The fruit stalk of Hovenia dulcis (H.dulcis) is traditionally used to relieve hangovers in Korea. Theracurmin is a highly absorbable curcumin preparation which increases the bioavailability of curcumin. Curcumin is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of this combination in lowering alcohol levels in the body, thereby alleviating the severity of alcohol-induced hangover has not been investigated. Therefore, we conducted a study to investigate the eliminatory effects of a health drink containing the extract of the H. dulcis fruit stalk and theracurmin (theracurmin drink) on ethanol-induced hangover in rats. The theracurmin drink delivered orally to rats 30 mins before the administration of 40% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), lowered the concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the blood samples collected 1, 3, and 5 h after ethanol administration. Furthermore, the theracurmin drink increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. The effectiveness of the theracurmin drink was thus superior to that of other health drink products, suggesting that its consumption may alleviate or prevent an alcohol-induced hangover.
Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol extracted from turmeric that exhibits a variety of biological functions has albeit with limited efficacy as a functional food material owing to its low absorption when administered orally. The newly developed curcumin powder formulation exhibits improved absorption rate in vivo. This study evaluates the anti-oxidant effects of Theracurmin® (TC), which is highly bio-available in curcumin powder. The antioxidant activity of TC was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferrous reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, NO radical, superoxide radical, H2O2 scavenging activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of TC in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type 2 diabetic rats. As a result of oral administration of TC for 13 weeks in type 2 diabetic rats, the group administration of 2,000 mg/kg significantly increased FRAP, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced the level of glutathione (GSH) in liver tissue 1.9, 1.2, and 1.2-times, respectively. Furthermore, serum TAC levels increased by 1.3-fold after the rats were administered with a dose of 500 mg/kg. These results were consistent with the in vitro assay results. In conclusion, TC exhibited its potential as a functional food material through its antioxidant properties.
Yeo, Kyunghee. 1999. The Effects of Focus on Form in Elementary EFL Class. Studies in Modern Grammar 16, 221-236. In the history of second language teaching, the synthetic approach, in which parts of the language are taught separately and step by step, and the analytic approach, which advocates the incidental learning in meaning-oriented context, have been rivaled. Recently, focus on form (not focus on forms) which stands in the middle of the synthetic and analytic approaches, is spotlighted by several researchers. Focus on form draws learner`s attention to linguistic features as they arise incidentally in lessons whose main focus is on meaning or communication. In order to testify the effects of focus on form in EFL situation, an experiment of which the targeted linguistic feature was English plural -s was conducted in this paper. The results show that focus on form in the form of input enhancement through children`s games worked in grade four English class of elementary school. Especially the progress in accuracy of plurals was significant in comprehension test. It can be concluded that the appropriate focus on form activities are feasible and helpful in elementary English class.