This study analyzed requirements for medical masks and difference in satisfaction based on demographic characteristics and side effects experience caused by wearing medical masks. Three factors related to requirements for medical masks were identified: wearing comfort and usability, blocking function for harmfulness, and design. As a result of the difference analysis for requirements of medical masks based on demographic characteristics, all three factors showed a significant difference in gender and occupation. Design did in age and monthly income. As a result of the presence or absence of breathing difficulties experience, design factor was significant. As a result of the presence or absence of skin trouble experience, wearing comfort and usability showed a significant difference. As a result of the difference in satisfaction with medical masks based on demographic characteristics and side effect experience caused by wearing medical masks, breathing, ear string tightness, blocking harmful substances, price, and over all wearing comfort showed a significant difference by gender, marital status, age, occupation, and monthly income, and the presence of absence of breathing difficulty experience and skin trouble experience, respectively. As a result of the interaction effect analysis between demographic characteristics and side effects experience caused by wearing medical masks, it showed a significant interaction effect between gender and monthly income, between marital status and monthly income, between monthly income and breathing difficulties experience, and between monthly income and skin trouble experience.
This study aimed to investigate the need for dietary education and programs for young Koreans belonging to singleperson households in the metropolitan area. A total of 500 young adults aged 19-34 participated in the study through an online survey. Participants responded to questions on general characteristics, dietary problems, and the need for dietary education and programs. The subjects were divided into three groups as follows: Undergraduate students, employed workers, and others. Among the subjects from single-person households, 20.2, 67, and 12.8% were undergraduate students, employed workers, and others, respectively. When asked for their estimation of an appropriate self-pay when participating in a cooking class, 39.8% of total subjects responded ‘5,000-10,000 won’. The most preferred program for young adults in single-person households was the ‘support food package’. For the preferred method of dietary education, undergraduate students showed a greater preference for classes ‘at campuses’. However, employed workers and others had a higher preference for ‘non-face-to-face online classes’. Undergraduate students tended to generally have a higher preference for dietary education and support programs compared to employed workers and others. This study provides data that will be useful for establishing healthy dietary policies and education programs for young single-person households in Korea.
This study sought to investigate the association between the food literacy (FL) of children and mothers, and the maternal feeding style. Study subjects were mothers (n=400) with children in the 4th to 6th grades of elementary school and who were the primary caregivers for their children (n=400). The responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were obtained from mothers. Both mothers and children completed the questionnaire for socio-demographics, dietary habits, health status, and food literacy. The high demanding/high responsive feeding style was associated with increased meal frequency for both mothers and children. The low demanding/low responsive feeding style was significantly associated with a lower mother’s FL after accounting for confounding factors. The low demanding feeding styles were associated with the child’s lower FL after adjustments for the age, sex, weight status of the child and the age, household income, and education of the mother. However, this association was not seen after making an additional adjustment for the mother’s FL. These results suggest that the caregiver’s feeding style may affect the dietary habits and FL of both mother and child.
This study was conducted to examine the status of food consumption and nutrition intake of young adults according to food security using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008~2018). A total of 10,655 young adults aged 19~34 years participated in the study. The subjects in the moderately/severely food insecure group consumed less fruits, vegetables, meat, nuts and seeds than those in food secure/mildly food insecure group after adjusting for confounding factors. The moderately/severely food insecure group significantly decreased mean adequacy ratio (MAR) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) for protein, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus and iron compared to the food secure/ mildly food insecure group. The percentages of the participants consuming a daily diet with carbohydrate, protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, phosphorus and iron less than the estimated average requirement (EAR) increased in the moderately/severely food insecure group compared with the food secure group. This study suggested that the nutrition intake of young adults was related to food security status. These findings can be used as basic data for developing nutritional policies for young adults.
더덕은 폴리페놀, 알칼로이드, 아미노산 및 기타 화합물로 구성되어 있고, tangshenosideⅠ과 lobetyolin의 함량은 더덕의 주요 화합물로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 UPLC를 이용하여 주요 성분 tangshenosideⅠ과 lobetyolin을 동시 분석하였다. 최적 추출조건으로는 50% 에탄올을 이용하여 온도 60℃, 1시간 추출하였고, UPLC를 이용한 빠르고 간편한 분석조건을 확립하고, 정확성, 정밀성, 직선성, 특이성 등 분석법의 유효성을 검증하였다. 지역별로 더덕을 추출하여 UPLC로 주요 성분 함량을 분석한 결과, tangshenosideⅠ과 lobetyolin의 함량은 0.36~3.54 mg/g, 0.24~1.29 mg/g으로 나타났다. 지역별 생육환경에 따라 함량 차이가 나타났으며, 지역별 품질 관리를 위한 객관적이고 과학적인 근거를 제시하여 국내에서 재배되는 더덕의 품질 평가에 대한 하나의 기준이 될 것으로 기대된다.
This study was conducted to develop a salad dressing using Prunella vulgaris L. (PV) extracts. In addition, the study was also aimed at evaluating the quality characteristics of the salad dressing containing various amounts of PV extracts. Salad dressing was prepared by adding 0% (PD-0), 9.4% (PD-20), 18.8% (PD-40), 28.2% (PD-60), 37.6% (PD-80), 47.0% (PD-100) of PV extract. The quality characteristics (sugar contents, salinity, color value, total phenol contents, total flavonoid contents, DPPH, ABTS+ radical scavenging activities, and sensory acceptability) of the dressing were analyzed. According to the results of the study, the sugar contents and salinity of salad dressing increased according to the added amount of PV extract (p<0.001). The color values of lightness and yellowness of salad dressing increased according to the added amount of PV extract, whereas color value of redness decreased (p<0.001). Antioxidant activities were improved depending on the amount of PV extracts (p<0.001). The sensory acceptability (flavor, medicinal flavor, saltiness, sourness, bitterness and viscosity) were significantly higher in the dressing added with 18.8% PV extracts than in the other samples. Based on this result, a storage experiment was conducted by comparing PD-40 and PD-C. After 4 weeks of storage at 4℃ and 24℃, the quality characteristics were observed and the pH was increased in the later stages of storage (p<0.05). The depicted that, viscosity increased with storage time at 4℃ (p<0.001). General bacteria and coliform were not detected during storage. These results indicated that salad dressing with the addition of 18.8% PV extracts has the best quality.
This study was executed to deduce the factors affecting eco-friendly behaviors and attitudes, to analyse the difference of eco-friendly behaviors and attitudes between countries, and to draw the variables affecting clothing recycling behavior. The sample comprised people from the UK, China, South Korea. The results were as follows. The four factors related to eco-friendly behaviors and the five factors related to eco-friendly attitudes were derived from the results of factor analysis. In the case of eco-friendly behaviors, four eco-friendly behavior factors showed a significant difference all according to gender and country. In the case of eco-friendly attitudes, saving of natural resources for eco-friendly life, recycling for eco-friendly life, and individual preference for eco-friendly life showed a significant according to gender, also recycling for eco-friendly life, individual preference for eco-friendly life, social awareness for eco-friendly life, and company’s awareness for eco-friendly life showed a significant difference according to country. All of the variables related to clothing recycling behaviors showed the significant difference according to gender and countries. It was verified that the stronger the behaviors or attitudes for waste recycling and environmental protection, individual preference for eco-friendly life, saving of natural resources, buying eco-friendly products, and separate collection for recycling, the more positive the action to clothing recycling. The results of this study will be helpful to establish a marketing strategy for each country and to deduce a plan to attract clothing recycling form people.
This research intended to conduct literary research on ‘Jeok’ of 25 jong-ga through Jong-ga Ancestral Ritual Formalities and Food, published by the Cultural Heritage National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage during 2003~2008, and compared and analyzed an arranging method and recipe transmission process by directly visiting four Jong-ga. Religious ceremony foods of Jong-ga could be divided according to the standard of the hakpa attribute (large), regional attribute (midium), and family attribute (small), which forms a complex connection structure between the attributes. ‘Jeok’ arranging form is divided into ‘3-Jeok building method (vertical structure)’, ‘3-Jeok arrangement method (horizontal structure)’, ‘3- Jeok replacement method’, ‘2-Jeok arrangement method’, ‘Jeon-Jeok arrangement method’, and ‘Others-Jeok arrangement method’. Generally, ‘jeok’ arrangement order per hakpa is in the order of ‘meat jeok - chicken jeok - fish jeok’ in case of Gihohakpa, whereas Yeongnamhakpa is in the order of ‘fish jeok - meat jeok - chicken jeok’. Umoringye (羽毛 鱗介), the method of laying ‘dojeok’ of the Gyeongbuk region, could be found in the 2nd century B.C. Chinese ancient book Hoenamja and the theoretical background was Yin and yang philosophy (陰陽論). This research has significance in terms of securing advanced results compared to advanced research that has so far concentrated on some regions and hakpas.
This study researched a document regarding ‘Pyeon (tteok)’ on 25 Jong-ga ancestral ritual foods through 「Jong-ga Ancestral ritual formalities and food」, published during 2003~2008 by the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage of Cultural Heritage Administration. A after about 10 years, the transmission process of the setting and recipe was compared and analyzed in 2015 by directly visiting 4 Jong-ga. This research classified regions into 7 Gyeonggi, 4 Chungcheong, 2 Honam, and 12 Yeongnam, and classified hakpa, Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, Honam region into 13 Gihohakpa, Yeongnam region into 12 Yeongnamhakpa. The important analysis standard of Jong-ga ancestral ritual food was the region and hakpa, which appeared to considerably influence ‘Pyeon’ setting style, which represents and symbolizes family and recipe. Gihohakpa Jong-ga, which is an academic tradition that pursues practical interests, seems to highly regard practicality to adapt to changes along with the period. On the contrary, Yeongnamhakpa Jong-ga, which highly regards self-sufficiency living base and moral justification, seems to be highly conservative. Increase in Jong-ga, which utilizes mill, is the result of adaptation to the period environment such as Jongbu aging and lack of labor, etc.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of local food value perception on purchasing and experience inconsumers. χ2-test, ANOVA, and linear regression analysis were conducted. The findings are summarized as follows: Themost common place for buying agricultural products was ‘hypermarkets’ (41.7%), and the most important factor forpurchasing local food was ‘local government’s certification products’ (23.7%). The most important value recognition itemfor local food was ‘I think that local food is a high-quality agricultural products.’ (3.74 points), followed by ‘I think that localfood have a value of respect for customers’ (3.61 points) and ‘I have a faith for the local food.’ (3.61 points) in that order.The main tourism experience activity was ‘food experience’ (49.0%), and information source of local food experiencetourism was ‘mass media (TV, newspapers, etc.)’ (37.3%). As age increased, experience of local food also increased. Themost effectual value recognition item for purchasing local food was ‘I think that local food have a value of respect forcustomers’. The most effectual value recognition item for increasing intake experience of local food was ‘I think that the localfood is high-quality agricultural products’.
The conductive polymer composites have attracted considerable attention in the field of industry due to their electrical properties. To understand electrical properties of the composites, their volume specific resistance was measured. Electrical conductivity results showed percolation phenomena. Percolation theories are frequently applied to describe the insulator-to-conductor transitions in the composites composed of conductive filler and insulating matrix. It was found that the percolation threshold strongly depends on the aspect ratio of filler particles. The critical concentration of percolation formed is defined as the percolation threshold. The purpose of this study was to examine electrical properties of the epoxy resins filled with nickel. The sample was prepared using vehicle such as epoxy resin replenished with nickel powder, and the evaluation on their practical use was performed in order to apply them to electric and electronic industry as well as general field. The volume specific resistance of epoxy resin composites was 4.666~13.074 when using nickel powder. Weight loss of the conductive composites took place at 350℃~470℃.
This study was conducted to develop a Han-sik database as well as to assess the effects of Han-sik on dietary quality among Koreans. The Han-sik database was developed by a focus group composed of food and nutrition specialists considering the results of Han-sik perception surveys conducted in previous studies for frequently consumed dishes. Among the 1,322 dish items identified in the 4th (2007-2009) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 973 items (73.6%) were classified as Han-sik. Han-sik usage was defined as the percentage of Han-sik items of all individually consumed dish items in the dietary data of 22,113 subjects who participated in a 24-hour diet recall in the 4th (2007-2009) KNHANES. Dietary quality was evaluated based on adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS), which was calculated as the percentage of the number of servings consumed in each food group out of recommended servings according to age and sex. Mean usage of Han-sik was 80.1% and was higher in older age groups, rural areas, as well as in households at the lowest income level. Han-sik usage was also higher on weekdays as well as for breakfast. Adherence to the KFGS was significantly higher for grains, meat · fish · egg · beans, vegetables, and fruits (p<0.001) but lower for milk · dairy products and oils · fats · sugars (p<0.001) across the quartiles of Han-sik usage. The results of this study indicate that Han-sik usage is high among Koreans. Further studies are needed to update the Han-sik database as well as investigate the association between health-related factors and Han-sik use.
This study investigated consumer perception and purchase behavior regarding Han-gwa (traditional Korean confection) in housewives residing in the Seoul and Gyeonggi area. This study was conducted by self-administered questionnaires. Out of 839 questionnaires, 713 questionnaires (85.0%) were used for statistical analyses including frequency analysis, the Chisquare, and one-way ANOVA. Based on the data collected, independence variables were divided less than 40 years (<40), 40s, 50 years or higher (50) by age. The major findings were as follows; Firstly, 72.1% of the total respondents had the experience of purchasing Han-gwa. Gangjeong was the most popular item among purchased. As the purpose of purchasing, holiday gift and snack was on the highest rank. Hypermarkets / discount stores (48.9%) was the most common place for the place of purchase. Secondly, there was a significant difference in the perception of Han-gwa by age; respondents aged 50 years or older showed more positive perception in Han-gwa in 3 factors among total of 11 factors. Thirdly, for the popularization of Han-gwa, ‘too sweet taste (44.2%)’ and ‘small portion size (22.9%)’ were pointed to be improved by respondents. Results of this study indicate that 1) Yu-gwa and Yak-gwa require new product development based on age segmentation, and health and food safety are important variables considered when housewives purchase Han-gwa.
The conductive polymer composites recently became increasingly to many fields of industry due to their electrical properties. To understand these properties of composites, electrical properties were measured and were studied relatively. Electrical conductivity measurements showed percolation phenomena. Percolation theories are frequently applied to describe the insulator-to-conductor transitions in composites made of a conductive filler and an insulating matrix. It has been showed both experimentally and theoretically that the percolation threshold strongly depends on the aspect ratio of filler particles. The critical concentration of percolation formed is defined as the percolation threshold. This paper was to study epoxy resin filled with copper. The experiment was made with vehicle such as epoxy resin replenished with copper powder and the study about their practical use was performed in order to apply to electric and electronic industry as well as general field. The volume specific resistance of epoxy resin composites was 3.065~13.325 in using copper powder. The weight loss of conductive composites happened from 350℃~470℃.
This study was performed to examine the relationship between the body mass index (BMI), the body fat, and the serum lipids of post-menopausal women in rural areas. The subjects were 510 women aged 50 and over. As a result of this study, we found a trend of decreasing BMI as age increased, but body fat increased. In addition, there was a significant decreasing of the lean body mass than an increasing of the body mass index according to increasing age. Therefore, this study confirmed that a main cause of rural women being classified as obese is a decrease in lean body mass, rather than an increase in of body fat. Of all subjects, 36.3% (18.5≤BMI 〈 23) of all subjects were classified as having normal BMI, whereas only 21.4% were classified as having normal body fat. Out of 190 subjects who were body fat 30% and over, 38 subjects were classified as obese (BMI≥25) and 113 subjects were classified as overweight (23≤BMI 〈 25). The percentile of those with a BMI of 25kg/m2 was 70, and they had 30.82% body fat. HDL cholesterol showed a negative correlation with anthropometric factors (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, body fat), and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides showed a positive correlation. Especially, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and hip circumference showed significant correlations. Because of differences in the body fat and lean body mass by age group, it seems difficult to assess obesity via BMI only. The elderly especially should have a higher significance placed on body fat or abdominal fat than only BMI.
This study investigated the food and dietary educational content in primary, middle and high school textbooks in order to provide fundamental data for the development of educational programs on Korean traditional food culture. The research objects consisted of 51 kinds of textbooks (15 kinds of primary school textbooks, 29 kinds of middle school home economics textbooks and 7 kinds of high school home economics textbooks), and the contents related to food and dietary education were counted and analyzed. The content analysis was performed using two categories: application method and subject matter. Application method included texts, cases, visual aids (pictures, photos, illustrations, chart, etc.) and activities, whereas subject matter consisted of seven types (well balanced nutrition and health, understanding of food and nutrition, cooking principles, cooking lessons, traditional foods and culture, others). The results of the application method in primary school textbooks show that visual aids were the most common in all six grades. For the subject matter, 'understanding of food and nutrition' was most abundant in primary school textbooks while 'well balanced nutrition and health' accounted for a large part of the contents in middle school textbooks. However, the contents regarding traditional foods and culture were insufficient in primary and middle school textbooks. These results suggest that educational contents on traditional foods and culture should be added to primary and middle school textbooks and covered in various subjects. Furthermore, high school 'home economics' contents need to emphasize comprehensive food and dietary education and adjust to 'science & technology for life'.
This study was conducted to improve the kimchi intake for high school students of various kimchi sub-ingredients and foods using kimchi. The students believed that kimchi is good for health. The overall satisfaction, baechu quality and the taste and degree of fermentation of kimchi was high, but there was a low preference for offered kimchi kinds, kimchi subingredient, foods using kimchi. The types of kimchi preferred and often offered in school meals were baechu-kimchi and kkakdugi. The common kimchi sub-ingredients were radish and welsh onion in vegetables, squid and oyster in sea foods, saeu-jeot and myeolchi-jeot in salted fish, and pear and apple in fruits. The preference for kimchi sub-ingredients were high for sesame leaf and yeolmu in vegetables, saeu-sal and squid in sea foods, saeu-jeot and nakji-jeot in salted fish, and pear and apple in fruits. The foods using kimchi preferred and often offered with school meals were kimchi-jjigae, bokkeumkimchi, kimchi soup, kimchi-bokkeum-bap, and kimchi-jeon. The kimchi sub-ingredient for which students had the greatest preference was meats. Among the foods using kimchi with meats, the most preferred were kimchi-pyeonyuk bossam, doejigogi kimchi duruchigi, and kimchi galbi-jjim. Among the foods using kimchi with noodles, the most preferred were kimchi- bibimmyeon, kimchi -naengmyeon, and kimchi-cheese spaghetti. Among the foods using kimchi with vegetables, the most preferred were kimchi-pa-jeon, kimchi- deopbap and kimchi- goguma gui. Of the foods using kimchi with processed foods, the most preferred were kimchi-mandu, kimchi-bacon jumeok-bap and kimchi- cheese omelet. Among the foods using kimchi containing sea food, kimchi-haemul bokkeum-bap, kimchi-hoe-deopbap, and kimchi-saeu-jjim were most preferred. Overall, these results suggest that various kimchi sub-ingredients and foods using kimchi should be improved for kimchi intake of school meals.