Ramyen and Korean noodles (guksu) are popular foods in Korea and around the world. Since 1998, rice consumption in Korea has gradually decreased, whereas consumption of noodles has continuously increased. The purpose of this study is to assess the consumption of ramyen and Korean noodles of Koreans, using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) of 2007. Korean adults (>20) were selected to examine the associations between noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake and health status. SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 9.1 were used for the data analysis. 10.3% of Korean adults consumed ramyen, and 15.4% consumed Korean noodles. The consumption of ramyen and Korean noodles were higher in men than in women, in lunch than in other meals, and in the lowest income quartile than the highest quartile. Ramyen and Korean noodle consumer groups consumed more grain products, seasonings, and oils than the nonconsumer group. The noodle group showed significantly lower systolic blood pressure than the non-consumer group. The noodle groups showed lower rates of hypertension and metabolic syndrome than the non-consumer group. From these results, we conclude that ramyen and Korean noodles may have positive health effects. More studies on the association between noodles and the health of Koreans and those in other countries should be done in the future.
We surveyed 821 children (ages 12-15 y) in Daejeon city and Cunngcheong province, Korea for their use of vitamin·mineral supplements (VMS), either over-the-counter drugs and/or health functional foods (HFF). We also considered the significant variables of VMS use, including demographic characteristics, health-related variables, eating habits and nutritional beliefs of VMS by subjects. The frequency of VMS use was 24.8% and, in comparison to counterparts, it was higher in subjects attending middle school (p<0.001), in those living in a large city (p<0.001), in those with a high monthly family income (p<0.05), and in those with high concerns about school performance by parents (p<0.01). Selfhealth concerns by subjects (p<0.05) and concerns about health of offspring by parents (p<0.01) were higher in users than in nonusers. Eating habits of subjects did not affect the use of VMS. Users had a more positive view concerning the potential health benefits of VMS than did nonusers (p<0.05). Most users took VMS when they were healthy (78.9%) and expected ‘disease prevention and health maintenance’ (44.6%). However, most users did not feel any special effects from VMS use (58.8%), and they got their information on VMS through family and relatives (53.9%). Users of VMS preferred vitamin C supplements (44.2%) and Ca-supplements (56.9%). Therefore, the results show that VMS use is widely spread among the subjects, and that use of VMS is influenced by multiple variables and subjective criteria. Therefore, practical guidelines on VMS use for children’s health and growth should be given through nutritional education.
The purpose of this research was to reveal how Korean food is currently perceived by the “foodies” of New York City and to determine what social status Korean food has in the city that is deemed the “Restaurant Capital of the World.” In-depth personal interviews were performed to provide a deeper insight into the comments and subject matters. Most foodies selected kimchi and Korean barbecue as the most distinctive foods in Korean dining. Korean food's distinguishing traits were extracted in four areas: specific ingredients and tools, preparation procedures, and rules. Sensory characteristics, local adaptation, service, side dishes, and the main strengths and short-comings of Korean foods were investigated. Perception toward the taste of Korean food was generally positive, but poor quality of service and lack of organization in establishments were found to be negative factors.
This study focuses on testing the validity of dimensions of restaurants’ menu prices. In addition, the effect of demographic variables on the perception of each price dimension was investigated. The subjects were people living in the capital region who have, at least on occasion, gone to family restaurants. The data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and analyzed by factor analysis, reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and the ANOVA t-test. The results were that consumers’ perception of restaurant menu prices is not uni-dimensional, but has six dimensions: price-price schema, pricequality schema, value consciousness, low price proneness, price mavenism, sales proneness. Demographic variables partially affect the consumers’ perception of each menu price dimension. The result of the t-test examining dimensions of price according to the demographic characteristic was that females have a higher sales proneness than males. The t-test result according to marriage indicated that married people were higher in price-price schema and quality proneness than unmarrieds. ANOVA according to age indicated that people between ages of 20 to 29 have a higher quality proneness than those of other ages.
A number of factors are thought to influence people’s food choices, and there has recently been an increasing emphasis on understanding the consumer’s motives behind choice of food types. For one thing, an individual’s personal food-related tastes are thought to certainly influence personal food choice. This study aimed to discover the new motives for food, and what motives determine the food choice of foreigners living in Korea. Subjects (N=210) completed a Food Choice Questionnaire (65 questions) measuring specific motives and sociodemographic conditions (9 questions). Factor analysis and ANOVA were used to ascertain the food choice motives. Fourteen factors emerged, which were labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familarity, political value, ecological protection. and religion. We also found that motives for new food choices include national image and information, ethnic food, and sanitation. Items were analysed to determine differences according to nationality, religion, occupation, and length of residence in Korea. All subjects thought sanitation is the most important motive in choice of food, and health, natural content, and ethnic food were also important.
We surveyed 848 university students, 21.4±2.5 years of age, attending university in Seoul, Kongju, Chongyang-Gun in the Chungnam province of Korea, for their use of health functional foods (HFF) and for significant variables in this use, namely demographic characteristics, health related variables, dietary variables and nutritional beliefs. The prevalence of the use of HFF was 33.6%. Among all types of HFF, nutritional supplements were taken most frequently, followed by (in order) red ginseng products, apricot extract products and ginseng products. HFF use was higher in females (p<.05), in subjects living in a dormitory (p<.05) and those from families with a relative high socioeconomic status (p<.001). Self-health concern (p<.05) and usage ratio of HFF by family (p<.001) was higher in users than in nonusers of HFF. The total score of dietary assessment was higher in users than in nonusers of HFF (p<.001), and users had a more positive point of view concerning the potential health benefits of HFF than did nonusers (p<.001). Most users took HFF when they were healthy (37.2%) or when they were sick (27.4%). They did not feel special effects through the HFF use (49.8%). Most users got the information about the specifics of HFF from family and/or relatives (55.8%). Most of users confirmed nutrition facts when they purchased the HFF (70.9%), but a considerable number of users could not understand these nutrition facts (48.1%). Users preferred vitamin C- and Ca-supplements most among vitamin · mineral supplements belonged to HFF. These results show that the use of HFF is common among university students. As well, the use of HFF by students is affected by various variables. Supplementary nutritional education should be undertaken among university students, in order to give them a reasonable guideline for the use of HFF, based upon influencing factors and usage behaviors that we learned from this survey.
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between dietary habits and time spent watching TV and using internet, in elementary school children. The data were collected by a questionnaire survey of 712 elementary school children, within Gwangju and Jeonnam area. The SPSS 12.0/win program was used to analyze the 523 samples. Amount of TV-watching time was found to be related to the dietary habit score in the subjects. The children who watch TV “less than 1 hour/day” on weekdays had a better dietary habit score than those who watch TV “more than 1 hour” (p<0.0001). The children who watch TV “less than 2 hours/day” on weekends had a better dietary habit than the children who watch TV “more than 2 hours/day” (p<0.0001). The internet usage was also related to the dietary habit score in these children: those who use internet “less than 1 hour/day” on weekdays had a better dietary habit score than the children who use internet “more than 2 hours/day” (p<0.0001). The children who use internet “less than 2 hours/day” on weekends had a better dietary habit score than the children who use internet “more than 2 hours/day” (p<0.0001). These results indicate that the children tend to have a better diet when their TV and internet time is limited and thus healthy dietary behavior is negatively associated with a sedentary pattern of activity in elementary school children.
We conducted this study to determine the factors associated with childhood obesity. The subjects were 170 preschool children in Busan. Data were collected by using questionnaires which asked for information about socioeconomic status, parental perception of their child’s weight status and dietary/physical activity behavior. BMI was calculated for each child and their classification was determined, according to their age and sex, as follows: “overweight” at or above the 85th percentile, “normal” for the 15th-85th percentile, and with a BMI below the 15th percentile the children were deemed as underweight. Classification according to BMI percentile showed that 23.5% (18.25±1.33 kg/m2) of the children were overweight, 62.9% (15.51±0.76 kg/m2) normal, and 13.5% (13.23±2.86 kg/m2) were underweight. Socioeconomic status, as represented by the parents' level of education, the occupation of the father and the household income, did not affect the results. However, mothers working outside the household was a factor that was more likely to affect the weight status (p<0.05). Among mothers whose children were overweight, 30% underestimated their children’s weight status (believing them to be of normal weight when they were overweight), and 25% failed to recognize the necessity of weight control for their overweight children. While sedentary activity and total daily activity levels were not related to BMI, the level of physically active leisure activity was inversely correlated with BMI (p<0.05). Although there were no differences in total energy intake, dietary behavior was significantly related to weight status. Overweight children had poor eating tendancies: they eat faster (in less than 15 minutes), overeat, and eat late at night. Based on our findings where hereby recommended the following interventions to help limit weight problems in Korean pre-schoolers: early promotion of active leisure behavior and healthy eating habits, along with attempting to correct parental misperception of healthy weight status for children.
In order to aide in the design of an improved menu book, which could play an important role as a marketing tool, the current version of the menu books and managers (subjects) of 295 restaurants in the Incheon area were examined. These were managers of Korean (36.3%), Western (25.8%), Japanese (14.6%), cafeteria (12.5%) and Chinese (10.8%) style restaurants. The level of service (self-evaluation, 3-point scale) was average 2.25±0.45. The general colorings of the menu books were green (19.0%), brown (18.6%), black (17.6%), yellow (15.9%), red (13.6%) and blue (13.2%). The material of the menu book cover was mainly leather (35.9%), and the internal material was mainly coated paper (59.7%). Physically, the design was two-panel fold (38.3%), two-panel multi-page (35.6%), die style (10.2%), single panel (8.1%) and tent style (7.8%). The type sizes were unchanged in 49.9% of the menu books and in 61.7% photos were not used. 53.9% of menu books did not explain the menus, and 13.2% did not classify the items into groups. Emphasis of profit-making menus was not done in 66.8%. 51.5% of menu books were irreplaceable in parts. The emphasis of profit-making menus was less among the Korean style restaurants (p<0.001). The possibility of partial replacement of menu books was lower in both Korean and Chinese restaurants (p<0.001). The explanation of the items was lower in the Japanese restaurants (p<0.001). The classification of items into groups was lower in cafeteria (p<0.001). In cases in which there were both seasonal and event menus, the possibility of partial replacements of menu books was higher (p<0.001). Restaurants of which service level was less than ordinary were lower in the differentiation of type sizes (p<0.001), the use of photos (p<0.001), the explanation of menus (p<0.001), the classification of menus by groups (p<0.05), the emphasis of profit-making menus (p<0.001) and the possibility of partial replacement of menu books (p<0.001). If these study findings are applied to the designing of menu books, the role of the menu book as an important tool for marketing could be greatly improved.
This study, which took place in an Italian restaurant in Seoul, investigated the impact of meal duration on the evaluation of satisfaction and service quality, according to the service stages (order, cook, check) of a restaurant. Research procedures included two phases: during the first phase, data on expected-perceived meal duration, and service quality and satisfaction were collected by surveys, which were distributed at the restaurant. The second phase investigated the relationships among meal duration, customers’ satisfaction, and service quality. T-tests and regression analyses were used to examine relationships between these variables. Results indicate that both failing to meet customers’ expected meal duration, as well as the perceived meal duration could negatively impact the satisfaction and evaluation of service quality. The study confirmed that meal duration is indeed related to the responsiveness aspect of service quality. The important aspect of meal duration management is to improve service quality and satisfaction, which can lead to a restaurant’s success. Therefore, understanding the relationships among meal duration, satisfaction, and service quality is a part of a good foundation for effective meal duration management.
In recent years consumers have become used to products geared toward a more convenient lifestyle, thus, the demand for salted-cabbage, for use in preparing Kimchi is increasing. This study aims to investigate purchasing factors, the satisfaction and demands of salted-cabbage, and to ascertain a marketing strategy for expanding the use of salted cabbage in food-service departments of schools. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 131 buying agents who manage food materials for schools, and statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS V.14.0 program. 46.9% of the participating respondents were from elementary schools, 27.7% from middle schools, and 25.4% were from high schools.. Most of the subjects (67.9%) recognized the salted cabbage retailed for foodservice, but 62.3% of these had not purchased them, due to both their lack of trust in the sanitation and raw material handling of the food product, and the high price. Respondents considered different factors when deciding whether or not to purchase: the origin (local or imported) of the cabbage, hygiene, and taste, as well as characteristics such as the cabbage weight, package weight, and package materials. The score of post-behavior intentions as well as overall satisfaction was rather high. Also, they perceived the need of strategic promotion for enlarging the market portion of salted-cabbage. These results will done the guidelines for diversifying the salted-cabbage market and for creating an added value of agricultural products in rural areas.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbiological characteristics and antioxidant activity of tomato sauce in terms of the variety of herbs that have been widely used in Western cuisine. As storage time increases, the number of total microbes changes, but the bacteria count was in the range of 1.0×101-2.1×102, which did not increase much over 60 days of storage. The reason seems to be that the amount of heat treatment undergone by this type of sauce type, and its acidity make for difficult conditions for microbes to live. Yeast and mold measurements showed that yeast and mold were not detected for up to 30 days of storage in the tomato sauce with various types and amounts of added herbs. After 45 and 60 days, the yeast and mold count was in the range of 1.0×101-8.5×101, and the same in the control. Measurements of phenolic compounds in 60 days of storage showed that tomato sauce with different types and amounts of added herbs had the lowest amounts relative to the control for all storage periods. The more herbs that were added, the higher the phenolic compounds resulted. As storage times increase, the phenolic compounds showed a tendency to decline. The DPPH radical scavenging effects of the tomato sauce herbs added showed a tendency to increase antioxidant activity when more herbs were added. The microbiology results of the storage test of tomato sauce with added herbs showed that the amount of microorganisms in tomato sauce with added herbs did not increase much in 60 days of storage at 4oC. The amount of microorganisms was small, so tomato sauce with added herbs can be used for 2 months with refrigeration.
This study was conducted to aid in the development of the optimal recipe for chocolate with fermented and aged garlic extract (Allium sativum var. pekinense). We added garlic extract in order to increase the nutritional value of the chocolate. The optimal sensory composite recipe was determined, following Central Composites for chocolate with different levels of fermented and aged garlic extract (A) and cream (B), while analysis was performed by Response Surface Methodology, from the date that the sensory evaluation was performed. Ten experimental recipes, including 2 reference points in the composition, were selected. The compositional and functional properties were measured, and physical and sensory values were applied to the mathematical models. Perturbation plots showed the influence of each ingredient on the final product. Measurements showed significant values in lightness, sweetness, pH, hardness and cohesiveness, while sensory measurements showed significant values in color, texture, sourness, bitterness and overall quality. The optimum formulations were calculated by numerical and graphical methods, as being 34.61g fermented and aged garlic extract and 72.68g cream for each 200g chocolate. As well it was revealed that the aptitude of chocolate was more influenced by fermented garlic extract than it was by cream.
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of dried noodles when different concentrations of lotus leaf powder (LLP) were added to the wheat flour, thereby determining which noodle recipe was preferred. The cooking quality, mechanical texture properties, and viscosity were measured, and then a sensory evaluation was conducted with the prepared noodles. The gelatinization points of the composite LLP-wheat flours were shown to have an increased, viscosity at 95oC after 15 minutes. As measured via amylograph, the maximum viscosity values of those samples were decreased as the LLP content was increased. As well, when increased amounts of LLP were added, both the L and a values were reduced, whereas the b value was increased. The color values, weight and volume of the cooked noodle increased, as did the turbidity of the soup. With regard to the textural characteristics, the LLP additive increased hardness and cohesiveness, and reduced adhesiveness and springiness. Overall, according to the results of our sensory evaluation, the noodles prepared with 5% LLP were preferred over the other noodles.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of green tea extract on aluminum-induced damage to phospholipid content in old rat cerebral tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that aluminum is the cause of Alzheimer’s disease. Forty Sprague-Dawley old male rats weighing 350±10 g were divided into four groups, consisting of a control group (CON), 40 ppm aluminum sulfate group (Al-40), green tea water extract group (GTWE), and 40 ppm aluminum sulfate and green tea water extract groups (Al-40+GTWE) and kept on their respective diets for 12 weeks. In order to discover the influence of aluminum on cerebral tissue of old male rats, the serum aluminum concentration and phospholipid composition were compared between the aluminum-treated group and the normal group. The results showed that the serum aluminum concentration was higher in the aluminum sulfate-treated group than in the normal group. The cerebral tissue phospholipid concentration decreased significantly in the aluminum sulfate treated group as compared to the normal group. The results of this experiment show that increase of aluminum concentration in experimental animals causes the rise of serum aluminum and phospholipid concentrations, phenomena that are very similar to those shown in Alzheimer’s disease., The results of this experiment, together with reports that aluminum is a cause of neurofibrillary tangles in cerebral tissue, therefore demonstrate the possibility that aluminum is the cause of Alzheimer’s disease. Green tea water extract is also shown to be an effective therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.