This study was conducted to provide basic data for evolving a strategy for the development of Vietnam’s customized HMR program and formulating a marketing strategy by analyzing the characteristics and variations of HMR consumption behavior by household size. The results of the analysis were as follows: The number of single households using HMR as a general meal at home was higher than multiple-person households. Moreover, there was a high preference for ‘ready to heat’ and ‘ready to eat’ products, which are relatively easy to cook and prepare. It was observed that single households preferred department stores, hypermarkets, and convenience stores for purchasing HMR when compared to multiple households, and that single households preferred to acquire information through TV/radio and internet advertisements. Among the HMR selection attributes, single households valued taste, quantity, price, preparation process, preparation time, and ease of storage as important. Reflecting on the results of this study, when developing HMR in Vietnam, it is necessary to develop a product that can nutritionally replace the general meal with a focus on convenience. In addition, there is a need for products that possess various attributes such as convenience, health, and eco-friendliness.
Institutional foodservice is a type of meal provided to workers in industry and affects the health and psychological wellbeing of workers and productivity. Thus, research on customer satisfaction with institutional foodservice is important. In addition to food industry and food culture developments, the requirements of institutional foodservice customers are diversifying due to COVID-19. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect customer satisfaction with institutional foodservice using a user-based approach. In this study, the quality of institutional foodservice was defined using customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and by using in-depth interview and open coding (a qualitative research method), we derived qualities of institutional foodservice from the user’s perspective and compared these with those of previous studies. This study is meaningful as the quality of institutional foodservice was analyzed using a user-based approach, in-depth interview, and open coding and compares results with those of previous studies.
This study sought to investigate the association between the food literacy (FL) of children and mothers, and the maternal feeding style. Study subjects were mothers (n=400) with children in the 4th to 6th grades of elementary school and who were the primary caregivers for their children (n=400). The responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were obtained from mothers. Both mothers and children completed the questionnaire for socio-demographics, dietary habits, health status, and food literacy. The high demanding/high responsive feeding style was associated with increased meal frequency for both mothers and children. The low demanding/low responsive feeding style was significantly associated with a lower mother’s FL after accounting for confounding factors. The low demanding feeding styles were associated with the child’s lower FL after adjustments for the age, sex, weight status of the child and the age, household income, and education of the mother. However, this association was not seen after making an additional adjustment for the mother’s FL. These results suggest that the caregiver’s feeding style may affect the dietary habits and FL of both mother and child.
The fruit stalk of Hovenia dulcis (H.dulcis) is traditionally used to relieve hangovers in Korea. Theracurmin is a highly absorbable curcumin preparation which increases the bioavailability of curcumin. Curcumin is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of this combination in lowering alcohol levels in the body, thereby alleviating the severity of alcohol-induced hangover has not been investigated. Therefore, we conducted a study to investigate the eliminatory effects of a health drink containing the extract of the H. dulcis fruit stalk and theracurmin (theracurmin drink) on ethanol-induced hangover in rats. The theracurmin drink delivered orally to rats 30 mins before the administration of 40% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), lowered the concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the blood samples collected 1, 3, and 5 h after ethanol administration. Furthermore, the theracurmin drink increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. The effectiveness of the theracurmin drink was thus superior to that of other health drink products, suggesting that its consumption may alleviate or prevent an alcohol-induced hangover.
This study investigates the relationship between vitamin C intake and obesity prevalence among Korean adults. Based on data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016-2017), a total of 1,356 participants were included in this analysis. Increasing the dietary vitamin C intake resulted in a significantly decreased occurrence of BMI obesity prevalence (p for trend=0.0194) and WC obesity prevalence (p for trend=0.0452). Moreover, increasing the dietary vitamin C intake of Korean adults having a high frequency of eating breakfast resulted in significantly decreased BMI obesity prevalence (p for trend=0.0406) and WC obesity prevalence (p for trend=0.0432). Among the Korean adults who ate out frequently, decreased BMI obesity prevalence was determined with increased intakes of dietary vitamin C (p for trend=0.0193) and total vitamin C (food and dietary supplements) (p for trend=0.0429), whereas significant decrease in WC obesity prevalence was observed with increased dietary vitamin C intake (p for trend=0.0484). Our results provide conclusive evidence that consumption of dietary vitamin C is associated with obesity prevalence in Korean adults, according to their habits of eating breakfast and frequency of eating out.
This study examined the nutrient intake of Korean adults by considering the lunch type, categorized as home meals (HM), eating out (EO), and institutional meals (IM). Data was obtained from the 2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Totally, 3,786 adults (1,643 men, and 2,143 women) aged between 19-64 years were included in the study. Subjects with daily energy intake of less than 500 kcal or over 5,000 kcal, and those who skipped lunch, were excluded. The percentage of subjects in the HM, EO, and IM were 31.9, 53.6, and 14.4%, respectively. The daily energy intakes of the HM, EO, and IM groups were determined to be 2,185, 2,360, and 2,339 kcal, respectively, in men, and 1,622, 1,731, and 1,741 kcal, respectively, in women. Among the three groups, men in the EO group had more intake of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and riboflavin, and less dietary fiber, and whereas women consumed more fat and less dietary fiber and potassium. In the IM group, the men consumed more dietary fiber, potassium, and thiamine, whereas consumption of carbohydrate, unsaturated fatty acid, sodium, potassium, and thiamine was more in women. Energy contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat were all within the AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges) for all lunch types, except for the percent of energy provided from saturated fat in EO (7.4% in men, and 8.2% in women). Our results indicate that the dietary habit of frequently eating out increases the fat intake, thereby resulting in increased health risks for adults. Thus, implementation of a nutritional education program to encourage balanced dietary habits is required to improve the nutritional status of individuals eating out.
Unhealthy dietary behavior such as insufficient calcium intake can be one of risk factors of osteoporosis and chronic diseases in older people. This study evaluated the recent trends in dietary calcium intake and the food source in Korean adults aged 50 years or older using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2015-2019) data. This study used 24-hour recall survey data to investigate the calcium intake, the major food groups and main dishes contributing to the calcium intake. The mean calcium intake was 479.55-506.81 mg/day. The major food groups that contribute to calcium intake were vegetables, milks and fishes. Dairy and frozen desserts and kimchi were the major dish groups that contributed to the calcium intake. Calcium intake from milk in dairy and frozen dessert group has been high in last 5 years (50-64 years old: 34.71-47.68 mg, 65-74 years old: 29.72-43.65 mg, over 75 years old: 22.91-42.93 mg). In addition, baechu-kimchi is the most contributed to the calcium intake in kimchi group (50-64 years old: 35.10-41.47 mg, 65-74 years old: 29.62-34.96 mg, over 75 years old: 23.79-29.13 mg). In conclusion, various source of calcium needs to be recommended to increase intake calcium in over 50 years, which may reduce chronic diseases and improve quality of life.
The elderly population is rapidly increasing in South Korea, and interest in food development considering the Sasang constitution theory from oriental medicine and balanced nutrition is increasing. We developed the oriental medicinal porridges based on the Sasang constitution for the elderly. By Sasang constitutional medicine, Taeyangin has a large lung and small liver, and Soyangin has a large stomach and small kidney. Taeeumin has a small lung and large liver, and Soeumin has a small stomach and a large kidney. In this study, proper oriental medicine and food ingredients were identified, and a total of 12 oriental medicinal porridges were developed for 3 items by 4 Sasang constitution types. A single portion was developed based on about 600±66kcal, and the food ingredients were chopped. After cooking the menu developed based on the Sasang constitution, a sensory test was conducted. Five items, such as taste, appearance, aroma, texture, and overall preference, were evaluated on a 7-point scale. Sewage omegaenggul porridge among porridges for Taeyangin had the highest overall acceptance (6.17±0.7 points). Sukjihwang abalone black sesame porridge for Soyangin had the highest score(5.83±0.9 points). Sanyakyulmu hwangtae porridge for Taeeumin had the highest score(5.90±0.6 points). Ginseng chicken curry porridge among porridges for Soeumin had the highest overall preference in taste, appearance, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability (6.53±0.7 points). A limitation of this study was that the clinical trial could not be conducted on the elderly classified as Sasang constitution. In the future, the elderly will be able to have oriental medicinal foods according to the classification of Sasang constitution.
This study was conducted to find out the optimal solvent extraction method [Distilled water (DW), 70% ethanol, 99% ethanol] of mushrooms, including Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) Que, Pleurotus eryngii and Flammulina velutipes and improve their usability as natural antioxidants. To analyze antioxidant activities in each mushroom, total polyphenol, flavonoid contents, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical (ABTS+) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) were measured. All mushrooms showed the highest total polyphenol contents in DW mushroom extract (p<0.001). Total flavonoid contents were the highest in P. eryngii and F. velutipes DW and 70% ethanol mushroom extracts (p<0.05). All mushrooms showed the highest activities using DPPH and FRAP assays in the DW extraction method (p<0.001). P. ostreatus (Jacq.) Que and P. eryngii showed the highest ABTS+ radical scavenging activity in the DW extraction method, and F. velutipes showed the highest activity in the 70% ethanol extraction method (p<0.001). As a result of comparing IC50 values of DPPH and ABTS+ radicals and FRAP EC50 values, the DW P. ostreatus (Jacq.) Que extract showed high antioxidant activities (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities showed a positive correlation in all mushrooms (p<0.01). Therefore, extraction of the mushrooms with DW can enhance the extraction of effective bioactive substances and antioxidant activity.
Raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. raphanistroides Makino (Korean wild radish [WR]) are root vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family. These radish species mostly grow in sea areas in Asia, where they have been traditionally used as a medicinal food to treat various diseases. To investigate the effect of WR on neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells, betaamyloid was used to develop the cell death model. WR attenuated neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y and regulated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. WR extract also inhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitor activity. Additionally, the WR treatment group ameliorated the behavior of the memory-impaired mice in a scopolamine-induced mouse model. In the behavior test, WR treated mice showed shorter escape latency and swimming distance and improved the platform-crossing number and the swimming time within the target quadrant. Furthermore, WR prevented histological loss of neurons in hippocampal CA1 regions induced by scopolamine. This study shows that WR can prevent memory impairment which may be a crucial way for the prevention and treatment of memory dysfunction and neuronal cell death.
In this study, when manufacturing Yakgwa, 0, 25, or 50% of embryonic rice flour (ERF) was substituted for wheat flour (WF) to make the dough. After making Yakgwa by hot air frying (HF) or deep-fat frying (DF) methods, physicochemical characterization and acceptance tests were conducted. ERF had a higher water-binding capacity and a lower fat-binding capacity than WF (p<0.05). Yakgwa prepared by HF had lower crude fat contents, peroxide values, and expansion rates, but higher hardnesses, lightnesses, and rednesses (p<0.05) than that prepared by DF. Higher ERF substitution ratios reduced acid values and expansion rates and increased hardness (p<0.05). Acceptance testing showed 0% ERF Yakgwa prepared by HF had a significantly higher acceptance than Yakgwa prepared by DF. HF was found to have a positive effect on product acceptability. Yakgwa prepared with the DF method by substituting WF with ERF resulted in better flavor and overall acceptability than Yakgwa prepared with WF alone (p<0.05).
In this study, soybean pods of 45 soybean landraces (or varieties) were classified as yellow (19 samples), black (23 samples), or black in green (3 samples) based on soybean seed coat color. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and estrogen-like activities were assessed. Total polyphenol and flavonoid content ranges were 24.13-108.03 mg GAE/g and 3.31-72.02 mg CE/g, respectively, and were highest in the black group followed by the yellow group and were least in the black in green group, while ABTS and DPPH activities followed the order black in green > black > yellow. Estrogen-like and estrogen receptor-α activity ranges were 29.06-35.58 pg/mL and 7.05-10.13 pg/mL and were followed the order yellow > black > black in green and black in green > yellow > black, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory and UCP-1 activities followed the same order as estrogen receptor-α activities. Our findings suggest that soybean pods are excellent sources of antioxidants and high-quality functional materials.