운 맛에 대한 오랜 접촉으로 습관을 형성시키고 세월이 흘러도 고추를 먹는 습관만은 남게 되는 중요한 원인이다. 고추가 중국 대륙에서 불균형하게 보급되어 있는 상황에서 경제생활이 상대적으로 빈곤한 지역일수록 매운 맛에 대한 기호가 보다 강함을 알 수 있다.